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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Savary, Agata;

    In my habilitation dissertation, meant to validate my capacity of and maturity for directingresearch activities, I present a panorama of several topics in computational linguistics, linguisticsand computer science.Over the past decade, I was notably concerned with the phenomena of compositionalityand variability of linguistic objects. I illustrate the advantages of a compositional approachto the language in the domain of emotion detection and I explain how some linguistic objects,most prominently multi-word expressions, defy the compositionality principles. I demonstratethat the complex properties of MWEs, notably variability, are partially regular and partiallyidiosyncratic. This fact places the MWEs on the frontiers between different levels of linguisticprocessing, such as lexicon and syntax.I show the highly heterogeneous nature of MWEs by citing their two existing taxonomies.After an extensive state-of-the art study of MWE description and processing, I summarizeMultiflex, a formalism and a tool for lexical high-quality morphosyntactic description of MWUs.It uses a graph-based approach in which the inflection of a MWU is expressed in function ofthe morphology of its components, and of morphosyntactic transformation patterns. Due tounification the inflection paradigms are represented compactly. Orthographic, inflectional andsyntactic variants are treated within the same framework. The proposal is multilingual: it hasbeen tested on six European languages of three different origins (Germanic, Romance and Slavic),I believe that many others can also be successfully covered. Multiflex proves interoperable. Itadapts to different morphological language models, token boundary definitions, and underlyingmodules for the morphology of single words. It has been applied to the creation and enrichmentof linguistic resources, as well as to morphosyntactic analysis and generation. It can be integratedinto other NLP applications requiring the conflation of different surface realizations of the sameconcept.Another chapter of my activity concerns named entities, most of which are particular types ofMWEs. Their rich semantic load turned them into a hot topic in the NLP community, which isdocumented in my state-of-the art survey. I present the main assumptions, processes and resultsissued from large annotation tasks at two levels (for named entities and for coreference), parts ofthe National Corpus of Polish construction. I have also contributed to the development of bothrule-based and probabilistic named entity recognition tools, and to an automated enrichment ofProlexbase, a large multilingual database of proper names, from open sources.With respect to multi-word expressions, named entities and coreference mentions, I pay aspecial attention to nested structures. This problem sheds new light on the treatment of complexlinguistic units in NLP. When these units start being modeled as trees (or, more generally, asacyclic graphs) rather than as flat sequences of tokens, long-distance dependencies, discontinu-ities, overlapping and other frequent linguistic properties become easier to represent. This callsfor more complex processing methods which control larger contexts than what usually happensin sequential processing. Thus, both named entity recognition and coreference resolution comesvery close to parsing, and named entities or mentions with their nested structures are analogous3to multi-word expressions with embedded complements.My parallel activity concerns finite-state methods for natural language and XML processing.My main contribution in this field, co-authored with 2 colleagues, is the first full-fledged methodfor tree-to-language correction, and more precisely for correcting XML documents with respectto a DTD. We have also produced interesting results in incremental finite-state algorithmics,particularly relevant to data evolution contexts such as dynamic vocabularies or user updates.Multilingualism is the leitmotif of my research. I have applied my methods to several naturallanguages, most importantly to Polish, Serbian, English and French. I have been among theinitiators of a highly multilingual European scientific network dedicated to parsing and multi-word expressions. I have used multilingual linguistic data in experimental studies. I believethat it is particularly worthwhile to design NLP solutions taking declension-rich (e.g. Slavic)languages into account, since this leads to more universal solutions, at least as far as nominalconstructions (MWUs, NEs, mentions) are concerned. For instance, when Multiflex had beendeveloped with Polish in mind it could be applied as such to French, English, Serbian and Greek.Also, a French-Serbian collaboration led to substantial modifications in morphological modelingin Prolexbase in its early development stages. This allowed for its later application to Polishwith very few adaptations of the existing model. Other researchers also stress the advantages ofNLP studies on highly inflected languages since their morphology encodes much more syntacticinformation than is the case e.g. in English.In this dissertation I am also supposed to demonstrate my ability of playing an active rolein shaping the scientific landscape, on a local, national and international scale. I describemy: (i) various scientific collaborations and supervision activities, (ii) roles in over 10 regional,national and international projects, (iii) responsibilities in collective bodies such as program andorganizing committees of conferences and workshops, PhD juries, and the National UniversityCouncil (CNU), (iv) activity as an evaluator and a reviewer of European collaborative projects.The issues addressed in this dissertation open interesting scientific perspectives, in whicha special impact is put on links among various domains and communities. These perspectivesinclude: (i) integrating fine-grained language data into the linked open data, (ii) deep parsingof multi-word expressions, (iii) modeling multi-word expression identification in a treebank as atree-to-language correction problem, and (iv) a taxonomy and an experimental benchmark fortree-to-language correction approaches.

