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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Beier, Judith; Anthes, Nils; Wahl, Joachim; Harvati, Katerina;

    AbstractObjectivesThis study characterizes patterns of cranial trauma prevalence in a large sample of Upper Paleolithic (UP) fossil specimens (40,000–10,000 BP).Materials and MethodsOur sample comprised 234 individual crania (specimens), representing 1,285 cranial bones (skeletal elements), from 101 Eurasian UP sites. We used generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) to assess trauma prevalence in relation to age‐at‐death, sex, anatomical distribution, and between pre‐ and post‐Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) samples, while accounting for skeletal preservation.ResultsModels predicted a mean cranial trauma prevalence of 0.07 (95% CI 0.003–0.19) at the level of skeletal elements, and of 0.26 (95% CI 0.08–0.48) at the level of specimens, each when 76–100% complete. Trauma prevalence increased with skeletal preservation. Across specimen and skeletal element datasets, trauma prevalence tended to be higher for males, and was consistently higher in the old age group. We found no time‐specific trauma prevalence patterns for the two sexes or age cohorts when comparing samples from before and after the LGM. Samples showed higher trauma prevalence in the vault than in the face, with vault remains being affected predominantly in males.DiscussionCranial trauma prevalence in UP humans falls within the variation described for Mesolithic and Neolithic samples. According to our current dataset, UP males and females were exposed to slightly different injury risks and trauma distributions, potentially due to different activities or behaviors, yet both sexes exhibit more trauma among the old. Environmental stressors associated with climatic changes of the LGM are not reflected in cranial trauma prevalence. To analyze trauma in incomplete skeletal remains we propose GLMMs as an informative alternative to crude frequency calculations.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ American Journal of ...arrow_drop_down
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    American Journal of Physical Anthropology
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Sygma; Crossref
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    ZENODO
    Article . 2020
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: ZENODO
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ American Journal of ...arrow_drop_down
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      American Journal of Physical Anthropology
      Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Sygma; Crossref
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      ZENODO
      Article . 2020
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: ZENODO
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  • Authors: Romero, Veronica; Toselli, Alejandro H.; Sanchez, Joan Andreu; Vidal, Enrique;

    Historical records of daily activities provide an intriguing look into the historic life. These documents have interesting information, useful for demography studies and genealogical research. However, automatic processing of historical documents, has mostly been focused on single works of literature and less on daily records, which tend to have a distinct layout, structure, and vocabulary. This paper presents a study about the capability of state-of-the-art handwritten text recognition and key word spotting systems, when applied to this kind of documents. A relatively small set of handwritten birth records registered in Wien in the 16th century is used in the experiments. A word accuracy of about 70% and an AP of 0.74 are achieved for plain image transcription and key word spotting respectively. Taking into account the many difficulties exhibited by these handwritten documents, these preliminary results are quite encouraging.

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    https://doi.org/10.1109/das.20...
    Conference object . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Sygma; Crossref
    https://doi.org/10.1109/DAS.20...
    Other literature type . Conference object . 2016
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      https://doi.org/10.1109/das.20...
      Conference object . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: Sygma; Crossref
      https://doi.org/10.1109/DAS.20...
      Other literature type . Conference object . 2016
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Nicholas Ross Smith;
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    Russia in Global Affairs
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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      Russia in Global Affairs
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Rouhe, Aku; Grönroos, Stig-Arne; Virpioja, Sami; Creutz, Mathias; +1 Authors

    | openaire: EC/H2020/771113/EU//FoTran In our submission to the SIGMORPHON 2022 Shared Task on Morpheme Segmentation, we study whether an unsupervised morphological segmentation method, Morfessor, can help in a supervised setting. Previous research has shown the effectiveness of the approach in semisupervised settings with small amounts of labeled data. The current tasks vary in data size: the amount of word-level annotated training data is much larger, but the amount of sentencelevel annotated training data remains small. Our approach is to pre-segment the input data for a neural sequence-to-sequence model with the unsupervised method. As the unsupervised method can be trained with raw text data, we use Wikipedia to increase the amount of training data. In addition, we train multilingual models for the sentence-level task. The results for the Morfessor-enriched features are mixed, showing benefit for all three sentencelevel tasks but only some of the word-level tasks. The multilingual training yields considerable improvements over the monolingualsentence-level models, but it negates the effect of the enriched features Peer reviewed

