Abstract The Upper Pleniglacial, between 23 000–20 000 BP, is characterized by the intensification of cold climate and is followed by the maximum extent of ice sheets. There is a little bit information about the human activities during this period. New archaeological excavations in Ukraine permit to evidence data about behavioural human adaptations. These open air sites are on the one hand Pushkari 1 (excavation VII), Pogon (excavation VII) and Obollonia in the Desna valley and on the other hand Dorochivtsy III in the Dniester valley. These sites are characterised by atypical lithic industries made on local flint relied to the Gravettian but containing Epigravettian or Aurignacoid elements. In order to better understand the subsistence strategy we carried out zooarchaeological and taphonomical studies, which allow us to reveal the strategy of fauna exploitation by the human groups. We highlighted that all these sites are characterized by a restricted faunal spectrum with the presence of mammoth, reindeer, horse and carnivores (mainly fox [Vulpes vulpes and Alopex lagopus] and wolf). In the Dniester valley the reindeer was the most exploited, whereas the mammoth is the most exploited in the Desna valley. Indeed, it was probably hunt in Pushkari 1, maybe in Pogon and Obollonia. It was exploited as combustible, food resources and bones as raw material. In Dorochivtsy III/6 ivory was used to make tools and as artistic support. Indeed this site and Obollonia present grooved ivory points, this is the oldest occurrence of this kind of artefacts in the both regions. Moreover two engraved tusks presenting more or less figurative pictures were found in Dorochivtsy III/l.6 and Obollonia. The other large herbivores were also consumed and carnivores were exploited for their pelts in all these sites. The settlements are recurrent camps with little development occupied during varied seasons oriented to hunting and butchering activities linked with exploitation of local flint. These sites demonstrate the continuity of human occupations within the Eastern European plain, with the persistence of hunting methods and the relative diversity of animal exploitation, during the Upper Pleniglacial. These sites are really important for the understanding of cultural processes in the Eastern European Upper Palaeolithic, and particularly for the understanding of Epigravettian origin.
The trade of glass beads has long been assumed to have been under Islamic dominance during the early centuries following the Arab conquest of the Middle East, judged by the prevalence of Islamic beads in the archaeological contexts from Viking Scandinavia to medieval Morocco. This paper explores the impact of the Byzantine-Slavic transition on the use and by extension trade of glass beads in the Balkans from the seventh to the ninth century CE. A series of 48 glass beads and 4 vessel fragments from two excavated sites in modern day Albania have been analysed morphologically, technologically and chemically by LA-ICP-MS. The seventh-century beads from Lezha have typological parallels among central European assemblages and are made from recycled natron-type glass. The presence of a high lead-iron-natron variant is of particular interest as it potentially reflects a regional production. The ninth-century beads from Komani are made from soda-rich plant ash glass from the eastern Mediterranean and Mesopotamia and correspond to an Islamic typology. The chronological and geographical differences are reflected in the distinctive cobalt sources used for the two groups. While the beads from Lezha are coloured with a cobalt not correlated with any particular element, the cobalt source of the Komani samples is associated with zinc, typical of Islamic glass making. It thus appears that the supply of beads during the seventh century when the Balkans were under Slavic occupation relied on regional production and recycled material, and that a long-distance trade with the eastern Mediterranean was revived following the Byzantine re-conquest of the south-eastern Adriatic in the ninth century. Intriguingly, the Albanian finds confirm the Islamic control of the production and trade of glass beads during this period and highlight the mediatory role of the Byzantine Empire. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (10.1007/s12520-017-0583-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Countries: Belgium, France, United Kingdom, France, Belgium
Ethnographical, historical and archaeological evidence suggests that a great diversity in pig husbandry may have existed in the past. However, such diversity remains difficult to document from traditional zooarchaeological methods and its study may necessitate the implementation of combined methodological approaches. An integrated dental analysis, combining kill-off patterns, traditional and geometric morphometrics, linear enamel hypoplasia (LEH), microwear and stable isotope (δ18O,δ13C, δ15N) data, has been performed on assemblages from the neighbouring sites of Düzen Tepe and Sagalassos (SW Turkey) dated to Classical-Hellenistic to Byzantine time periods. Results indicate a diachronic evolution in slaughter practices, and a gradual decrease in pig mean size from the Early-Middle Imperial to the Byzantine. The seasonality of physiological stressing events remains the same, although their intensity varies through time. During the Early Byzantine period (CE 450–700), pig demographic management is characterized by two birth seasons, and a great diversity in diet and scale of management occurred, from free-ranging pigs – whether or not given food supplement - to closely confined wellwatered and more omnivorous pigs. ispartof: Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports vol:11 pages:38-52 status: published
Publisher: Université de Liège. Département des Sciences de l'Antiquité (BE)
Countries: France, Belgium
La recherche récente a régulièrement remis en cause la catégorie moderne de « lois sacrées » désignant des inscriptions grecques qui forment un ensemble mal défini. Cet article entend dépasser le corpus traditionnel des « lois sacrées » en présentant un projet de recueil alternatif de « Normes rituelles grecques » (CGRN pour l’acronyme anglais), qui s’appuie sur des critères plus sélectifs et sera publié en ligne. Recent scholarship has recognised that the modern categorisation of certain Greek inscriptions as “sacred laws” is problematic. The article seeks to move beyond the traditional corpus of “sacred laws” to suggest an alternative Collection of Greek Ritual Norms (CGRN), which uses more selective criteria and which will be published on line.