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    Other literature type . 2014
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      Hal-Diderot
      Other literature type . 2014
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    Authors: Simonnot, Josephine;

    La plateforme web en ligne pour les archives sonores du CNRS-Musée de l’Homme permet d’accéder à des enregistrements musicaux du monde entier, publiés (disques) et inédit, collectés depuis les années 1900 jusqu’à nos jours. Nous présentons d’abord ces archives sonores gérées par le Centre de recherche en ethnomusicologie. Nous expliquons ensuite leur entrée dans le nouvel écosystème du Web ainsi que leur ouverture à un large public grâce à des outils d’analyse et de visualisation du son. Enfin, nous étudions comment une base de données d’archives sonores peut devenir un outil de collaboration pour produire et la diffuser des connaissances. The online web-based platform for the French CNRS-Musée de l'Homme sound archives offers access to published and unpublished recordings of music from all over the world, collected from the 1900's through the present day. We first introduce these sound archives managed by the Research Centre for Ethnomusicology. We then explain their entry in the new web ecosystem as well as their availability to a broad audience through a suite of tools for analysis and visualization. Finally, we study how a sound archive database can become a collaborative tool for the production and dissemination of knowledge.

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    Authors: Valais, Alain; Mortreau, M.; NAULEAU, Jean-François; Robin, Boris;

    La ferme du Panveau à Aron a été découverte au cours d’un diagnostic mené sur le contournement de la ville de Mayenne à un peu plus de deux kilomètres au nord du rempart de l’oppidum du Mesnil à Moulay mis en évidence dans le cadre de cette même opération. Cet habitat enclos occupé durant La Tène moyenne et La Tène finale montre une évolution dans les gabarits de fossés qui l’entourent. De nombreux bâtiments dont un exemplaire à tranchées de fondation de près de 80 mètres carrés y ont été fouillés. The Panveau farm in Aron was discovered during an archaeological evaluation prior to the construction of the Mayenne town bypass. It is located about 2 km north of the ramparts of the Mesnil Moulay oppidum which was also discovered during the same investigation. The size of the ditches enclosing this settlement dating from the middle and late La Tène period evolve during its occupation and several buildings including an 80 mètres carrés construction with foundation trenches were brought to light Das latènezeitliche Gehöft von Panveau bei Aron (Mayenne) liegt rund 2 km nördlich des Befestigungswalles des oppidums von Mesnil bei Moulay. Es wurde bei einer Baggerprospektion entdeckt, die anlässlich des beabsichtigten Baues einer Ortsumgehung von Mayenne durchgeführt wurde. Dieses eingehegte Gehöft der Mittel- und Spätlatènezeit zeigt eine Entwicklung bezüglich der Ausmaße der Grabenanlagen, die es umgeben. Mehrere Gebäude, darunter eines mit Fundamentgräbchen und einer Grundfläche von beinahe 80 m², wurden freigelegt. La granja de Panveau en Aron fue descubierta durante un diagnostico arqueológico que se hizo para desviar la ciudad de Mayenne, en un poco más de 2 kilómetros al norte de la pared del oppidum de Mesnil en el pueblo de Moulay encontrado dentro del marco de la misma operación. Este hábitat cerrado ocupado durante la mitad y el final de La Tène muestra una evolución de los tamaños de las zanjas que lo rodean. Muchos edificios, incluyendo uno constituido de zanjas de cimentación que alcanzan hasta 80 m2, se han destacado.

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    Authors: Loiseau, Mathieu; Lavoué, Elise; Marty, Jean-Charles; George, Sébastien;

    International audience; Our research deals with the development of a new type of game‐based learning environment: (M)MORPG based on mixed reality, applied in the archaeological domain. In this paper, we propose a learning scenario that enhances players' motivation thanks to individual, collaborative and social activities and that offers a continuous experience between the virtual environment and real places (archaeological sites, museum). After describing the challenge to a rich multidisciplinary approach involving both computer scientists and archaeologists, we present two types of game: multiplayer online role‐playing games and mixed reality games. We build on the specificities of these games to make the design choices described in the paper. The proposed approach aims at raising awareness among people on the scientific approach in Archaeology, by providing them information in the virtual environment and encouraging them to go on real sites. We finally discuss the issues raised by this work, such as the tensions between the perceived individual, team and community utilities, as well as the choice of the entering point in the learning scenario (real or virtual) for the players' involvement in the game.

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    Hyper Article en Ligne
    Other literature type . 2013
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    Authors: Burel, Erwan;

    Il s’agit ici de dessiner la trajectoire de Juan Mayorga, depuis les années 1990 où il commença à publier ses premiers textes, jusqu’à l’année 2016-2017, où il met en scène sa propre pièce El Cartógrafo. Mayorga occupe une place particulière dans le panorama théâtral espagnol contemporain : avant de devenir un des dramaturges les plus reconnus de sa génération, il a été professeur de mathématiques, et il est aussi docteur en philosophie, spécialiste de Walter Benjamin. Sa connaissance pointue de la pensée benjaminienne, notamment dans les domaines de l’histoire et de la politique, va durablement influencer son théâtre. Sa conception du théâtre, de l’art théâtral, est aussi de fait largement marquée par la philosophie, ce qui donne à sa dramaturgie une facture à la fois classique et singulièrement novatrice. Dans ce contexte, à la croisée du théâtre et de la philosophie, la question de la violence occupe une place essentielle. Buscamos dibujar la trayectoria de Juan Mayorga, desde los años 1990 cuando empezó a publicar sus primeros textos, hasta el año 2016-2017 cuando pone en escena su propia pieza El Cartógrafo. Mayorga ocupa un lugar particular en el panorama teatral español contemporáneo: antes de ser uno de los dramaturgos más reconocidos de su generación, fue profesor de matemáticas, y es también doctor en filosofía, especialista de Walter Benjamin. Su conocimiento profundo del pensamiento benjaminiano, especialmente en los ámbitos de la historia y la política, influenciará su teatro de forma duradera. De hecho, su concepción del teatro, del arte teatral, está ampliamente marcada por la filosofía, lo que confiere a su dramaturgia una factura a la vez clásica y muy novedosa. En ese contexto, a mitad de camino entre teatro y filosofía, la cuestión de la violencia ocupa un lugar esencial.