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    Aaltodoc Publication Archive
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
    https://doi.org/10.18653/v1/20...
    Other literature type . Conference object . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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      Aaltodoc Publication Archive
      Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
      https://doi.org/10.18653/v1/20...
      Other literature type . Conference object . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Gomez-Perez, Jose Manuel; Ortega, Raul;

    Textbook Question Answering is a complex task in the intersection of Machine Comprehension and Visual Question Answering that requires reasoning with multimodal information from text and diagrams. For the first time, this paper taps on the potential of transformer language models and bottom-up and top-down attention to tackle the language and visual understanding challenges this task entails. Rather than training a language-visual transformer from scratch we rely on pre-trained transformers, fine-tuning and ensembling. We add bottom-up and top-down attention to identify regions of interest corresponding to diagram constituents and their relationships, improving the selection of relevant visual information for each question and answer options. Our system ISAAQ reports unprecedented success in all TQA question types, with accuracies of 81.36%, 71.11% and 55.12% on true/false, text-only and diagram multiple choice questions. ISAAQ also demonstrates its broad applicability, obtaining state-of-the-art results in other demanding datasets. Accepted for publication as a long paper in EMNLP2020

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    License: CC BY
    Data sources: UnpayWall
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    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
    Article . 2020
    License: arXiv Non-Exclusive Distribution
    Data sources: Datacite
    https://doi.org/10.18653/v1/20...
    Conference object . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Crossref
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      https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
      Article . 2020
      License: arXiv Non-Exclusive Distribution
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      https://doi.org/10.18653/v1/20...
      Conference object . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Juan C. Fernandez-Diaz; Anna S. Cohen;

    As a response to Hurricane Mitch and the resulting widespread loss of life and destruction of Honduran infrastructure in 1998, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) conducted the first wide-area airborne lidar topographic mapping project in Central America. The survey was executed by the Bureau of Economic Geology at the University of Texas at Austin (BEG) in 2000, and it was intended to cover 240 square kilometers distributed among 15 flood-prone communities throughout Honduras. The original data processing produced basic digital elevation models at 1.5-meter grid spacing which were used as inputs for hydrological modeling. The USGS published the results in a series of technical reports in 2002. The authors became interested in this dataset in 2013 while searching for geospatial data that would provide additional context and comparative references for an archaeological lidar project conducted in 2012 in the Honduran Mosquitia. After multiple requests to representatives from the USGS and BEG, we found various types of processed data in personal and institutional archives, culminating in the identification of 8-mm magnetic tapes that contained the original point clouds. Point clouds for the 15 communities plus a test area centered on the Maya site of Copán were recovered from the tapes (16 areas totaling 700 km2). These point clouds have been reprocessed by the authors using contemporary software and methods into higher resolution and fidelity products. Within these new products, we have identified and mapped multiple archaeological sites in proximity to modern cities, many of which are not part of the official Honduran site registry. Besides improving our understanding of ancient Honduras, our experiences dealing with issues of data management and access, ethics, and international collaboration have been informative. This paper summarizes our experiences in the hope that they will contribute to the discussion and development of best practices for handling geospatial datasets of archaeological value.

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    Journal of Computer Applications in Archaeology
    Other literature type . Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    DigitalCommons@USU
    Other literature type . 2020
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: DigitalCommons@USU
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      Journal of Computer Applications in Archaeology
      Other literature type . Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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      DigitalCommons@USU
      Other literature type . 2020
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      Data sources: DigitalCommons@USU
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Abarkane, C.; Florez-Tapia, A.M.; Odriozola, J.; Artetxe, A.; +4 Authors

