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211 Research products

  • Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage
  • 2023-2023
  • Publications
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  • Publikationer från Umeå universitet
  • Lund University Publications
  • Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Johan Östling; David Larsson Heidenblad;
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Lund University Publications
    Part of book or chapter of book . 2023
    https://doi.org/10.22188/krite...
    Part of book or chapter of book . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Lund University Publ...arrow_drop_down
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      Lund University Publications
      Part of book or chapter of book . 2023
      https://doi.org/10.22188/krite...
      Part of book or chapter of book . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: Crossref
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Hanssen, Emil;

    En ofta förbisedd aspekt inom den historiska forskningen om folkmord och extrema beteenden är den japanska fanatismen under andra världskriget. Denna studie syftar på att analysera och utvärdera kausaliteten mellan Japans historia och deras uppträdande under kriget genom en holistisk och tvärvetenskaplig lins av kulturhistoria, psykohistoria och socialpsykologi. Källmaterialet var en sammansmältning av väster- och österländsk historieforskning om kejserliga Japan, men även till en viss del om Tyskland under det Tredje Riket, där mycket av tidigare förövarforskning har genomförts för att försöka förklara Förintelsen och Nazisternas utrotningspolitik. I kombination med socialpsykologiska teorier, ramar, studier och forskning om lydnadspsykologi, konformitet och kollektivism, syftet var att förklara varför ett land med en lång historia av strikta heders- och stolthetskoder, kunde transformeras till en militaristisk krigsmaskin som begick fruktansvärda brott mot mänskligheten och krigsbrott under 1930- och 40-talet. Resultatet visar en kombination av en lång historia av strikta hierarkier, Konfuciansk- och Zen-konformitet, kollektivism, socialisation, enkulturering, familism, auktoritetsbias, samt en livslång indoktrinering av den japanska befolkningen, förenade med ett metanarrativ och mythistoria om kejsarens gudomliga ursprung, den japanska Yamato-rasens unikhet och överlägsenhet, ledde till den visade fanatismen. Sammanparat med Japans ”heliga uppdrag” att befria det koloniserade Ostasien från det uppfattade hotet från Västs imperialister ledde till många av de handlingarna utförda av Japanerna och dissonansen mellan deras inbillade välvilja och verklighetens avskyvärda handlingar. Indoktrineringen i det japanska skolsystemet och militärskolorna, omtolkningen av Bushidō till ”döden är lättare än en fjäder” och ”döden före vanära”, många japaner var så indoktrinerade att blind lydnad följde utan att ifrågasätta, inklusive befallningar från deras överordnade som utgjorde krigsbrott då deindivideringsprocessen hade slutförts. Detta ledde till en hel nation som var villig att offra sig själva för att stoppa de annalkande Allierade. Många kollektivistiska samhällen betonar samhällelig harmoni, sammanhållning och enhetlighet, därav tidsandan blev de föreskrivna normerna och värden, inklusive hotet och den påföljande dehumaniseringen av Väst, den upplevda resursnöden och levnadsutrymme, samt den efterkrigstida offermentaliteten och rationaliseringen av föregående beteenden.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Publikationer från U...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Myrlund Nordell, Moa;

    The point of this study is to understand how Umeå university’s curriculum for the subject of history evolved in the time period 1970 to 2015. Therefore, this study will analyze Umeå university’s curriculum for the course History AB 1, that is included in the history teacher training education. Furthermore, this study will take this analyzation of the curriculum and compare it to the Swedish high school curriculum. This is to better understand the evolution of the education program for teachers, but also to study the symbiotic relationship between schools and universities. Moreover, this assignment will be using Stina Hallsén’s description of policy analyzes to examine the valuation and norms from Umeå’s curriculum, and then take the analyzation further by comparing it to the Swedish high school curriculum. It will thereafter be analyzed with Gert Biesta’s three concepts, Qualification, Socialization and subjectification. Biesta’s concepts will help to measure how good the education at the teacher education program in Umeå is. The results of the study can shortly be described that there’s a long line of changes happening at the teacher education program at Umeå university and the subject of history in the time period 1970 to 2015. The changes range from small differences like the curriculum changing pace, to big changes like entire course moments getting removed and new ones getting added. In addition, the curriculum from Umeå university gets compared to the Swedish high school curriculum. This comparison alongside the study’s framing of question serves to give better insight into how the teachers education program has changed and evolved during the time period. Lastly the results of this study show that yes, there is a symbiotic relationship between Umeå university’s education for teachers and the Swedish high school curriculum. Furthermore, the students attending the teacher training education are taught that becoming a teacher is a lifelong mission to evolve and understand the changes happening in the schools.