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    Hyper Article en Ligne
    Other literature type . 2021
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      Hyper Article en Ligne
      Other literature type . 2021
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    Authors: d'Huy, Julien;

    International audience; Lexicometric software is applied to a test corpus of tale-type ATU 1137 as a pilot study to assess whether such software can be used for the identification of traditional motifs. Rather than a tool for identifying motifs, the pilot study revealed a new way of looking at tales, viewing them in terms of semantic networks.

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    Authors: Chapuis, Emile;

    L'intelligence artificielle conversationnelle a suscité un intérêt croissant ces dernières années, tant dans la communauté des chercheurs que dans l'industrie. Des applications grand publique ont commencé à voir le jour (par exemple, Alexa d'Amazon, Home de Google, Siri d'Apple), mais les performances de ces systèmes sont encore loin d'une communication semblable à celle des humains. Par exemple, la conversation avec les systèmes susmentionnés se limite souvent à des interactions de base de type question-réponse. Parmi toutes les raisons pour lesquelles les gens communiquent, l'échange d'informations et le renforcement des liens sociaux semblent être les principales. Dans la recherche sur le dialogue, ces deux problèmes sont bien connus et abordés à l'aide de la classification des actes de dialogue et de la reconnaissance des émotions/sentiments. Ces problèmes sont d'autant plus difficiles à résoudre qu'ils concernent des dialogues parlés, contrairement aux textes écrits. Une conversation parlée est une activité complexe et collective qui possède une dynamique et une structure spécifiques. Il est donc nécessaire d'adapter les techniques de traitement et de compréhension du langage naturel qui ont été conçues pour les textes écrits car elles ne partagent pas les mêmes caractéristiques. Cette thèse se concentre sur les méthodes de compréhension des dialogues parlés et aborde spécifiquement le problème de la classification des dialogues parlés avec un accent particulier sur les étiquettes des actes de dialogue et des émotions/sentiments. Nos contributions peuvent être divisées en deux parties : dans la première partie, nous abordons le problème de l'étiquetage automatique des dialogues parlés en anglais. Dans cette partie, nous commençons par formuler ce problème comme un problème de traduction, ce qui nous amène à proposer un modèle seq2seq pour la classification des actes de dialogue. Ensuite, notre deuxième contribution se concentre sur un scénario reposant sur de petits ensembles de données annotées et implique à la fois le pré-entraînement d'un encodeur transformateur hiérarchique et la proposition d'un nouveau benchmark pour l'évaluation. Cette première partie aborde le problème de la classification du langage parlé dans des contextes monolingues (i.e. anglais) et monomod aux (i.e. texte). Cependant, les dialogues parlés impliquent des phénomènes tels que le code-switching (lorsqu'un locuteur change de langue au cours d'une conversation) et s'appuient sur plusieurs canaux pour communiquer (par exemple, audio ou visuel). La deuxième partie est donc consacrée à deux extensions des contributions précédentes dans deux contextes: multilingue et multimodal. Nous abordons d'abord le problème de la classification des actes de dialogue lorsque plusieurs langues sont impliquées et nous étendons donc les deux contributions précédentes à un scénario multilingue. Dans notre dernière contribution, nous explorons un scénario multimodal et nous nous concentrons sur la représentation et la fusion des modalités dans le cadre de la prédiction des émotions. Conversational AI has received a growing interest in recent years from both the research community and the industry. Products have started to emerge (e.g. Amazon's Alexa, Google's Home, Apple's Siri) but performances of such systems are still far from human-likeness communication. As an example, conversation with the aforementioned systems is often limited to basic question-response interactions. Among all the reasons why people communicate, the exchange of information and the strengthening of social bound appeared to be the main ones. In dialogue research, the two aforementioned problems are well known and addressed using dialogue act classification and emotion/sentiment recognition. Those problems are made even more challenging as they involve spoken dialogues in contrast to written text. A spoken conversation is a complex and collective activity that has a specific dynamic and structure. Thus, there is a need to adapt both natural language processing and natural language understanding techniques which have been tailored for written texts as it does not share the same characteristics. This thesis focuses on methods for spoken dialogue understanding and specifically tackles the problem of spoken dialogues classification with a particular focus on dialogue act and emotion/sentiment labels. Our contributions can be divided into two parts: in the first part, we address the problem of automatically labelling English spoken dialogues. In this part, we start by formulating this problem as a translation problem which leads us to propose a seq2seq model for dialogue act classification. Then, our second contribution focuses on a scenario relying on small annotated datasets and involves both pre-training a hierarchical transformer encoder and proposing a new benchmark for evaluation. This first part addresses the problem of spoken language classification in monolingual (i.e. English) and monomodal (i.e. text) settings. However, spoken dialogue involves phenomena such as code-switching (when a speaker switch languages within a conversation) and relies on multiple channels to communicate (e.g.} audio or visual).Hence, the second part is dedicated to two extensions of the previous contributions in two settings: multilingual and multimodal. We first address the problem of dialogue act classification when multiple languages are involved and thus, we extend the two previous contributions to a multilingual scenario. In our last contribution, we explore a multimodal scenario and focus on the representation and fusion of modalities in the scope of emotion prediction.