    Acoustic emission (AE) was used for in-situ filiform corrosion (FFC) monitoring on coated AA77075-T6. The analysis of AE data using DBSCAN as clustering algorithm (validated by Bhattacharyya Coefficients´ evaluation) has revealed the presence of three clusters (out of four) related to phenomena involved in the FFC mechanism: metal-coating interface delamination due to opening (tensile), sliding (shear) and mixed mode enclosing both previous ones. The peak frequency was found to be the most relevant descriptor for clustering by using Random Forest classifier, and the correlation with the dominant frequencies range was validated obtaining the Power Spectrum Density of the AE signals. This work has been funded by the European Commission under the Horizon 2020 framework (H2020-CS2-CFP09-2018-02) within the U-Cross project (Grant Agreement 864905) in collaboration with Dassault Aviation, INSA Lyon, Mistras Group, Titania Ensayos y Proyectos Industriales and Université Bourgogne-Franche-Comté. J.M. Vega also would like to acknowledge the support of RYC2021-034384-I by Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación

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    Corrosion Science
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
    Data sources: Sygma; Crossref
    SSRN Electronic Journal
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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      Corrosion Science
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      SSRN Electronic Journal
      Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Danielle S. Bassett; Kathleen E. Cullen; Simon B. Eickhoff; Martha J. Farah; +14 Authors

    The first issue of Nature Reviews Neuroscience was published 20 years ago, in 2000. To mark this anniversary, in this Viewpoint article we asked a selection of researchers from across the field who have authored pieces published in the journal in recent years for their thoughts on notable and interesting developments in neuroscience, and particularly in their areas of the field, over the past two decades. They also provide some thoughts on current lines of research and questions that excite them.

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    Nature Reviews Neuroscience
    Other literature type . Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Springer TDM
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    NARCIS
    Article . 2020
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    Other literature type . 2020
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      Nature Reviews Neuroscience
      Other literature type . Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Springer TDM
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      Article . 2020
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      http://www.scopus.com/inward/r...
      Other literature type . 2020
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Geser, Guntram;

    In recent years the principles of open and FAIR data have been adopted by ever more research funders with the goal that data collected or generated by projects become publicly accessible and reuseable. In this endeavour data reuse is seen as a key indicator for a return on investment in research projects, data repositories and networking infrastructure. The impact of this expectation is increasingly felt also in the archaeological research and data management community. This contribution to the session will focus on what is known about the sharing, access to and reuse of archaeological data from the largest available surveys of the ARIADNE data infrastructure initiative. Surveys have been carried out in 2013 and 2019 with participation of researchers, directors of research organisations and project and repository data 422 managers. A survey in 2021 also specifically investigated how well archaeological repositories comply with the FAIR principles. From this rich record of surveys results concerning requirements for open and FAIR archaeological data and emerging practices will be presented, for example, identified patterns in researchers’ sharing and reuse of different data resources or what would help repositories most to support open data access and reuse (e.g., in terms of policies and standards). The presentation will provide insights into the landscape of archaeological data sharing and reuse as a background for examples of specific cases.

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    ZENODO
    Presentation . 2022
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
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    ZENODO
    Other literature type . 2022
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      ZENODO
      Presentation . 2022
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Jorge Alvarez-Solas; Rubén Banderas; Alexander Robinson; Marisa Montoya;

    Abstract. The last glacial period (LGP; ca. 110–10 kyr BP) was marked by the existence of two types of abrupt climatic changes, Dansgaard–Oeschger (DO) and Heinrich (H) events. Although the mechanisms behind these are not fully understood, it is generally accepted that the presence of ice sheets played an important role in their occurrence. While an important effort has been made to investigate the dynamics and evolution of the Laurentide ice sheet (LIS) during this period, the Eurasian ice sheet (EIS) has not received much attention, in particular from a modeling perspective. However, meltwater discharge from this and other ice sheets surrounding the Nordic seas is often implied as a potential cause of ocean instabilities that lead to glacial abrupt climate changes. Thus, a better comprehension of the evolution of the EIS during the LGP is important to understand its role in glacial abrupt climate changes. Here we investigate the response of the EIS to millennial-scale climate variability during the LGP. We use a hybrid, three-dimensional, thermomechanical ice-sheet model that includes ice shelves and ice streams. The model is forced off-line via a novel perturbative approach that, as opposed to conventional methods, clearly differentiates between the spatial patterns of millennial-scale and orbital-scale climate variability. Thus, it provides a more realistic treatment of the forcing at millennial timescales. The effect of both atmospheric and oceanic variations are included. Our results show that the EIS responds with enhanced ice discharge in phase with interstadial warming in the North Atlantic when forced with surface ocean temperatures. Conversely, when subsurface ocean temperatures are used, enhanced ice discharge occurs both during stadials and at the beginning of the interstadials. Separating the atmospheric and oceanic effects demonstrates the major role of the ocean in controlling the dynamics of the EIS on millennial timescales. While the atmospheric forcing alone is only able to produce modest iceberg discharges, warming of the ocean leads to higher rates of iceberg discharges as a result of relatively strong basal melting at the margins of the ice sheet. Our results clearly show the capability of the EIS to react to glacial abrupt climate changes, and highlight the need for stronger constraints on the ice sheet's glacial dynamics and climate–ocean interactions.