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    Authors: Campanaro, Danilo Marco;

    Interpreting the social complexity of the Roman house requires a careful evaluation of existing evidence. With this in mind, recent work in the field has proposed a variety of different approaches, focusing each time on a specific type of source (architecture and décor, ancient texts, material evidence from excavated houses), each in turn recursively deemed more adequate for the purpose or more fruitful and less biased. This opposition of approaches and critiques between scholars has yielded an extraordinarily rich picture that, however, leaves some of the social dynamics of domestic space out of our reach. This dissertation, focusing on the case study of the House of the Greek Epigrams in the northern part of Insula V 1 in Pompeii, suggests a further level of understanding that combines the aforementioned types of sources with simulations and digital analyses to support archaeological interpretation. Everything visible in the house, including its architecture and its decorations, actively participated in the construction of the social identity of the owner of the house and the Romanitas of his family. However, everything visible is so by virtue of light, which is not a mere medium, but actively partakes in social dynamics and can be manipulated to meet certain demands. In this dissertation, light is considered in its dual aspect as a physical and as a visual and sensory phenomenon. Starting from the assumption that light is a powerful social agent, the study investigates, through historically grounded and physically accurate lighting simulations and analyses, the intertwined spatial and social circulation patterns in order to derive new insights into the social dynamics of the Roman house. In particular, this study argues that the social space of the Roman house was characterized by a greater complexity than that conveyed by ancient sources. It suggests a more nuanced picture, one of light and shadow but also of activity at different times of the day and year, and richer in people both in the foreground and in the background.

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    Authors: Gislén, Lars;

    The Tamil procedures for computing the circumstances of eclipses were reported by the French astronomer Guillaume Le Gentil from his visit to India in the 1760's. This paper investigates these Tamil procedures for a solar eclipse, focusing on the procedures for finding the eclipse parallax which are needed to describe the local appearance of an eclipse. These procedures constitute the essential difference between a solar and lunar eclipse. The procedures are compared with the parallax procedures in Sūryasiddhānta and give similar results. It is found that there seems to be little theoretical background to the Tamil procedures, although they work rather well in practice. There are parallels with parallax procedures in Southeast Asian traditional astronomy. The Tamil calculations of the circumstances of the lunar eclipse 13 December 1769 have earlier been analyzed by Otto Neugebauer in a paper in Isis.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Lund University Publ...arrow_drop_down
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    https://doi.org/10.3724/sp.j.1...
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Lund University Publ...arrow_drop_down
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      https://doi.org/10.3724/sp.j.1...
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Ljuslinder, Tove;

    A life without freedom, what is that? This question was stated in a letter from a man institutionalized at one of Sweden’s mental asylums in the 1940s. It is also the title of this essay which explores the life and experiences of institutionalized individuals during 1941–1949. This analysis is based on letters they wrote to the Swedish author Astrid Väring who published her first book regarding the psychiatric care system I som här inträden (1944). Her book was a novel, which yielded great public interest and a year later was adapted for the screen. This led to people starting to write letters to Väring telling her about their stories from inside of the mental healthcare system. These letters constitute the basis for the results of this essay which aims to provide new knowledge on people’s experiences of institutionalization as expressed by their own words. The analysis is a part of the disability history field and a contribution to the critical study of the Swedish Folkhem. Based on both quantitative and qualitative methods, the letters and their contents tell us about those writing these letters and their experiences during, before and after confinement. The results from quantitative analysis of in total 404 letters out of which 207 are subject to in-depth study show that the majority of them were written by men and by people having experienced the mental health care system. Relatives to them, healthcare professionals and individuals without any connection to this system are also found among those writing letters to Väring. From these letters we learn of the abuse inmates endured during their institutionalization both physically and psychologically. Their lives before confinement and the reasons behind it are also focused on. Social friction with people in their surroundings, criminal offenses, and voluntary care exemplify some explanations to their confinement. The stories they share about their life upon release are defined by a sense of fear, persecution, and a loss of property, social networks and sense of security, in addition to a fear of being confined yet again or meeting those who once caused their incarceration. In all, the letters can be seen as a protest against the entire health care system they were faced with, which further reflects the helplessness and frustration they felt regarding their life and situation.