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    Authors: Mazyad, Ahmad;

    Cette thèse porte sur le traitement du langage naturel et l'exploration de texte, à l'intersection de l'apprentissage automatique et de la statistique. Nous nous intéressons plus particulièrement aux schémas de pondération des termes (SPT) dans le contexte de l'apprentissage supervisé et en particulier à la classification de texte. Dans la classification de texte, la tâche de classification multi-étiquettes a suscité beaucoup d'intérêt ces dernières années. La classification multi-étiquettes à partir de données textuelles peut être trouvée dans de nombreuses applications modernes telles que la classification de nouvelles où la tâche est de trouver les catégories auxquelles appartient un article de presse en fonction de son contenu textuel (par exemple, politique, Moyen-Orient, pétrole), la classification du genre musical (par exemple, jazz, pop, oldies, pop traditionnelle) en se basant sur les commentaires des clients, la classification des films (par exemple, action, crime, drame), la classification des produits (par exemple, électronique, ordinateur, accessoires). La plupart des algorithmes d'apprentissage ne conviennent qu'aux problèmes de classification binaire. Par conséquent, les tâches de classification multi-étiquettes sont généralement transformées en plusieurs tâches binaires à label unique. Cependant, cette transformation introduit plusieurs problèmes. Premièrement, les distributions des termes ne sont considérés qu'en matière de la catégorie positive et de la catégorie négative (c'est-à-dire que les informations sur les corrélations entre les termes et les catégories sont perdues). Deuxièmement, il n'envisage aucune dépendance vis-à-vis des étiquettes (c'est-à-dire que les informations sur les corrélations existantes entre les classes sont perdues). Enfin, puisque toutes les catégories sauf une sont regroupées dans une seule catégories (la catégorie négative), les tâches nouvellement créées sont déséquilibrées. Ces informations sont couramment utilisées par les SPT supervisés pour améliorer l'efficacité du système de classification. Ainsi, après avoir présenté le processus de classification de texte multi-étiquettes, et plus particulièrement le SPT, nous effectuons une comparaison empirique de ces méthodes appliquées à la tâche de classification de texte multi-étiquette. Nous constatons que la supériorité des méthodes supervisées sur les méthodes non supervisées n'est toujours pas claire. Nous montrons ensuite que ces méthodes ne sont pas totalement adaptées au problème de la classification multi-étiquettes et qu'elles ignorent beaucoup d'informations statistiques qui pourraient être utilisées pour améliorer les résultats de la classification. Nous proposons donc un nouvel SPT basé sur le gain d'information. Cette nouvelle méthode prend en compte la distribution des termes, non seulement en ce qui concerne la catégorie positive et la catégorie négative, mais également en rapport avec toutes les autres catégories. Enfin, dans le but de trouver des SPT spécialisés qui résolvent également le problème des tâches déséquilibrées, nous avons étudié les avantages de l'utilisation de la programmation génétique pour générer des SPT pour la tâche de classification de texte. Contrairement aux études précédentes, nous générons des formules en combinant des informations statistiques à un niveau microscopique (par exemple, le nombre de documents contenant un terme spécifique) au lieu d'utiliser des SPT complets. De plus, nous utilisons des informations catégoriques telles que (par exemple, le nombre de catégories dans lesquelles un terme apparaît). Des expériences sont effectuées pour mesurer l'impact de ces méthodes sur les performances du modèle. Nous montrons à travers ces expériences que les résultats sont positifs. This thesis deals with natural language processing and text mining, at the intersection of machine learning and statistics. We are particularly interested in Term Weighting Schemes (TWS) in the context of supervised learning and specifically the Text Classification (TC) task. In TC, the multi-label classification task has gained a lot of interest in recent years. Multi-label classification from textual data may be found in many modern applications such as news classification where the task is to find the categories that a newswire story belongs to (e.g., politics, middle east, oil), based on its textual content, music genre classification (e.g., jazz, pop, oldies, traditional pop) based on customer reviews, film classification (e.g. action, crime, drama), product classification (e.g. Electronics, Computers, Accessories). Traditional classification algorithms are generally binary classifiers, and they are not suited for the multi-label classification. The multi-label classification task is, therefore, transformed into multiple single-label binary tasks. However, this transformation introduces several issues. First, terms distributions are only considered in relevance to the positive and the negative categories (i.e., information on the correlations between terms and categories is lost). Second, it fails to consider any label dependency (i.e., information on existing correlations between classes is lost). Finally, since all categories but one are grouped into one category (the negative category), the newly created tasks are imbalanced. This information is commonly used by supervised TWS to improve the effectiveness of the classification system. Hence, after presenting the process of multi-label text classification, and more particularly the TWS, we make an empirical comparison of these methods applied to the multi-label text classification task. We find that the superiority of the supervised methods over the unsupervised methods is still not clear. We show then that these methods are not fully adapted to the multi-label classification problem and they ignore much statistical information that coul be used to improve the classification results. Thus, we propose a new TWS based on information gain. This new method takes into consideration the term distribution, not only regarding the positive and the negative categories but also in relevance to all classes. Finally, aiming at finding specialized TWS that also solve the issue of imbalanced tasks, we studied the benefits of using genetic programming for generating TWS for the text classification task. Unlike previous studies, we generate formulas by combining statistical information at a microscopic level (e.g., the number of documents that contain a specific term) instead of using complete TWS. Furthermore, we make use of categorical information such as (e.g., the number of categories where a term occurs). Experiments are made to measure the impact of these methods on the performance of the model. We show through these experiments that the results are positive.