« La féminité des déesses à l’épreuve des épiclèses », qui était le titre d’abord annoncé, était une vaste ambition et chacun sait qu’au moment de donner un titre provisoire aux organisateurs d’un colloque, c’est souvent le cas. Par là, nous avions souhaité évoquer deux aspects importants des travaux de Pierre Brulé sur la religion grecque. La féminité des déesses renvoie bien évidemment à La fille d’Athènes, où les jeunes Athéniennes croisent essentiellement des divinités féminines Quant aux...
International audience; Located at the interface between the Paris and the Rhine Basins and the more northern territories of Europe, Belgium contains several Gravettian occupations, both open-air and in caves. The available documentation is unfortunately limited by the earliness of the excavations conducted at most sites. Stratified records in karstic context, primarily excavated in the 19th century, are particularly affected by this situation. The analysis of Gravettian lithic technological behaviours can, however, rely on two open air sites excavated in the late 20th century which provide more rigorous data: Maisieres-Canal and Station de l'Hermitage. These two sites have been the focus of comparisons that highlight their similarities, both in terms of the lithic industry and location. In fact, the former stands out for the presence of tanged tools, a typological marker which is usually associated with the Early Gravettian of Western Europe. In this article, we present a new study that evidences the differences in the lithic technical systems represented at these sites. After a presentation of the most recent data, we consider the causes that may be responsible for such diversity, highlighting the possible role of the chronological factor, but also of the existence of an original technical tradition in north-western Europe during the appearance and development of the Gravettian. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA. All rights reserved.
AbstractPrehistoric stone structures are prominent and well-studied in the Levantine desert margins. In northern Arabia, however, such structures have received less attention. This article presents the results of investigations of a 35m-long stone platform, first constructed in the mid sixth millennium BC, overlooking the oasis of Dûmat al-Jandal in northern Saudi Arabia. Excavation of the platform has yielded bioarchaeological and cultural remains, along with evidence for several phases of construction and intermittent use down to the first millennium BC. Analysis of the platform and nearby tombs highlights the persistent funerary and ritual use of this area over millennia, illuminating nomadic pastoralist lifeways in prehistoric Arabia.