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    Authors: Östman, Sofi;
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    Authors: Philip Jerand; Jonatan Klaminder; Johan Linderholm;

    In the nineteenth century, numerous settlements were established in the alpine region of Fennoscandia (the Scandes), an area that later became a major international scene for Arctic research. Here we raise awareness of this era and show that earthworm-driven bioturbation in “pristine” soils around contemporary Arctic research infrastructure is caused by soil fauna left behind during early land use. We use soil preserved under an alpine settlement to highlight that soils were not bioturbated when the first house was built at a site where bioturbation is now widespread. A review of archived material with unique site-specific chronology constrained the onset of bioturbation to the post-1871 era. Our results suggest that small-scale land use introduced earthworms that now thrive far beyond the realms of former cultivated fields. The legacy of soil fauna from this example of “ecological imperialism” still lingers and should be considered when studying soils of the Scandes.

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    Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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      Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
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    Authors: Bergenfors, Mats;

    The overall aim with this study is to understand how and why the political environment in Sweden changed so drastically during the first years of the 1990s. The political mayfly New Democracy took office in the Swedish parliament in 1991 to 1994. At the time they were branded as a rightwing, xenophobic populist party. While our Nordic neighbors have had political parties resembling New Democracy since the beginning of the 1970’s, the established parties in Sweden managed to cover most of these controversial questions for some time. In a world that was dominated by western capitalism and libertinism following the collapse of the Soviet union, with increasing immigration also from outside of Europe, the Swedish people wanted to see change and the 1991 election turned out to be historical in that about 30% of the voters changed party allegiance. Enter New Democracy, a party that had been formally created in February 1991. They had been formed by 2 strong characters who met in November 1990 for the very first time: Ian Wachtmeister and Bert Karlsson. Karlsson was the person with impeccable instincts for publicity. Wachtmeister was the man behind most of the ideas that came to make up the party program. Their leading idea was that politics should be governed by common sense. In this spirit (and the lack of time) they postponed a lot of principal and basic discussions on key matters, with the idea that they would sort them out once elected. This did not work out too well and they soon started to disintegrate from within and by the next election in 1994 they had basically stopped working as a party. The aim of the study is achieved through evaluating the following areas: how did New Democracy communicate with their voters as well as how they worked in parliament seen in the light of their party program; the second evaluates New Democracy from an ideology standpoint and finally; how did the voters look at the political situation in Sweden at this time? What relatively little has been written and researched about New Democracy has seemingly always taken the starting view of looking at them as a populist party. In this thesis I look atthis unconditionally, and start with an analysis of ideologies and populism. The characteristics identified from this are then applied on New Democracy based on what they said they wanted to achieve as well as how they applied their ideas in real life. In order to firmly establish the current theories on ideologies in general and populist theory in particular I have drawn upon some of the most well renown researchers in these areas. As fo rthe study of New Democracy I have been using whatever little material they published themselves, in addition I’ve been using the archives of the Swedish government and a series of books and research on New Democracy. Furthermore I’ve conducted an interview with a former New Democracy parliament member to add and confirm much of the written material. The analysis shows that New Democracy was a party that in some ways were ahead of their time as it took another couple of years and then many of their ideas had been implemented. Their messages and ways to go about it were seen as extraordinary at the time. This provides an interesting parallel to the political debate of today considering what is seen as politically correct. Although they were seen as rebels at the time, by today’s standards they appear as rather harmless. They were seen as a populist party of their day. By comparing to current definitions of a populist parti they would rather be seen as a discontent party. Today they would not stand out even nearly in the same way as they did then. And finally, I would argue that the development of a party like New Democracy was inevitable at the time given all political changes in Sweden and in our vicinity.

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    Authors: Foka, Anna; Barker, Elton; Konstantinidou, Kyriaki; Mostofian, Nasrin; +4 Authors

    The classics have in many ways pioneered the application of digital methods to narrative spatial analysis and developed strong collaborative engagement with infrastructure, producing Pelagios, an ever-growing platform for a plethora of spatial databases and gazetteers, as well as Recogito a digital annotation tool. These two successful examples show a pressing need for community building around SRIs for early modern and medieval Scandinavia to ensure sustainable design, long-term preservation, and further collaborative development. This article discusses this development in the context of the digital periegesis project and the resources used for Pausanias's description of Greece 