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    Authors: Rautenberg, Michel;

    International audience; Il est assez exceptionnel qu'une revue scientifique prenne la responsabilité de consacrer un numéro entier à la question patrimoniale dans une seule aire géographique-ici ce sont deux volumes de travaux de grande qualité-qui plus est dans un seul pays. L'International Journal of Heritage Studies, la « revue scientifique de référence » sur le patrimoine, selon l'expression consacrée, ne l'a fait qu'une seule fois depuis sa date de création, en 1994, à raison de quatre à dix numéros par an : c'est en 2015, cette année même, à propos du patrimoine de l'aire Pacifique 1. Museum International elle-même, l'une des revues de l'UNESCO, ne s'y est pas beaucoup plus engagée 2. 1 Une autre originalité de cette parution, qui peut sembler tout aussi étonnante, est qu'elle consacre sans ambages un volume aux politiques d'État, ce qui n'est plus si fréquent hors les publications institutionnelles, et un volume aux pratiques patrimoniales de la société turque, mettant ainsi en questionnement ce qui fut l'une des dialectiques majeures des recherches sur le patrimoine sur la longue durée. Problématique peut-être moins présente aujourd'hui dans la littérature scientifique, mais problématique qui mérite très probablement un renouveau d'intérêt à l'heure où la nation redevient, dans de nombreuses régions du monde, et particulièrement en Europe, une question sensible. 2 Nombre de revues de sciences sociales ont consacré récemment l'un de leurs numéros au patrimoine, mais très généralement ce sont des numéros thématiques qui confrontent les points de vue sur plusieurs pays ou aires géographiques 3. Un inventaire plus rigoureux nuancerait peut-être le propos, il n'empêche que cela pose question alors que les publications sur le patrimoine se multiplient depuis une bonne dizaine d'années dans toutes les régions du monde, la signature de la Convention pour la sauvegarde du patrimoine culturel immatériel de l'Unesco, en 3 Postface http://ejts.revues.org/5106 1 sur 7

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    Authors: Le Lay, Maëline;

    Cet article portant sur les circulations littéraires et spectaculaires dans l'Afrique des Grands Lacs commence par retracer l'histoire de ces pratiques à travers quelques exemples issus de la période coloniale. Il s'attache ensuite à analyser les modalités contemporaines de circulations des textes (via des procédés tels que la reprise de motifs narratifs et l'adaptation) et de circulation des acteurs culturels dans les différents réseaux transfrontaliers de création artistique plus ou moins liés au secteur humanitaire ou à la coopération internationale. Il s'achève en proposant un questionnement critique sur le concept de circulation artistique. This article on literary and theatrical circulations in Africa's Great Lakes region begins by retracing the history of these practices, taking several examples from the colonial period. It then analyzes contemporary modalities of the circulation of texts (via procedures such as reprising narrative patterns and adaptation), and cultural actors, in the different transnational arts networks that are more or less closely tied to the humanitarian sector, or to international cooperation. Finally, it proposes a critical questioning of the concept of artistic circulation.

