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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    van der Schaaf, Koen; Tekinerdogan, Bedir; Catal, Cagatay;
    Countries: Qatar, Netherlands

    Cybersecurity is critical in realizing Internet of Things (IoT) applications and many different standards have been introduced specifically for this purpose. However, selecting relevant standards is not trivial and requires a broad understanding of cybersecurity and knowledge about the available standards. In this study, we present a systematic approach that guides IoT system developers in selecting relevant cybersecurity standards for their IoT projects. The systematic approach has been developed in four stages. First, the common and variant features of IoT cybersecurity have been modeled using a feature model. Second, an up-to-date overview of the IoT cybersecurity standards landscape has been mapped by combining existing overviews. Third, a text mining algorithm has been implemented. Fourth, the systematic approach has been modeled using business process modeling notation. Our case study demonstrated that this approach is effective and efficient for guiding the selection of IoT cybersecurity standards. 2021 The Authors. Concurrency and Computation: Practice and Experience published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Open Access funding provided by the Qatar National Library. Scopus 2-s2.0-85107878531

  • Publication . Article . 2017
    Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Ahmad Al-Sallab; Ramy Baly; Hazem Hajj; Khaled Bashir Shaban; Wassim El-Hajj; Gilbert Badaro;
    Publisher: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM)

    While research on English opinion mining has already achieved significant progress and success, work on Arabic opinion mining is still lagging. This is mainly due to the relative recency of research efforts in developing natural language processing (NLP) methods for Arabic, handling its morphological complexity, and the lack of large-scale opinion resources for Arabic. To close this gap, we examine the class of models used for English and that do not require extensive use of NLP or opinion resources. In particular, we consider the Recursive Auto Encoder (RAE). However, RAE models are not as successful in Arabic as they are in English, due to their limitations in handling the morphological complexity of Arabic, providing a more complete and comprehensive input features for the auto encoder, and performing semantic composition following the natural way constituents are combined to express the overall meaning. In this article, we propose A R ecursive Deep Learning Model for O pinion M ining in A rabic (AROMA) that addresses these limitations. AROMA was evaluated on three Arabic corpora representing different genres and writing styles. Results show that AROMA achieved significant performance improvements compared to the baseline RAE. It also outperformed several well-known approaches in the literature.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Nidal Al-Momani;
    Publisher: Journal of Islamicjerusalem Studies
    Country: Qatar