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    Publikationer från Umeå universitet
    Part of book or chapter of book . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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    Publikationer från Uppsala Universitet
    Part of book or chapter of book . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    https://doi.org/10.2307/jj.243...
    Part of book or chapter of book . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      Publikationer från Umeå universitet
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      Publikationer från Uppsala Universitet
      Part of book or chapter of book . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
      https://doi.org/10.2307/jj.243...
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211 Research products
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Johan Östling; David Larsson Heidenblad;
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    Lund University Publications
    Part of book or chapter of book . 2023
    https://doi.org/10.22188/krite...
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      Lund University Publications
      Part of book or chapter of book . 2023
      https://doi.org/10.22188/krite...
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    Authors: Hanssen, Emil;

    En ofta förbisedd aspekt inom den historiska forskningen om folkmord och extrema beteenden är den japanska fanatismen under andra världskriget. Denna studie syftar på att analysera och utvärdera kausaliteten mellan Japans historia och deras uppträdande under kriget genom en holistisk och tvärvetenskaplig lins av kulturhistoria, psykohistoria och socialpsykologi. Källmaterialet var en sammansmältning av väster- och österländsk historieforskning om kejserliga Japan, men även till en viss del om Tyskland under det Tredje Riket, där mycket av tidigare förövarforskning har genomförts för att försöka förklara Förintelsen och Nazisternas utrotningspolitik. I kombination med socialpsykologiska teorier, ramar, studier och forskning om lydnadspsykologi, konformitet och kollektivism, syftet var att förklara varför ett land med en lång historia av strikta heders- och stolthetskoder, kunde transformeras till en militaristisk krigsmaskin som begick fruktansvärda brott mot mänskligheten och krigsbrott under 1930- och 40-talet. Resultatet visar en kombination av en lång historia av strikta hierarkier, Konfuciansk- och Zen-konformitet, kollektivism, socialisation, enkulturering, familism, auktoritetsbias, samt en livslång indoktrinering av den japanska befolkningen, förenade med ett metanarrativ och mythistoria om kejsarens gudomliga ursprung, den japanska Yamato-rasens unikhet och överlägsenhet, ledde till den visade fanatismen. Sammanparat med Japans ”heliga uppdrag” att befria det koloniserade Ostasien från det uppfattade hotet från Västs imperialister ledde till många av de handlingarna utförda av Japanerna och dissonansen mellan deras inbillade välvilja och verklighetens avskyvärda handlingar. Indoktrineringen i det japanska skolsystemet och militärskolorna, omtolkningen av Bushidō till ”döden är lättare än en fjäder” och ”döden före vanära”, många japaner var så indoktrinerade att blind lydnad följde utan att ifrågasätta, inklusive befallningar från deras överordnade som utgjorde krigsbrott då deindivideringsprocessen hade slutförts. Detta ledde till en hel nation som var villig att offra sig själva för att stoppa de annalkande Allierade. Många kollektivistiska samhällen betonar samhällelig harmoni, sammanhållning och enhetlighet, därav tidsandan blev de föreskrivna normerna och värden, inklusive hotet och den påföljande dehumaniseringen av Väst, den upplevda resursnöden och levnadsutrymme, samt den efterkrigstida offermentaliteten och rationaliseringen av föregående beteenden.

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    Authors: Myrlund Nordell, Moa;

    The point of this study is to understand how Umeå university’s curriculum for the subject of history evolved in the time period 1970 to 2015. Therefore, this study will analyze Umeå university’s curriculum for the course History AB 1, that is included in the history teacher training education. Furthermore, this study will take this analyzation of the curriculum and compare it to the Swedish high school curriculum. This is to better understand the evolution of the education program for teachers, but also to study the symbiotic relationship between schools and universities. Moreover, this assignment will be using Stina Hallsén’s description of policy analyzes to examine the valuation and norms from Umeå’s curriculum, and then take the analyzation further by comparing it to the Swedish high school curriculum. It will thereafter be analyzed with Gert Biesta’s three concepts, Qualification, Socialization and subjectification. Biesta’s concepts will help to measure how good the education at the teacher education program in Umeå is. The results of the study can shortly be described that there’s a long line of changes happening at the teacher education program at Umeå university and the subject of history in the time period 1970 to 2015. The changes range from small differences like the curriculum changing pace, to big changes like entire course moments getting removed and new ones getting added. In addition, the curriculum from Umeå university gets compared to the Swedish high school curriculum. This comparison alongside the study’s framing of question serves to give better insight into how the teachers education program has changed and evolved during the time period. Lastly the results of this study show that yes, there is a symbiotic relationship between Umeå university’s education for teachers and the Swedish high school curriculum. Furthermore, the students attending the teacher training education are taught that becoming a teacher is a lifelong mission to evolve and understand the changes happening in the schools.