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    Authors: Savary, Agata;

    In my habilitation dissertation, meant to validate my capacity of and maturity for directingresearch activities, I present a panorama of several topics in computational linguistics, linguisticsand computer science.Over the past decade, I was notably concerned with the phenomena of compositionalityand variability of linguistic objects. I illustrate the advantages of a compositional approachto the language in the domain of emotion detection and I explain how some linguistic objects,most prominently multi-word expressions, defy the compositionality principles. I demonstratethat the complex properties of MWEs, notably variability, are partially regular and partiallyidiosyncratic. This fact places the MWEs on the frontiers between different levels of linguisticprocessing, such as lexicon and syntax.I show the highly heterogeneous nature of MWEs by citing their two existing taxonomies.After an extensive state-of-the art study of MWE description and processing, I summarizeMultiflex, a formalism and a tool for lexical high-quality morphosyntactic description of MWUs.It uses a graph-based approach in which the inflection of a MWU is expressed in function ofthe morphology of its components, and of morphosyntactic transformation patterns. Due tounification the inflection paradigms are represented compactly. Orthographic, inflectional andsyntactic variants are treated within the same framework. The proposal is multilingual: it hasbeen tested on six European languages of three different origins (Germanic, Romance and Slavic),I believe that many others can also be successfully covered. Multiflex proves interoperable. Itadapts to different morphological language models, token boundary definitions, and underlyingmodules for the morphology of single words. It has been applied to the creation and enrichmentof linguistic resources, as well as to morphosyntactic analysis and generation. It can be integratedinto other NLP applications requiring the conflation of different surface realizations of the sameconcept.Another chapter of my activity concerns named entities, most of which are particular types ofMWEs. Their rich semantic load turned them into a hot topic in the NLP community, which isdocumented in my state-of-the art survey. I present the main assumptions, processes and resultsissued from large annotation tasks at two levels (for named entities and for coreference), parts ofthe National Corpus of Polish construction. I have also contributed to the development of bothrule-based and probabilistic named entity recognition tools, and to an automated enrichment ofProlexbase, a large multilingual database of proper names, from open sources.With respect to multi-word expressions, named entities and coreference mentions, I pay aspecial attention to nested structures. This problem sheds new light on the treatment of complexlinguistic units in NLP. When these units start being modeled as trees (or, more generally, asacyclic graphs) rather than as flat sequences of tokens, long-distance dependencies, discontinu-ities, overlapping and other frequent linguistic properties become easier to represent. This callsfor more complex processing methods which control larger contexts than what usually happensin sequential processing. Thus, both named entity recognition and coreference resolution comesvery close to parsing, and named entities or mentions with their nested structures are analogous3to multi-word expressions with embedded complements.My parallel activity concerns finite-state methods for natural language and XML processing.My main contribution in this field, co-authored with 2 colleagues, is the first full-fledged methodfor tree-to-language correction, and more precisely for correcting XML documents with respectto a DTD. We have also produced interesting results in incremental finite-state algorithmics,particularly relevant to data evolution contexts such as dynamic vocabularies or user updates.Multilingualism is the leitmotif of my research. I have applied my methods to several naturallanguages, most importantly to Polish, Serbian, English and French. I have been among theinitiators of a highly multilingual European scientific network dedicated to parsing and multi-word expressions. I have used multilingual linguistic data in experimental studies. I believethat it is particularly worthwhile to design NLP solutions taking declension-rich (e.g. Slavic)languages into account, since this leads to more universal solutions, at least as far as nominalconstructions (MWUs, NEs, mentions) are concerned. For instance, when Multiflex had beendeveloped with Polish in mind it could be applied as such to French, English, Serbian and Greek.Also, a French-Serbian collaboration led to substantial modifications in morphological modelingin Prolexbase in its early development stages. This allowed for its later application to Polishwith very few adaptations of the existing model. Other researchers also stress the advantages ofNLP studies on highly inflected languages since their morphology encodes much more syntacticinformation than is the case e.g. in English.In this dissertation I am also supposed to demonstrate my ability of playing an active rolein shaping the scientific landscape, on a local, national and international scale. I describemy: (i) various scientific collaborations and supervision activities, (ii) roles in over 10 regional,national and international projects, (iii) responsibilities in collective bodies such as program andorganizing committees of conferences and workshops, PhD juries, and the National UniversityCouncil (CNU), (iv) activity as an evaluator and a reviewer of European collaborative projects.The issues addressed in this dissertation open interesting scientific perspectives, in whicha special impact is put on links among various domains and communities. These perspectivesinclude: (i) integrating fine-grained language data into the linked open data, (ii) deep parsingof multi-word expressions, (iii) modeling multi-word expression identification in a treebank as atree-to-language correction problem, and (iv) a taxonomy and an experimental benchmark fortree-to-language correction approaches.

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    Authors: Simonnot, Josephine;

    La plateforme web en ligne pour les archives sonores du CNRS-Musée de l’Homme permet d’accéder à des enregistrements musicaux du monde entier, publiés (disques) et inédit, collectés depuis les années 1900 jusqu’à nos jours. Nous présentons d’abord ces archives sonores gérées par le Centre de recherche en ethnomusicologie. Nous expliquons ensuite leur entrée dans le nouvel écosystème du Web ainsi que leur ouverture à un large public grâce à des outils d’analyse et de visualisation du son. Enfin, nous étudions comment une base de données d’archives sonores peut devenir un outil de collaboration pour produire et la diffuser des connaissances. The online web-based platform for the French CNRS-Musée de l'Homme sound archives offers access to published and unpublished recordings of music from all over the world, collected from the 1900's through the present day. We first introduce these sound archives managed by the Research Centre for Ethnomusicology. We then explain their entry in the new web ecosystem as well as their availability to a broad audience through a suite of tools for analysis and visualization. Finally, we study how a sound archive database can become a collaborative tool for the production and dissemination of knowledge.