    تتناول هذه الدراسة موقف مجلة المنار قبل الحرب العالمية الأولى، من اليهود والحركة الصهيونية ومشروعها في تأسيس وطن قومي لليهود في فلسطين، خاصة بعد احتلال بريطانيا لمصر عام 1882م، حيث حظيت وسائل الاعلام المصرية بحرية أوسع في الكتابة في الشؤون العثمانية، وقد لجأ إلى مصر عدد من السوريين الذين أصدروا فيها الجرائد والمجلات. وكان من هؤلاء محمد رشيد رضا (1282 –1354هـ/ 1865-1935م) المفكر الإسلامي صاحب ومؤسس مجلة المنار. بدأت المنار في شوال 1315هـ/1898م كجريدة أسبوعية تكونت من ثمان صفحات، ثم تحولت في سنتها الثانية إلى مجلة؛ وقد اهتمت بالشؤون العالمية والإسلامية (العربية والعثمانية). وتزامن ظهورها مع ظهور أعمال الحركة الصهيونية على صفحات الجرائد والمجلات العربية خاصة في مصر؛ على أثر انعقاد المؤتمر الصهيوني الأول عام 1897. وقد تباين الاهتمام بها والتعليق على الحركة الصهيونية من مجلة أو جريدة إلى أخرى؛ فكانت تلك الحركة من الموضوعات التي اهتمت المنار بمتابعتها وفق رؤية قد تبدو مختلفة عن غيرها. واعتمدت دراستنا هذه بشكل خاص على أعداد مجلة المنار خلال المدة المستهدفة في البحث، إلى جانب نماذج أخرى لبعض الجرائد والمجلات التي تساعد في المقاربة او المقارنة بينها وبين المنار. هذا إلى جانب عدد من المصادر المتخصصة المعاصرة لمدة الدراسة وبعض المراجع التي تناولت تاريخ فلسطين والحركة الصهيونية. ورصدت الدراسة ما جاء في المنار حول الحركة الصهيونية وفلسطين، وكانت أغلبها من تأليف العالم الفقيه والسياسي محمد رشيد رضا، الذي كتب بحثا خاصا عن الصهيونية نشره عام 1913. ولم تهدف الدراسة إلى استعراض ومناقشة كل ما كتبه الشيخ رشيد رضا او ما كتبه آخرون عنه أوعن موقفه من الصهيونية والمسألة الفلسطينية برمتها؛ إنما غايتها عرض كتاباته وما تضمنته مجلة المنار، خلال فترة زمنية محددة؛ وفق رؤيا تاريخية تحليلية، بعيدا عن اتخاذ مواقف مسبقة أو كتابات جاءت متأخرة زمنيا؛ وإنما حصرها في الكتابات المعاصرة لمدة الدراسة. This study is an analysis of how Al-Manar magazine viewed the Jews, the Zionist movement and their scheme of establishing a national home for the Jews in Palestine before World War I, particularly after Britain's occupation of Egypt in 1882 when the Egyptian media enjoyed more freedom in writing about Ottoman affairs. Many Syrians settled down in Egypt and established newspapers and magazines. Among these was Mohammad Rashid Rida (1282-1354AH/ 1865-1935CE), the Islamic thinker, owner and founder of Al-Manar magazine. Al-Manar began in Shawwal 1315AH/ 1898CE as an eight-page long weekly newspaper, which then turned into a magazine in its second year. It previously had covered international and Islamic affairs (Arab and Ottoman). Its appearance coincided with that of the activities of the Zionist movement on the pages of Arab newspapers and magazines, especially in Egypt and following the organisation of the first Zionist Congress in 1897. The interest in the magazine and the critics of the Zionist movement varied from one magazine and newspaper to another. The Zionist movement was one of the issues in which Al-Manar showed interest and apparently had a different view of. This study is mainly based on the body of back issues of Al-Manar magazine during the period under cover, together with a sample of issues from other newspapers and magazines used for comparative purposes. The study also used other contemporary sources on the period under cover as well as some major histories of Palestine and the Zionist movement. The study examines what Al-Manar wrote about the Zionist movement and Palestine, most of which was written by the scholar, jurist and politician Mohammad Rashid Rida, who wrote a special paper on Zionism published in 1913. This study does not aim to review and discuss everything written by Sheikh Rashid Rida and what others wrote about him and his views on Zionism and the entire Palestinian question. Its objective is to expose his writings included in Al-Manar magazine, during a specific span of time from an analytical historical perspective. In doing so, it turns away from preconceived positions or other writings that came late in time, instead restricting these writings to contemporary ones on the period under cover.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Hamad Al-Saad; Mohamed Ibrahim;
    Publisher: GeoScienceWorld

    ABSTRACT The Miocene carbonate Dam Formation is well exposed in the Jebel Al-Nakhash area of southern Qatar. Three sections were measured in a detailed investigation of the Formation’s stratigraphy, micropaleontology, and paleoecology. This biostratigraphic and paleoecologic study was supported by the analysis of microlithofacies and foraminiferal assemblages. Microfossils are predominantly benthic foraminifera represented by 38 species, many of which are milioline and one is a larger form. A Borelis melo melo Local Range Zone of Early Miocene (Burdigalian) age was recognized. The nature and distribution of the benthic foraminiferal assemblage, in association with lithofacies evidence, indicated a general shoaling-upward trend. The Dam Formation was stratigraphically subdivided into two new formal members. The basal Al-Kharrara Member is made up of limestone, marl, and claystone, and the overlying Al-Nakhash Member is a cyclic assemblage of carbonate, evaporite, and algal stromatolite facies. The lithofacies are grouped into four major types of which limestone, subdivided into six subfacies, is dominant. The Al-Kharrara was interpreted as having been deposited in warm (25°–30°C), clear, shallow waters of the inner neritic zone (0–35 m) that had an elevated salinity (35‰–50‰) and a vegetated substrate. The Al-Nakhash probably formed in an oscillating, very shallow-marine environment (0–10 m deep, including tidal flats), under warm climatic conditions that eventually led to the accumulation of evaporites and algal stromatolites.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Kele Shi; Maia Magrakvelidze; Dylan M. Anstine; Mohamed Madjet; Himadri Chakraborty;
    Publisher: IOP Publishing