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    E-Prints Complutense
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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    Climate of the Past (CP)
    Article . 2019
    Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
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    Climate of the Past (CP)
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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    Climate of the Past (CP)
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      E-Prints Complutense
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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      Climate of the Past (CP)
      Article . 2019
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      Climate of the Past (CP)
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
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      Climate of the Past (CP)
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Beier, Judith; Anthes, Nils; Wahl, Joachim; Harvati, Katerina;

    AbstractObjectivesThis study characterizes patterns of cranial trauma prevalence in a large sample of Upper Paleolithic (UP) fossil specimens (40,000–10,000 BP).Materials and MethodsOur sample comprised 234 individual crania (specimens), representing 1,285 cranial bones (skeletal elements), from 101 Eurasian UP sites. We used generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) to assess trauma prevalence in relation to age‐at‐death, sex, anatomical distribution, and between pre‐ and post‐Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) samples, while accounting for skeletal preservation.ResultsModels predicted a mean cranial trauma prevalence of 0.07 (95% CI 0.003–0.19) at the level of skeletal elements, and of 0.26 (95% CI 0.08–0.48) at the level of specimens, each when 76–100% complete. Trauma prevalence increased with skeletal preservation. Across specimen and skeletal element datasets, trauma prevalence tended to be higher for males, and was consistently higher in the old age group. We found no time‐specific trauma prevalence patterns for the two sexes or age cohorts when comparing samples from before and after the LGM. Samples showed higher trauma prevalence in the vault than in the face, with vault remains being affected predominantly in males.DiscussionCranial trauma prevalence in UP humans falls within the variation described for Mesolithic and Neolithic samples. According to our current dataset, UP males and females were exposed to slightly different injury risks and trauma distributions, potentially due to different activities or behaviors, yet both sexes exhibit more trauma among the old. Environmental stressors associated with climatic changes of the LGM are not reflected in cranial trauma prevalence. To analyze trauma in incomplete skeletal remains we propose GLMMs as an informative alternative to crude frequency calculations.

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    American Journal of Physical Anthropology
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Sygma; Crossref
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    ZENODO
    Article . 2020
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: ZENODO
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ American Journal of ...arrow_drop_down
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      American Journal of Physical Anthropology
      Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Sygma; Crossref
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      ZENODO
      Article . 2020
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      Data sources: ZENODO
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  • Authors: Romero, Veronica; Toselli, Alejandro H.; Sanchez, Joan Andreu; Vidal, Enrique;

    Historical records of daily activities provide an intriguing look into the historic life. These documents have interesting information, useful for demography studies and genealogical research. However, automatic processing of historical documents, has mostly been focused on single works of literature and less on daily records, which tend to have a distinct layout, structure, and vocabulary. This paper presents a study about the capability of state-of-the-art handwritten text recognition and key word spotting systems, when applied to this kind of documents. A relatively small set of handwritten birth records registered in Wien in the 16th century is used in the experiments. A word accuracy of about 70% and an AP of 0.74 are achieved for plain image transcription and key word spotting respectively. Taking into account the many difficulties exhibited by these handwritten documents, these preliminary results are quite encouraging.

    https://doi.org/10.1...arrow_drop_down
    https://doi.org/10.1109/das.20...
    Conference object . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Sygma; Crossref
    https://doi.org/10.1109/DAS.20...
    Other literature type . Conference object . 2016
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