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316 Research products, page 1 of 32

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  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Pierre Lison; Geert-Jan M. Kruijff;
    Publisher: IEEE
    Project: EC | COGX (215181)

    The use of deep parsers in spoken dialogue systems is usually subject to strong performance requirements. This is particularly the case in human-robot interaction, where the computing resources are limited and must be shared by many components in parallel. A real-time dialogue system must be capable of responding quickly to any given utterance, even in the presence of noisy, ambiguous or distorted input. The parser must therefore ensure that the number of analyses remains bounded at every processing step. The paper presents a practical approach to addressing this issue in the context of deep parsers designed for spoken dialogue. The approach is based on a word lattice parser combined with a statistical model for parse selection. Each word lattice is parsed incrementally, word by word, and a discriminative model is applied at each incremental step to prune the set of resulting partial analyses. The model incorporates a wide range of linguistic and contextual features and can be trained with a simple perceptron. The approach is fully implemented as part of a spoken dialogue system for human-robot interaction. Evaluation results on a Wizard-of-Oz test suite demonstrate significant improvements in parsing time.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Clara D. Martin; Monika Molnar; Manuel Carreiras;
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Country: Spain
    Project: EC | BILITERACY (295362), EC | ATHEME (613465)

    Published: 13 May 2016 The present study investigated the proactive nature of the human brain in language perception. Specifically, we examined whether early proficient bilinguals can use interlocutor identity as a cue for language prediction, using an event-related potentials (ERP) paradigm. Participants were first familiarized, through video segments, with six novel interlocutors who were either monolingual or bilingual. Then, the participants completed an audio-visual lexical decision task in which all the interlocutors uttered words and pseudo-words. Critically, the speech onset started about 350 ms after the beginning of the video. ERP waves between the onset of the visual presentation of the interlocutors and the onset of their speech significantly differed for trials where the language was not predictable (bilingual interlocutors) and trials where the language was predictable (monolingual interlocutors), revealing that visual interlocutor identity can in fact function as a cue for language prediction, even before the onset of the auditory-linguistic signal. This research was funded by the Severo Ochoa program grant SEV-2015-0490, a grant from the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (PSI2012-31448), from FP7/2007-2013 Cooperation grant agreement 613465-AThEME and an ERC grant from the European Research Council (ERC-2011-ADG-295362) to M.C. We thank Antonio Ibañez for his work in stimulus preparation.

  • Publication . Article . 2016
    English
    Authors: 
    Anna Marmodoro; Ben T. Page;
    Project: EC | K4U (667526)

    Thomas Aquinas sees a sharp metaphysical distinction between artifacts and substances, but does not offer any explicit account of it. We argue that for Aquinas the contribution that an artisan makes to the generation of an artifact compromises the causal responsibility of the form of that artifact for what the artifact is; hence it compromises the metaphysical unity of the artifact to that of an accidental unity. By contrast, the metaphysical unity of a substance is achieved by a process of generation whereby the substantial form is solely responsible for what each part and the whole of a substance are. This, we submit, is where the metaphysical difference between artifacts and substances lies for Aquinas. Here we offer on behalf of Aquinas a novel account of the causal process of generation of substances, in terms of descending forms, and we bring out its explanatory merits by contrasting it to other existing accounts in the literature.

  • Publication . Other literature type . Article . 2017
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Hilary S.Z. Wynne; Linda Wheeldon; Aditi Lahiri;
    Countries: United Kingdom, Norway
    Project: EC | MOR-PHON (695481)

    Abstract Four language production experiments examine how English speakers plan compound words during phonological encoding. The experiments tested production latencies in both delayed and online tasks for English noun-noun compounds (e.g., daytime), adjective-noun phrases (e.g., dark time), and monomorphemic words (e.g., denim). In delayed production, speech onset latencies reflect the total number of prosodic units in the target sentence. In online production, speech latencies reflect the size of the first prosodic unit. Compounds are metrically similar to adjective-noun phrases as they contain two lexical and two prosodic words. However, in Experiments 1 and 2, native English speakers treated the compounds as single prosodic units, indistinguishable from simple words, with RT data statistically different than that of the adjective-noun phrases. Experiments 3 and 4 demonstrate that compounds are also treated as single prosodic units in utterances containing clitics (e.g., dishcloths are clean) as they incorporate the verb into a single phonological word (i.e. dishcloths-are). Taken together, these results suggest that English compounds are planned as single recursive prosodic units. Our data require an adaptation of the classic model of phonological encoding to incorporate a distinction between lexical and postlexical prosodic processes, such that lexical boundaries have consequences for post-lexical phonological encoding.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jana Hasenäcker; Olga Solaja; Davide Crepaldi;
    Country: Italy
    Project: EC | STATLEARN (679010)