    We investigate effects of electron correlations on the attosecond time delay of the photoionization from HOMO and HOMO-1 electrons in C240. A comparison with earlier C60 results assesses the molecular size effect.

  • Authors: 
    Imed Ben Labidi;
    Publisher: University of Toronto Press Inc. (UTPress)

    The cinemas of Arab and Muslim societies encompass a substantial number of film genres produced locally or in the diaspora. Arab and Muslim filmmakers experiment with different cinematic narratives, styles, and hybrid forms: auteur, documentary, diasporic, migrant, Third Cinema, and transnational productions. Their richness, diverse thematic foci, creative stylistic characteristics, and ability to reach global audiences recently motivated film scholars and other academics in Europe and the United States to consider designating a category called “Muslim Cinema” and defining its contours. The influence of these rich cinemas in contesting Hollywood’s demonization of Muslims, the conflation of Arabs, Muslims, and Islam, and the proliferation of anti-Muslim racism in Western discourse, however, remains very limited. Therefore, this article argues that the idea of such a category, if one were to be created, should explore venues to address Hollywood’s evolving forms of racializing Muslims and their relationship with the current institutionalization of anti-Muslim racism in the United States. Through a brief survey of Hollywood’s contemporary productions about Muslims, this article analyzes the impact of moving images on representation, particularly the fossilized characterization of Muslims as evil, and identifies three areas in American cinema and political discourse that could belong to this category: the first is Hollywood’s uninterrupted flow of making essentializing and essentialized narratives that conflate Arabs, Muslims, and Islam, and normalizes violence against them; the second deals with the transition from Islamophobia to anti-Muslim racism and explains its sanctioning by the US government; the third addresses the morphing of Islam into a race.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Ramy Baly; Roula Hobeica; Hazem Hajj; Wassim El-Hajj; Khaled Bashir Shaban; Ahmad Al-Sallab;
    Publisher: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM)
    Country: Qatar

    This article introduces a sentiment analysis approach that adopts the way humans read, interpret, and extract sentiment from text. Our motivation builds on the assumption that human interpretation should lead to the most accurate assessment of sentiment in text. We call this automated process Human Reading for Sentiment (HRS). Previous research in sentiment analysis has produced many frameworks that can fit one or more of the HRS aspects; however, none of these methods has addressed them all in one approach. HRS provides a meta-framework for developing new sentiment analysis methods or improving existing ones. The proposed framework provides a theoretical lens for zooming in and evaluating aspects of any sentiment analysis method to identify gaps for improvements towards matching the human reading process. Key steps in HRS include the automation of humans low-level and high-level cognitive text processing. This methodology paves the way towards the integration of psychology with computational linguistics and machine learning to employ models of pragmatics and discourse analysis for sentiment analysis. HRS is tested with two state-of-the-art methods; one is based on feature engineering, and the other is based on deep learning. HRS highlighted the gaps in both methods and showed improvements for both. 2016 ACM This work was made possible by NPRP 6-716-1-138 grant from the Qatar National Research Fund (a member of Qatar Foundation). The statements made herein are solely the responsibility of the authors. Scopus

  • Publication . Conference object . Preprint . Article . 2021 . Embargo End Date: 01 Jan 2021
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Steven Y. Feng; Varun Gangal; Jason Wei; Sarath Chandar; Soroush Vosoughi; Teruko Mitamura; Eduard Hovy;
    Publisher: arXiv