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    Authors: Campanaro, Danilo Marco;

    Interpreting the social complexity of the Roman house requires a careful evaluation of existing evidence. With this in mind, recent work in the field has proposed a variety of different approaches, focusing each time on a specific type of source (architecture and décor, ancient texts, material evidence from excavated houses), each in turn recursively deemed more adequate for the purpose or more fruitful and less biased. This opposition of approaches and critiques between scholars has yielded an extraordinarily rich picture that, however, leaves some of the social dynamics of domestic space out of our reach. This dissertation, focusing on the case study of the House of the Greek Epigrams in the northern part of Insula V 1 in Pompeii, suggests a further level of understanding that combines the aforementioned types of sources with simulations and digital analyses to support archaeological interpretation. Everything visible in the house, including its architecture and its decorations, actively participated in the construction of the social identity of the owner of the house and the Romanitas of his family. However, everything visible is so by virtue of light, which is not a mere medium, but actively partakes in social dynamics and can be manipulated to meet certain demands. In this dissertation, light is considered in its dual aspect as a physical and as a visual and sensory phenomenon. Starting from the assumption that light is a powerful social agent, the study investigates, through historically grounded and physically accurate lighting simulations and analyses, the intertwined spatial and social circulation patterns in order to derive new insights into the social dynamics of the Roman house. In particular, this study argues that the social space of the Roman house was characterized by a greater complexity than that conveyed by ancient sources. It suggests a more nuanced picture, one of light and shadow but also of activity at different times of the day and year, and richer in people both in the foreground and in the background.

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    Authors: Gislén, Lars;

    The Tamil procedures for computing the circumstances of eclipses were reported by the French astronomer Guillaume Le Gentil from his visit to India in the 1760's. This paper investigates these Tamil procedures for a solar eclipse, focusing on the procedures for finding the eclipse parallax which are needed to describe the local appearance of an eclipse. These procedures constitute the essential difference between a solar and lunar eclipse. The procedures are compared with the parallax procedures in Sūryasiddhānta and give similar results. It is found that there seems to be little theoretical background to the Tamil procedures, although they work rather well in practice. There are parallels with parallax procedures in Southeast Asian traditional astronomy. The Tamil calculations of the circumstances of the lunar eclipse 13 December 1769 have earlier been analyzed by Otto Neugebauer in a paper in Isis.

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    https://doi.org/10.3724/sp.j.1...
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      https://doi.org/10.3724/sp.j.1...
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Ljuslinder, Tove;

    A life without freedom, what is that? This question was stated in a letter from a man institutionalized at one of Sweden’s mental asylums in the 1940s. It is also the title of this essay which explores the life and experiences of institutionalized individuals during 1941–1949. This analysis is based on letters they wrote to the Swedish author Astrid Väring who published her first book regarding the psychiatric care system I som här inträden (1944). Her book was a novel, which yielded great public interest and a year later was adapted for the screen. This led to people starting to write letters to Väring telling her about their stories from inside of the mental healthcare system. These letters constitute the basis for the results of this essay which aims to provide new knowledge on people’s experiences of institutionalization as expressed by their own words. The analysis is a part of the disability history field and a contribution to the critical study of the Swedish Folkhem. Based on both quantitative and qualitative methods, the letters and their contents tell us about those writing these letters and their experiences during, before and after confinement. The results from quantitative analysis of in total 404 letters out of which 207 are subject to in-depth study show that the majority of them were written by men and by people having experienced the mental health care system. Relatives to them, healthcare professionals and individuals without any connection to this system are also found among those writing letters to Väring. From these letters we learn of the abuse inmates endured during their institutionalization both physically and psychologically. Their lives before confinement and the reasons behind it are also focused on. Social friction with people in their surroundings, criminal offenses, and voluntary care exemplify some explanations to their confinement. The stories they share about their life upon release are defined by a sense of fear, persecution, and a loss of property, social networks and sense of security, in addition to a fear of being confined yet again or meeting those who once caused their incarceration. In all, the letters can be seen as a protest against the entire health care system they were faced with, which further reflects the helplessness and frustration they felt regarding their life and situation.

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    Authors: Östman, Sofi;
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    Authors: Philip Jerand; Jonatan Klaminder; Johan Linderholm;