    In visual word identification, readers automatically access word internal information: they recognize orthographically embedded words (e.g., HAT in THAT) and are sensitive to morphological structure (DEAL-ER, BASKET-BALL). The exact mechanisms that govern these processes, however, are not well established yet - how is this information used? What is the role of affixes in this process? To address these questions, we tested the activation of meaning of embedded word stems in the presence or absence of a morphological structure using two semantic categorization tasks in Italian. Participants made category decisions on words (e.g., is CARROT a type of food?). Some no-answers (is CORNER a type of food?) contained category-congruent embedded word stems (i.e., CORN-). Moreover, the embedded stems could be accompanied by a pseudo-suffix (-er in CORNER) or a non-morphological ending (-ce in PEACE) - this allowed gauging the role of pseudo-suffixes in stem activation. The analyses of accuracy and response times revealed that words were harder to reject as members of a category when they contained an embedded word stem that was indeed category-congruent. Critically, this was the case regardless of the presence or absence of a pseudo-suffix. These findings provide evidence that the lexical identification system activates the meaning of embedded word stems when the task requires semantic information. This study brings together research on orthographic neighbors and morphological processing, yielding results that have important implications for models of visual word processing.

  • Publication . Conference object . Other literature type . 2020
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Ludusan, Bogdan; Wagner, Petra;
    Publisher: ISCA
    Country: Germany
    Project: EC | HA-HA (799022)

    With laughter research seeing a development in recent years, there is also an increased need in materials having laughter annotations. We examine in this study how one can leverage existing spontaneous speech resources to this goal. We first analyze the process of manual laughter annotation in corpora, by establishing two important parameters of the process: the amount of time required and its inter-rater reliability. Next, we propose a novel semi-automatic tool for laughter annotation, based on a signal-based representation of speech rhythm. We test both annotation approaches on the same recordings, containing German dyadic spontaneous interactions, and employing a larger pool of annotators than previously done. We then compare and discuss the obtained results based on the two aforementioned parameters, highlighting the benefits and costs associated to each approach.

  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . 2017
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Dascalu, Mihai; Westera, W.; Ruseti, Stefan; Trausan-Matu, Stefan; Kurvers, H.J.; André, Elisabeth; Baker, Ryan; Hu, Xiangen; T. Rodrigo, Ma. Mercedes; du Boulay, Benedict;
    Country: Netherlands
    Project: EC | RAGE (644187)

    Automated Essay Scoring has gained a wider applicability and usage with the integration of advanced Natural Language Processing techniques which enabled in-depth analyses of discourse in order capture the specificities of written texts. In this paper, we introduce a novel Automatic Essay Scoring method for Dutch language, built within the Readerbench framework, which encompasses a wide range of textual complexity indices, as well as an automated segmentation approach. Our method was evaluated on a corpus of 173 technical reports automatically split into sections and subsections, thus forming a hierarchical structure on which textual complexity indices were subsequently applied. The stepwise regression model explained 30.5% of the variance in students’ scores, while a Discriminant Function Analysis predicted with substantial accuracy (75.1%) whether they are high or low performance students.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Johann-Mattis List; George Starostin; Lai Yunfan;
    Country: Germany
    Project: EC | CALC (715618)
  • Publication . Article . 2012
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Andrew J. Martin; Sharon Peperkamp; Emmanuel Dupoux;
    Project: EC | BOOTPHON (295810)

    Before the end of the first year of life, infants begin to lose the ability to perceive distinctions between sounds that are not phonemic in their native language. It is typically assumed that this developmental change reflects the construction of language-specific phoneme categories, but how these categories are learned largely remains a mystery. Peperkamp, Le Calvez, Nadal, and Dupoux (2006) present an algorithm that can discover phonemes using the distributions of allophones as well as the phonetic properties of the allophones and their contexts. We show that a third type of information source, the occurrence of pairs of minimally differing word forms in speech heard by the infant, is also useful for learning phonemic categories and is in fact more reliable than purely distributional information in data containing a large number of allophones. In our model, learners build an approximation of the lexicon consisting of the high-frequency n-grams present in their speech input, allowing them to take advantage of top-down lexical information without needing to learn words. This may explain how infants have already begun to exhibit sensitivity to phonemic categories before they have a large receptive lexicon.