    Data augmentation has recently seen increased interest in NLP due to more work in low-resource domains, new tasks, and the popularity of large-scale neural networks that require large amounts of training data. Despite this recent upsurge, this area is still relatively underexplored, perhaps due to the challenges posed by the discrete nature of language data. In this paper, we present a comprehensive and unifying survey of data augmentation for NLP by summarizing the literature in a structured manner. We first introduce and motivate data augmentation for NLP, and then discuss major methodologically representative approaches. Next, we highlight techniques that are used for popular NLP applications and tasks. We conclude by outlining current challenges and directions for future research. Overall, our paper aims to clarify the landscape of existing literature in data augmentation for NLP and motivate additional work in this area. We also present a GitHub repository with a paper list that will be continuously updated at https://github.com/styfeng/DataAug4NLP Comment: Accepted to ACL 2021 Findings. GitHub repo with paper list at https://github.com/styfeng/DataAug4NLP ; Talk at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kNBVesKUZCk&ab_channel=StevenFeng ; Podcast at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qmqyT_97Poc&ab_channel=GradientFlow and https://thedataexchange.media/data-augmentation-in-natural-language-processing

  • Publication . Conference object . Preprint . Article . 2019 . Embargo End Date: 01 Jan 2019
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Jakob Prange; Nathan Schneider; Omri Abend;
    Publisher: arXiv
    Project: NSF | NSF-BSF: RI: Small: Colla... (1812778)

    We propose a coreference annotation scheme as a layer on top of the Universal Conceptual Cognitive Annotation foundational layer, treating units in predicate-argument structure as a basis for entity and event mentions. We argue that this allows coreference annotators to sidestep some of the challenges faced in other schemes, which do not enforce consistency with predicate-argument structure and vary widely in what kinds of mentions they annotate and how. The proposed approach is examined with a pilot annotation study and compared with annotations from other schemes. Comment: Accepted to The First International Workshop on Designing Meaning Representations (DMR), 2019 (in conjunction with ACL 2019)

Advanced search in Research products
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The following results are related to Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
411 Research products, page 1 of 42
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    van der Schaaf, Koen; Tekinerdogan, Bedir; Catal, Cagatay;
    Countries: Qatar, Netherlands

    Cybersecurity is critical in realizing Internet of Things (IoT) applications and many different standards have been introduced specifically for this purpose. However, selecting relevant standards is not trivial and requires a broad understanding of cybersecurity and knowledge about the available standards. In this study, we present a systematic approach that guides IoT system developers in selecting relevant cybersecurity standards for their IoT projects. The systematic approach has been developed in four stages. First, the common and variant features of IoT cybersecurity have been modeled using a feature model. Second, an up-to-date overview of the IoT cybersecurity standards landscape has been mapped by combining existing overviews. Third, a text mining algorithm has been implemented. Fourth, the systematic approach has been modeled using business process modeling notation. Our case study demonstrated that this approach is effective and efficient for guiding the selection of IoT cybersecurity standards. 2021 The Authors. Concurrency and Computation: Practice and Experience published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Open Access funding provided by the Qatar National Library. Scopus 2-s2.0-85107878531

  • Publication . Article . 2017
    Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Ahmad Al-Sallab; Ramy Baly; Hazem Hajj; Khaled Bashir Shaban; Wassim El-Hajj; Gilbert Badaro;
    Publisher: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM)

    While research on English opinion mining has already achieved significant progress and success, work on Arabic opinion mining is still lagging. This is mainly due to the relative recency of research efforts in developing natural language processing (NLP) methods for Arabic, handling its morphological complexity, and the lack of large-scale opinion resources for Arabic. To close this gap, we examine the class of models used for English and that do not require extensive use of NLP or opinion resources. In particular, we consider the Recursive Auto Encoder (RAE). However, RAE models are not as successful in Arabic as they are in English, due to their limitations in handling the morphological complexity of Arabic, providing a more complete and comprehensive input features for the auto encoder, and performing semantic composition following the natural way constituents are combined to express the overall meaning. In this article, we propose A R ecursive Deep Learning Model for O pinion M ining in A rabic (AROMA) that addresses these limitations. AROMA was evaluated on three Arabic corpora representing different genres and writing styles. Results show that AROMA achieved significant performance improvements compared to the baseline RAE. It also outperformed several well-known approaches in the literature.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Nidal Al-Momani;
    Publisher: Journal of Islamicjerusalem Studies
    Country: Qatar