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    Authors: Valais, Alain; Mortreau, M.; NAULEAU, Jean-François; Robin, Boris;

    La ferme du Panveau à Aron a été découverte au cours d’un diagnostic mené sur le contournement de la ville de Mayenne à un peu plus de deux kilomètres au nord du rempart de l’oppidum du Mesnil à Moulay mis en évidence dans le cadre de cette même opération. Cet habitat enclos occupé durant La Tène moyenne et La Tène finale montre une évolution dans les gabarits de fossés qui l’entourent. De nombreux bâtiments dont un exemplaire à tranchées de fondation de près de 80 mètres carrés y ont été fouillés. The Panveau farm in Aron was discovered during an archaeological evaluation prior to the construction of the Mayenne town bypass. It is located about 2 km north of the ramparts of the Mesnil Moulay oppidum which was also discovered during the same investigation. The size of the ditches enclosing this settlement dating from the middle and late La Tène period evolve during its occupation and several buildings including an 80 mètres carrés construction with foundation trenches were brought to light Das latènezeitliche Gehöft von Panveau bei Aron (Mayenne) liegt rund 2 km nördlich des Befestigungswalles des oppidums von Mesnil bei Moulay. Es wurde bei einer Baggerprospektion entdeckt, die anlässlich des beabsichtigten Baues einer Ortsumgehung von Mayenne durchgeführt wurde. Dieses eingehegte Gehöft der Mittel- und Spätlatènezeit zeigt eine Entwicklung bezüglich der Ausmaße der Grabenanlagen, die es umgeben. Mehrere Gebäude, darunter eines mit Fundamentgräbchen und einer Grundfläche von beinahe 80 m², wurden freigelegt. La granja de Panveau en Aron fue descubierta durante un diagnostico arqueológico que se hizo para desviar la ciudad de Mayenne, en un poco más de 2 kilómetros al norte de la pared del oppidum de Mesnil en el pueblo de Moulay encontrado dentro del marco de la misma operación. Este hábitat cerrado ocupado durante la mitad y el final de La Tène muestra una evolución de los tamaños de las zanjas que lo rodean. Muchos edificios, incluyendo uno constituido de zanjas de cimentación que alcanzan hasta 80 m2, se han destacado.

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    Article . 2015
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    Authors: Loiseau, Mathieu; Lavoué, Elise; Marty, Jean-Charles; George, Sébastien;

    International audience; Our research deals with the development of a new type of game‐based learning environment: (M)MORPG based on mixed reality, applied in the archaeological domain. In this paper, we propose a learning scenario that enhances players' motivation thanks to individual, collaborative and social activities and that offers a continuous experience between the virtual environment and real places (archaeological sites, museum). After describing the challenge to a rich multidisciplinary approach involving both computer scientists and archaeologists, we present two types of game: multiplayer online role‐playing games and mixed reality games. We build on the specificities of these games to make the design choices described in the paper. The proposed approach aims at raising awareness among people on the scientific approach in Archaeology, by providing them information in the virtual environment and encouraging them to go on real sites. We finally discuss the issues raised by this work, such as the tensions between the perceived individual, team and community utilities, as well as the choice of the entering point in the learning scenario (real or virtual) for the players' involvement in the game.

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    Other literature type . 2013
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    Authors: Burel, Erwan;

    Il s’agit ici de dessiner la trajectoire de Juan Mayorga, depuis les années 1990 où il commença à publier ses premiers textes, jusqu’à l’année 2016-2017, où il met en scène sa propre pièce El Cartógrafo. Mayorga occupe une place particulière dans le panorama théâtral espagnol contemporain : avant de devenir un des dramaturges les plus reconnus de sa génération, il a été professeur de mathématiques, et il est aussi docteur en philosophie, spécialiste de Walter Benjamin. Sa connaissance pointue de la pensée benjaminienne, notamment dans les domaines de l’histoire et de la politique, va durablement influencer son théâtre. Sa conception du théâtre, de l’art théâtral, est aussi de fait largement marquée par la philosophie, ce qui donne à sa dramaturgie une facture à la fois classique et singulièrement novatrice. Dans ce contexte, à la croisée du théâtre et de la philosophie, la question de la violence occupe une place essentielle. Buscamos dibujar la trayectoria de Juan Mayorga, desde los años 1990 cuando empezó a publicar sus primeros textos, hasta el año 2016-2017 cuando pone en escena su propia pieza El Cartógrafo. Mayorga ocupa un lugar particular en el panorama teatral español contemporáneo: antes de ser uno de los dramaturgos más reconocidos de su generación, fue profesor de matemáticas, y es también doctor en filosofía, especialista de Walter Benjamin. Su conocimiento profundo del pensamiento benjaminiano, especialmente en los ámbitos de la historia y la política, influenciará su teatro de forma duradera. De hecho, su concepción del teatro, del arte teatral, está ampliamente marcada por la filosofía, lo que confiere a su dramaturgia una factura a la vez clásica y muy novedosa. En ese contexto, a mitad de camino entre teatro y filosofía, la cuestión de la violencia ocupa un lugar esencial.