  • Publication . Other literature type . Article . 2013
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Nathaniel J. Smith; Roger Levy;
    Publisher: The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Country: United States
    Project: NSF | CAREER: Rational Language... (0953870), EC | XPERIENCE (270273)

    AbstractIt is well known that real-time human language processing is highly incremental and context-driven, and that the strength of a comprehender’s expectation for each word encountered is a key determinant of the difficulty of integrating that word into the preceding context. In reading, this differential difficulty is largely manifested in the amount of time taken to read each word. While numerous studies over the past thirty years have shown expectation-based effects on reading times driven by lexical, syntactic, semantic, pragmatic, and other information sources, there has been little progress in establishing the quantitative relationship between expectation (or prediction) and reading times. Here, by combining a state-of-the-art computational language model, two large behavioral data-sets, and non-parametric statistical techniques, we establish for the first time the quantitative form of this relationship, finding that it is logarithmic over six orders of magnitude in estimated predictability. This result is problematic for a number of established models of eye movement control in reading, but lends partial support to an optimal perceptual discrimination account of word recognition. We also present a novel model in which language processing is highly incremental well below the level of the individual word, and show that it predicts both the shape and time-course of this effect. At a more general level, this result provides challenges for both anticipatory processing and semantic integration accounts of lexical predictability effects. And finally, this result provides evidence that comprehenders are highly sensitive to relative differences in predictability – even for differences between highly unpredictable words – and thus helps bring theoretical unity to our understanding of the role of prediction at multiple levels of linguistic structure in real-time language comprehension.

Advanced search in Research products
Research products
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Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
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Include:
The following results are related to Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
316 Research products, page 1 of 32
  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Pierre Lison; Geert-Jan M. Kruijff;
    Publisher: IEEE
    Project: EC | COGX (215181)

    The use of deep parsers in spoken dialogue systems is usually subject to strong performance requirements. This is particularly the case in human-robot interaction, where the computing resources are limited and must be shared by many components in parallel. A real-time dialogue system must be capable of responding quickly to any given utterance, even in the presence of noisy, ambiguous or distorted input. The parser must therefore ensure that the number of analyses remains bounded at every processing step. The paper presents a practical approach to addressing this issue in the context of deep parsers designed for spoken dialogue. The approach is based on a word lattice parser combined with a statistical model for parse selection. Each word lattice is parsed incrementally, word by word, and a discriminative model is applied at each incremental step to prune the set of resulting partial analyses. The model incorporates a wide range of linguistic and contextual features and can be trained with a simple perceptron. The approach is fully implemented as part of a spoken dialogue system for human-robot interaction. Evaluation results on a Wizard-of-Oz test suite demonstrate significant improvements in parsing time.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Clara D. Martin; Monika Molnar; Manuel Carreiras;
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Country: Spain
    Project: EC | BILITERACY (295362), EC | ATHEME (613465)

    Published: 13 May 2016 The present study investigated the proactive nature of the human brain in language perception. Specifically, we examined whether early proficient bilinguals can use interlocutor identity as a cue for language prediction, using an event-related potentials (ERP) paradigm. Participants were first familiarized, through video segments, with six novel interlocutors who were either monolingual or bilingual. Then, the participants completed an audio-visual lexical decision task in which all the interlocutors uttered words and pseudo-words. Critically, the speech onset started about 350 ms after the beginning of the video. ERP waves between the onset of the visual presentation of the interlocutors and the onset of their speech significantly differed for trials where the language was not predictable (bilingual interlocutors) and trials where the language was predictable (monolingual interlocutors), revealing that visual interlocutor identity can in fact function as a cue for language prediction, even before the onset of the auditory-linguistic signal. This research was funded by the Severo Ochoa program grant SEV-2015-0490, a grant from the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (PSI2012-31448), from FP7/2007-2013 Cooperation grant agreement 613465-AThEME and an ERC grant from the European Research Council (ERC-2011-ADG-295362) to M.C. We thank Antonio Ibañez for his work in stimulus preparation.