    تتناول هذه الدراسة موقف مجلة المنار قبل الحرب العالمية الأولى، من اليهود والحركة الصهيونية ومشروعها في تأسيس وطن قومي لليهود في فلسطين، خاصة بعد احتلال بريطانيا لمصر عام 1882م، حيث حظيت وسائل الاعلام المصرية بحرية أوسع في الكتابة في الشؤون العثمانية، وقد لجأ إلى مصر عدد من السوريين الذين أصدروا فيها الجرائد والمجلات. وكان من هؤلاء محمد رشيد رضا (1282 –1354هـ/ 1865-1935م) المفكر الإسلامي صاحب ومؤسس مجلة المنار. بدأت المنار في شوال 1315هـ/1898م كجريدة أسبوعية تكونت من ثمان صفحات، ثم تحولت في سنتها الثانية إلى مجلة؛ وقد اهتمت بالشؤون العالمية والإسلامية (العربية والعثمانية). وتزامن ظهورها مع ظهور أعمال الحركة الصهيونية على صفحات الجرائد والمجلات العربية خاصة في مصر؛ على أثر انعقاد المؤتمر الصهيوني الأول عام 1897. وقد تباين الاهتمام بها والتعليق على الحركة الصهيونية من مجلة أو جريدة إلى أخرى؛ فكانت تلك الحركة من الموضوعات التي اهتمت المنار بمتابعتها وفق رؤية قد تبدو مختلفة عن غيرها. واعتمدت دراستنا هذه بشكل خاص على أعداد مجلة المنار خلال المدة المستهدفة في البحث، إلى جانب نماذج أخرى لبعض الجرائد والمجلات التي تساعد في المقاربة او المقارنة بينها وبين المنار. هذا إلى جانب عدد من المصادر المتخصصة المعاصرة لمدة الدراسة وبعض المراجع التي تناولت تاريخ فلسطين والحركة الصهيونية. ورصدت الدراسة ما جاء في المنار حول الحركة الصهيونية وفلسطين، وكانت أغلبها من تأليف العالم الفقيه والسياسي محمد رشيد رضا، الذي كتب بحثا خاصا عن الصهيونية نشره عام 1913. ولم تهدف الدراسة إلى استعراض ومناقشة كل ما كتبه الشيخ رشيد رضا او ما كتبه آخرون عنه أوعن موقفه من الصهيونية والمسألة الفلسطينية برمتها؛ إنما غايتها عرض كتاباته وما تضمنته مجلة المنار، خلال فترة زمنية محددة؛ وفق رؤيا تاريخية تحليلية، بعيدا عن اتخاذ مواقف مسبقة أو كتابات جاءت متأخرة زمنيا؛ وإنما حصرها في الكتابات المعاصرة لمدة الدراسة. This study is an analysis of how Al-Manar magazine viewed the Jews, the Zionist movement and their scheme of establishing a national home for the Jews in Palestine before World War I, particularly after Britain's occupation of Egypt in 1882 when the Egyptian media enjoyed more freedom in writing about Ottoman affairs. Many Syrians settled down in Egypt and established newspapers and magazines. Among these was Mohammad Rashid Rida (1282-1354AH/ 1865-1935CE), the Islamic thinker, owner and founder of Al-Manar magazine. Al-Manar began in Shawwal 1315AH/ 1898CE as an eight-page long weekly newspaper, which then turned into a magazine in its second year. It previously had covered international and Islamic affairs (Arab and Ottoman). Its appearance coincided with that of the activities of the Zionist movement on the pages of Arab newspapers and magazines, especially in Egypt and following the organisation of the first Zionist Congress in 1897. The interest in the magazine and the critics of the Zionist movement varied from one magazine and newspaper to another. The Zionist movement was one of the issues in which Al-Manar showed interest and apparently had a different view of. This study is mainly based on the body of back issues of Al-Manar magazine during the period under cover, together with a sample of issues from other newspapers and magazines used for comparative purposes. The study also used other contemporary sources on the period under cover as well as some major histories of Palestine and the Zionist movement. The study examines what Al-Manar wrote about the Zionist movement and Palestine, most of which was written by the scholar, jurist and politician Mohammad Rashid Rida, who wrote a special paper on Zionism published in 1913. This study does not aim to review and discuss everything written by Sheikh Rashid Rida and what others wrote about him and his views on Zionism and the entire Palestinian question. Its objective is to expose his writings included in Al-Manar magazine, during a specific span of time from an analytical historical perspective. In doing so, it turns away from preconceived positions or other writings that came late in time, instead restricting these writings to contemporary ones on the period under cover.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Hamad Al-Saad; Mohamed Ibrahim;
    Publisher: GeoScienceWorld