Laurent A. F. Frantz; James Haile; Audrey T. Lin; Amelie Scheu; Christina Geörg; Norbert Benecke; Michelle Alexander; Anna Linderholm; Victoria E. Mullin; Kevin G. Daly; +90 more
Laurent A. F. Frantz; James Haile; Audrey T. Lin; Amelie Scheu; Christina Geörg; Norbert Benecke; Michelle Alexander; Anna Linderholm; Victoria E. Mullin; Kevin G. Daly; Vincent M. Battista; Max Price; Kurt J. Gron; Panoraia Alexandri; Rose-Marie Arbogast; Benjamin S. Arbuckle; Adrian Bӑlӑşescu; Ross Barnett; László Bartosiewicz; Gennady F. Baryshnikov; Clive Bonsall; Dusan Boric; Adina Boroneanţ; Jelena Bulatović; Canan Çakirlar; José Miguel Carretero; John Chapman; Mike J. Church; Richard P. M. A. Crooijmans; Bea De Cupere; Cleia Detry; Vesna Dimitrijević; Valentin Dumitraşcu; Louis du Plessis; Ceiridwen J. Edwards; Cevdet Merih Erek; Aslı Erim-Özdoğan; Anton Ervynck; Domenico Fulgione; Mihai Gligor; Anders Götherström; Lionel Gourichon; Martien A. M. Groenen; Daniel Helmer; Hitomi Hongo; Liora Kolska Horwitz; Evan K. Irving-Pease; Ophélie Lebrasseur; Joséphine Lesur; Caroline Malone; Ninna Manaseryan; Arkadiusz Marciniak; Holley Martlew; Marjan Mashkour; Roger Matthews; Giedre Motuzaite Matuzeviciute; Sepideh Maziar; Erik Meijaard; Thomas H. McGovern; Hendrik-Jan Megens; Rebecca Miller; Azadeh Fatemeh Mohaseb; Jörg Orschiedt; David Orton; Anastasia Papathanasiou; Mike Parker Pearson; Ron Pinhasi; Darko Radmanovic; François-Xavier Ricaut; Michael P. Richards; Richard Sabin; Lucia Sarti; Wolfram Schier; Shiva Sheikhi; Elisabeth Stephan; John R. Stewart; Simon Stoddart; Antonio Tagliacozzo; Nenad Tasić; Katerina Trantalidou; Anne Tresset; Cristina Valdiosera; Youri van den Hurk; Sophie Van Poucke; Jean-Denis Vigne; Alexander Yanevich; Andrea Zeeb-Lanz; Alexandros Triantafyllidis; M. Thomas P. Gilbert; Jörg Schibler; Peter Rowley-Conwy; Melinda A. Zeder; Joris Peters; Thomas Cucchi; Daniel G. Bradley; Keith Dobney; Joachim Burger; Allowen Evin; Linus Girdland-Flink; Greger Larson;
Countries: Lithuania, Italy, Italy, Serbia, Germany, United Kingdom, United Kingdom, France, Turkey, Portugal ...
Project: NSF | RAPID Gardar Collaborativ... (1119354), NSF | Doctoral Dissertation Imp... (0530699), WT | Domestic animals as a mod... (210119), EC | Extinction Genomics (681396), NSF | Doctoral Dissertation Res... (1203268), NSF | RCN - SEES Global Long-te... (1140106), NSF | Tephra layers and early w... (1249313), NSF | The Origins of Equid Dome... (1311551), MESTD | Bioarchaeology of Ancient... (47001), EC | PATHPHYLODYN (614725),...
Archaeological evidence indicates that pig domestication had begun by ∼10,500 y before the present (BP) in the Near East, and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) suggests that pigs arrived in Europe alongside farmers ∼8,500 y BP. A few thousand years after the introduction of Near Eastern pigs into Europe, however, their characteristic mtDNA signature disappeared and was replaced by haplotypes associated with European wild boars. This turnover could be accounted for by substantial gene flow from local European wild boars, although it is also possible that European wild boars were domesticated independently without any genetic contribution from the Near East. To test these hypotheses, we obtained mtDNA sequences from 2,099 modern and ancient pig samples and 63 nuclear ancient genomes from Near Eastern and European pigs. Our analyses revealed that European domestic pigs dating from 7,100 to 6,000 y BP possessed both Near Eastern and European nuclear ancestry, while later pigs possessed no more than 4% Near Eastern ancestry, indicating that gene flow from European wild boars resulted in a near-complete disappearance of Near East ancestry. In addition, we demonstrate that a variant at a locus encoding black coat color likely originated in the Near East and persisted in European pigs. Altogether, our results indicate that while pigs were not independently domesticated in Europe, the vast majority of human-mediated selection over the past 5,000 y focused on the genomic fraction derived from the European wild boars, and not on the fraction that was selected by early Neolithic farmers over the first 2,500 y of the domestication process. Significance Archaeological evidence indicates that domestic pigs arrived in Europe, alongside farmers from the Near East ∼8,500 y ago, yet mitochondrial genomes of modern European pigs are derived from European wild boars. To address this conundrum, we obtained mitochondrial and nuclear data from modern and ancient Near Eastern and European pigs. Our analyses indicate that, aside from a coat color gene, most Near Eastern ancestry in the genomes of European domestic pigs disappeared over 3,000 y as a result of interbreeding with local wild boars. This implies that pigs were not domesticated independently in Europe, yet the first 2,500 y of human-mediated selection applied by Near Eastern Neolithic farmers played little role in the development of modern European pigs.