  • Publication . Article . 2016
    English
    Authors: 
    Anna Marmodoro; Ben T. Page;
    Project: EC | K4U (667526)

    Thomas Aquinas sees a sharp metaphysical distinction between artifacts and substances, but does not offer any explicit account of it. We argue that for Aquinas the contribution that an artisan makes to the generation of an artifact compromises the causal responsibility of the form of that artifact for what the artifact is; hence it compromises the metaphysical unity of the artifact to that of an accidental unity. By contrast, the metaphysical unity of a substance is achieved by a process of generation whereby the substantial form is solely responsible for what each part and the whole of a substance are. This, we submit, is where the metaphysical difference between artifacts and substances lies for Aquinas. Here we offer on behalf of Aquinas a novel account of the causal process of generation of substances, in terms of descending forms, and we bring out its explanatory merits by contrasting it to other existing accounts in the literature.

  • Publication . Other literature type . Article . 2017
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Hilary S.Z. Wynne; Linda Wheeldon; Aditi Lahiri;
    Countries: United Kingdom, Norway
    Project: EC | MOR-PHON (695481)

    Abstract Four language production experiments examine how English speakers plan compound words during phonological encoding. The experiments tested production latencies in both delayed and online tasks for English noun-noun compounds (e.g., daytime), adjective-noun phrases (e.g., dark time), and monomorphemic words (e.g., denim). In delayed production, speech onset latencies reflect the total number of prosodic units in the target sentence. In online production, speech latencies reflect the size of the first prosodic unit. Compounds are metrically similar to adjective-noun phrases as they contain two lexical and two prosodic words. However, in Experiments 1 and 2, native English speakers treated the compounds as single prosodic units, indistinguishable from simple words, with RT data statistically different than that of the adjective-noun phrases. Experiments 3 and 4 demonstrate that compounds are also treated as single prosodic units in utterances containing clitics (e.g., dishcloths are clean) as they incorporate the verb into a single phonological word (i.e. dishcloths-are). Taken together, these results suggest that English compounds are planned as single recursive prosodic units. Our data require an adaptation of the classic model of phonological encoding to incorporate a distinction between lexical and postlexical prosodic processes, such that lexical boundaries have consequences for post-lexical phonological encoding.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jana Hasenäcker; Olga Solaja; Davide Crepaldi;
    Country: Italy
    Project: EC | STATLEARN (679010)

    In visual word identification, readers automatically access word internal information: they recognize orthographically embedded words (e.g., HAT in THAT) and are sensitive to morphological structure (DEAL-ER, BASKET-BALL). The exact mechanisms that govern these processes, however, are not well established yet - how is this information used? What is the role of affixes in this process? To address these questions, we tested the activation of meaning of embedded word stems in the presence or absence of a morphological structure using two semantic categorization tasks in Italian. Participants made category decisions on words (e.g., is CARROT a type of food?). Some no-answers (is CORNER a type of food?) contained category-congruent embedded word stems (i.e., CORN-). Moreover, the embedded stems could be accompanied by a pseudo-suffix (-er in CORNER) or a non-morphological ending (-ce in PEACE) - this allowed gauging the role of pseudo-suffixes in stem activation. The analyses of accuracy and response times revealed that words were harder to reject as members of a category when they contained an embedded word stem that was indeed category-congruent. Critically, this was the case regardless of the presence or absence of a pseudo-suffix. These findings provide evidence that the lexical identification system activates the meaning of embedded word stems when the task requires semantic information. This study brings together research on orthographic neighbors and morphological processing, yielding results that have important implications for models of visual word processing.