    ABSTRACT The Miocene carbonate Dam Formation is well exposed in the Jebel Al-Nakhash area of southern Qatar. Three sections were measured in a detailed investigation of the Formation’s stratigraphy, micropaleontology, and paleoecology. This biostratigraphic and paleoecologic study was supported by the analysis of microlithofacies and foraminiferal assemblages. Microfossils are predominantly benthic foraminifera represented by 38 species, many of which are milioline and one is a larger form. A Borelis melo melo Local Range Zone of Early Miocene (Burdigalian) age was recognized. The nature and distribution of the benthic foraminiferal assemblage, in association with lithofacies evidence, indicated a general shoaling-upward trend. The Dam Formation was stratigraphically subdivided into two new formal members. The basal Al-Kharrara Member is made up of limestone, marl, and claystone, and the overlying Al-Nakhash Member is a cyclic assemblage of carbonate, evaporite, and algal stromatolite facies. The lithofacies are grouped into four major types of which limestone, subdivided into six subfacies, is dominant. The Al-Kharrara was interpreted as having been deposited in warm (25°–30°C), clear, shallow waters of the inner neritic zone (0–35 m) that had an elevated salinity (35‰–50‰) and a vegetated substrate. The Al-Nakhash probably formed in an oscillating, very shallow-marine environment (0–10 m deep, including tidal flats), under warm climatic conditions that eventually led to the accumulation of evaporites and algal stromatolites.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Kele Shi; Maia Magrakvelidze; Dylan M. Anstine; Mohamed Madjet; Himadri Chakraborty;
    Publisher: IOP Publishing

    We investigate effects of electron correlations on the attosecond time delay of the photoionization from HOMO and HOMO-1 electrons in C240. A comparison with earlier C60 results assesses the molecular size effect.

  • Authors: 
    Imed Ben Labidi;
    Publisher: University of Toronto Press Inc. (UTPress)

    The cinemas of Arab and Muslim societies encompass a substantial number of film genres produced locally or in the diaspora. Arab and Muslim filmmakers experiment with different cinematic narratives, styles, and hybrid forms: auteur, documentary, diasporic, migrant, Third Cinema, and transnational productions. Their richness, diverse thematic foci, creative stylistic characteristics, and ability to reach global audiences recently motivated film scholars and other academics in Europe and the United States to consider designating a category called “Muslim Cinema” and defining its contours. The influence of these rich cinemas in contesting Hollywood’s demonization of Muslims, the conflation of Arabs, Muslims, and Islam, and the proliferation of anti-Muslim racism in Western discourse, however, remains very limited. Therefore, this article argues that the idea of such a category, if one were to be created, should explore venues to address Hollywood’s evolving forms of racializing Muslims and their relationship with the current institutionalization of anti-Muslim racism in the United States. Through a brief survey of Hollywood’s contemporary productions about Muslims, this article analyzes the impact of moving images on representation, particularly the fossilized characterization of Muslims as evil, and identifies three areas in American cinema and political discourse that could belong to this category: the first is Hollywood’s uninterrupted flow of making essentializing and essentialized narratives that conflate Arabs, Muslims, and Islam, and normalizes violence against them; the second deals with the transition from Islamophobia to anti-Muslim racism and explains its sanctioning by the US government; the third addresses the morphing of Islam into a race.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Ramy Baly; Roula Hobeica; Hazem Hajj; Wassim El-Hajj; Khaled Bashir Shaban; Ahmad Al-Sallab;
    Publisher: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM)
    Country: Qatar