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    Authors: d'Huy, Julien;

    International audience; Lexicometric software is applied to a test corpus of tale-type ATU 1137 as a pilot study to assess whether such software can be used for the identification of traditional motifs. Rather than a tool for identifying motifs, the pilot study revealed a new way of looking at tales, viewing them in terms of semantic networks.

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    Authors: Chapuis, Emile;

    L'intelligence artificielle conversationnelle a suscité un intérêt croissant ces dernières années, tant dans la communauté des chercheurs que dans l'industrie. Des applications grand publique ont commencé à voir le jour (par exemple, Alexa d'Amazon, Home de Google, Siri d'Apple), mais les performances de ces systèmes sont encore loin d'une communication semblable à celle des humains. Par exemple, la conversation avec les systèmes susmentionnés se limite souvent à des interactions de base de type question-réponse. Parmi toutes les raisons pour lesquelles les gens communiquent, l'échange d'informations et le renforcement des liens sociaux semblent être les principales. Dans la recherche sur le dialogue, ces deux problèmes sont bien connus et abordés à l'aide de la classification des actes de dialogue et de la reconnaissance des émotions/sentiments. Ces problèmes sont d'autant plus difficiles à résoudre qu'ils concernent des dialogues parlés, contrairement aux textes écrits. Une conversation parlée est une activité complexe et collective qui possède une dynamique et une structure spécifiques. Il est donc nécessaire d'adapter les techniques de traitement et de compréhension du langage naturel qui ont été conçues pour les textes écrits car elles ne partagent pas les mêmes caractéristiques. Cette thèse se concentre sur les méthodes de compréhension des dialogues parlés et aborde spécifiquement le problème de la classification des dialogues parlés avec un accent particulier sur les étiquettes des actes de dialogue et des émotions/sentiments. Nos contributions peuvent être divisées en deux parties : dans la première partie, nous abordons le problème de l'étiquetage automatique des dialogues parlés en anglais. Dans cette partie, nous commençons par formuler ce problème comme un problème de traduction, ce qui nous amène à proposer un modèle seq2seq pour la classification des actes de dialogue. Ensuite, notre deuxième contribution se concentre sur un scénario reposant sur de petits ensembles de données annotées et implique à la fois le pré-entraînement d'un encodeur transformateur hiérarchique et la proposition d'un nouveau benchmark pour l'évaluation. Cette première partie aborde le problème de la classification du langage parlé dans des contextes monolingues (i.e. anglais) et monomod aux (i.e. texte). Cependant, les dialogues parlés impliquent des phénomènes tels que le code-switching (lorsqu'un locuteur change de langue au cours d'une conversation) et s'appuient sur plusieurs canaux pour communiquer (par exemple, audio ou visuel). La deuxième partie est donc consacrée à deux extensions des contributions précédentes dans deux contextes: multilingue et multimodal. Nous abordons d'abord le problème de la classification des actes de dialogue lorsque plusieurs langues sont impliquées et nous étendons donc les deux contributions précédentes à un scénario multilingue. Dans notre dernière contribution, nous explorons un scénario multimodal et nous nous concentrons sur la représentation et la fusion des modalités dans le cadre de la prédiction des émotions. Conversational AI has received a growing interest in recent years from both the research community and the industry. Products have started to emerge (e.g. Amazon's Alexa, Google's Home, Apple's Siri) but performances of such systems are still far from human-likeness communication. As an example, conversation with the aforementioned systems is often limited to basic question-response interactions. Among all the reasons why people communicate, the exchange of information and the strengthening of social bound appeared to be the main ones. In dialogue research, the two aforementioned problems are well known and addressed using dialogue act classification and emotion/sentiment recognition. Those problems are made even more challenging as they involve spoken dialogues in contrast to written text. A spoken conversation is a complex and collective activity that has a specific dynamic and structure. Thus, there is a need to adapt both natural language processing and natural language understanding techniques which have been tailored for written texts as it does not share the same characteristics. This thesis focuses on methods for spoken dialogue understanding and specifically tackles the problem of spoken dialogues classification with a particular focus on dialogue act and emotion/sentiment labels. Our contributions can be divided into two parts: in the first part, we address the problem of automatically labelling English spoken dialogues. In this part, we start by formulating this problem as a translation problem which leads us to propose a seq2seq model for dialogue act classification. Then, our second contribution focuses on a scenario relying on small annotated datasets and involves both pre-training a hierarchical transformer encoder and proposing a new benchmark for evaluation. This first part addresses the problem of spoken language classification in monolingual (i.e. English) and monomodal (i.e. text) settings. However, spoken dialogue involves phenomena such as code-switching (when a speaker switch languages within a conversation) and relies on multiple channels to communicate (e.g.} audio or visual).Hence, the second part is dedicated to two extensions of the previous contributions in two settings: multilingual and multimodal. We first address the problem of dialogue act classification when multiple languages are involved and thus, we extend the two previous contributions to a multilingual scenario. In our last contribution, we explore a multimodal scenario and focus on the representation and fusion of modalities in the scope of emotion prediction.

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