  • Publication . Conference object . Other literature type . 2020
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Ludusan, Bogdan; Wagner, Petra;
    Publisher: ISCA
    Country: Germany
    Project: EC | HA-HA (799022)

    With laughter research seeing a development in recent years, there is also an increased need in materials having laughter annotations. We examine in this study how one can leverage existing spontaneous speech resources to this goal. We first analyze the process of manual laughter annotation in corpora, by establishing two important parameters of the process: the amount of time required and its inter-rater reliability. Next, we propose a novel semi-automatic tool for laughter annotation, based on a signal-based representation of speech rhythm. We test both annotation approaches on the same recordings, containing German dyadic spontaneous interactions, and employing a larger pool of annotators than previously done. We then compare and discuss the obtained results based on the two aforementioned parameters, highlighting the benefits and costs associated to each approach.

  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . 2017
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Dascalu, Mihai; Westera, W.; Ruseti, Stefan; Trausan-Matu, Stefan; Kurvers, H.J.; André, Elisabeth; Baker, Ryan; Hu, Xiangen; T. Rodrigo, Ma. Mercedes; du Boulay, Benedict;
    Country: Netherlands
    Project: EC | RAGE (644187)

    Automated Essay Scoring has gained a wider applicability and usage with the integration of advanced Natural Language Processing techniques which enabled in-depth analyses of discourse in order capture the specificities of written texts. In this paper, we introduce a novel Automatic Essay Scoring method for Dutch language, built within the Readerbench framework, which encompasses a wide range of textual complexity indices, as well as an automated segmentation approach. Our method was evaluated on a corpus of 173 technical reports automatically split into sections and subsections, thus forming a hierarchical structure on which textual complexity indices were subsequently applied. The stepwise regression model explained 30.5% of the variance in students’ scores, while a Discriminant Function Analysis predicted with substantial accuracy (75.1%) whether they are high or low performance students.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Johann-Mattis List; George Starostin; Lai Yunfan;
    Country: Germany
    Project: EC | CALC (715618)
  • Publication . Article . 2012
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Andrew J. Martin; Sharon Peperkamp; Emmanuel Dupoux;
    Project: EC | BOOTPHON (295810)

    Before the end of the first year of life, infants begin to lose the ability to perceive distinctions between sounds that are not phonemic in their native language. It is typically assumed that this developmental change reflects the construction of language-specific phoneme categories, but how these categories are learned largely remains a mystery. Peperkamp, Le Calvez, Nadal, and Dupoux (2006) present an algorithm that can discover phonemes using the distributions of allophones as well as the phonetic properties of the allophones and their contexts. We show that a third type of information source, the occurrence of pairs of minimally differing word forms in speech heard by the infant, is also useful for learning phonemic categories and is in fact more reliable than purely distributional information in data containing a large number of allophones. In our model, learners build an approximation of the lexicon consisting of the high-frequency n-grams present in their speech input, allowing them to take advantage of top-down lexical information without needing to learn words. This may explain how infants have already begun to exhibit sensitivity to phonemic categories before they have a large receptive lexicon.

  • Publication . Other literature type . Article . 2013
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Nathaniel J. Smith; Roger Levy;
    Publisher: The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Country: United States
    Project: NSF | CAREER: Rational Language... (0953870), EC | XPERIENCE (270273)

    AbstractIt is well known that real-time human language processing is highly incremental and context-driven, and that the strength of a comprehender’s expectation for each word encountered is a key determinant of the difficulty of integrating that word into the preceding context. In reading, this differential difficulty is largely manifested in the amount of time taken to read each word. While numerous studies over the past thirty years have shown expectation-based effects on reading times driven by lexical, syntactic, semantic, pragmatic, and other information sources, there has been little progress in establishing the quantitative relationship between expectation (or prediction) and reading times. Here, by combining a state-of-the-art computational language model, two large behavioral data-sets, and non-parametric statistical techniques, we establish for the first time the quantitative form of this relationship, finding that it is logarithmic over six orders of magnitude in estimated predictability. This result is problematic for a number of established models of eye movement control in reading, but lends partial support to an optimal perceptual discrimination account of word recognition. We also present a novel model in which language processing is highly incremental well below the level of the individual word, and show that it predicts both the shape and time-course of this effect. At a more general level, this result provides challenges for both anticipatory processing and semantic integration accounts of lexical predictability effects. And finally, this result provides evidence that comprehenders are highly sensitive to relative differences in predictability – even for differences between highly unpredictable words – and thus helps bring theoretical unity to our understanding of the role of prediction at multiple levels of linguistic structure in real-time language comprehension.