    This article introduces a sentiment analysis approach that adopts the way humans read, interpret, and extract sentiment from text. Our motivation builds on the assumption that human interpretation should lead to the most accurate assessment of sentiment in text. We call this automated process Human Reading for Sentiment (HRS). Previous research in sentiment analysis has produced many frameworks that can fit one or more of the HRS aspects; however, none of these methods has addressed them all in one approach. HRS provides a meta-framework for developing new sentiment analysis methods or improving existing ones. The proposed framework provides a theoretical lens for zooming in and evaluating aspects of any sentiment analysis method to identify gaps for improvements towards matching the human reading process. Key steps in HRS include the automation of humans low-level and high-level cognitive text processing. This methodology paves the way towards the integration of psychology with computational linguistics and machine learning to employ models of pragmatics and discourse analysis for sentiment analysis. HRS is tested with two state-of-the-art methods; one is based on feature engineering, and the other is based on deep learning. HRS highlighted the gaps in both methods and showed improvements for both. 2016 ACM This work was made possible by NPRP 6-716-1-138 grant from the Qatar National Research Fund (a member of Qatar Foundation). The statements made herein are solely the responsibility of the authors. Scopus

  • Publication . Conference object . Preprint . Article . 2021 . Embargo End Date: 01 Jan 2021
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Steven Y. Feng; Varun Gangal; Jason Wei; Sarath Chandar; Soroush Vosoughi; Teruko Mitamura; Eduard Hovy;
    Publisher: arXiv

    Data augmentation has recently seen increased interest in NLP due to more work in low-resource domains, new tasks, and the popularity of large-scale neural networks that require large amounts of training data. Despite this recent upsurge, this area is still relatively underexplored, perhaps due to the challenges posed by the discrete nature of language data. In this paper, we present a comprehensive and unifying survey of data augmentation for NLP by summarizing the literature in a structured manner. We first introduce and motivate data augmentation for NLP, and then discuss major methodologically representative approaches. Next, we highlight techniques that are used for popular NLP applications and tasks. We conclude by outlining current challenges and directions for future research. Overall, our paper aims to clarify the landscape of existing literature in data augmentation for NLP and motivate additional work in this area. We also present a GitHub repository with a paper list that will be continuously updated at https://github.com/styfeng/DataAug4NLP Comment: Accepted to ACL 2021 Findings. GitHub repo with paper list at https://github.com/styfeng/DataAug4NLP ; Talk at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kNBVesKUZCk&ab_channel=StevenFeng ; Podcast at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qmqyT_97Poc&ab_channel=GradientFlow and https://thedataexchange.media/data-augmentation-in-natural-language-processing

  • Publication . Conference object . Preprint . Article . 2019 . Embargo End Date: 01 Jan 2019
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Jakob Prange; Nathan Schneider; Omri Abend;
    Publisher: arXiv
    Project: NSF | NSF-BSF: RI: Small: Colla... (1812778)

    We propose a coreference annotation scheme as a layer on top of the Universal Conceptual Cognitive Annotation foundational layer, treating units in predicate-argument structure as a basis for entity and event mentions. We argue that this allows coreference annotators to sidestep some of the challenges faced in other schemes, which do not enforce consistency with predicate-argument structure and vary widely in what kinds of mentions they annotate and how. The proposed approach is examined with a pilot annotation study and compared with annotations from other schemes. Comment: Accepted to The First International Workshop on Designing Meaning Representations (DMR), 2019 (in conjunction with ACL 2019)