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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Volot, F; Zweigenbaum, P; Bachimont, B; Ben Said, M; +3 Authors

    The use of a taxonomy, such as the concept type lattice (CTL) of Conceptual Graphs, is a central structuring piece in a knowledge-based system. The knowledge it contains is constantly used by the system, and its structure provides a guide for the acquisition of other pieces of knowledge. We show how UMLS can be used as a knowledge resource to build a CTL and how the CTL can help the process of acquisition for other kinds of knowledge. We illustrate this method in the context of the MENELAS natural language understanding project.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 1993
    Data sources: PubMed Central
    Hyper Article en Ligne
    Other literature type . 1993
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 1993
      Data sources: PubMed Central
      Hyper Article en Ligne
      Other literature type . 1993
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Shang, Guokan;

    Grâce aux progrès impressionnants qui ont été réalisés dans la transcription du langage parlé, il est de plus en plus possible d'exploiter les données transcrites pour des tâches qui requièrent la compréhension de ce que l'on dit dans une conversation. Le travail présenté dans cette thèse, réalisé dans le cadre d'un projet consacré au développement d'un assistant de réunion, contribue aux efforts en cours pour apprendre aux machines à comprendre les dialogues des réunions multipartites. Nous nous sommes concentrés sur le défi de générer automatiquement les résumés abstractifs de réunion.Nous présentons tout d'abord nos résultats sur le Résumé Abstractif de Réunion (RAR), qui consiste à prendre une transcription de réunion comme entrée et à produire un résumé abstractif comme sortie. Nous introduisons une approche entièrement non-supervisée pour cette tâche, basée sur la compression multi-phrases et la maximisation sous-modulaire budgétisée. Nous tirons également parti des progrès récents en vecteurs de mots et dégénérescence de graphes appliqués au TAL, afin de prendre en compte les connaissances sémantiques extérieures et de concevoir de nouvelles mesures de diversité et d'informativité.Ensuite, nous discutons de notre travail sur la Classification en Actes de Dialogue (CAD), dont le but est d'attribuer à chaque énoncé d'un discours une étiquette qui représente son intention communicative. La CAD produit des annotations qui sont utiles pour une grande variété de tâches, y compris le RAR. Nous proposons une couche neuronale modifiée de Champ Aléatoire Conditionnel (CAC) qui prend en compte non seulement la séquence des énoncés dans un discours, mais aussi les informations sur les locuteurs et en particulier, s'il y a eu un changement de locuteur d'un énoncé à l'autre.La troisième partie de la thèse porte sur la Détection de Communauté Abstractive (DCA), une sous-tâche du RAR, dans laquelle les énoncés d'une conversation sont regroupés selon qu'ils peuvent être résumés conjointement par une phrase abstractive commune. Nous proposons une nouvelle approche de la DCA dans laquelle nous introduisons d'abord un encodeur neuronal contextuel d'énoncé qui comporte trois types de mécanismes d'auto-attention, puis nous l'entraînons en utilisant les méta-architectures siamoise et triplette basées sur l'énergie. Nous proposons en outre une méthode d'échantillonnage générale qui permet à l'architecture triplette de capturer des motifs subtils (p. ex., des groupes qui se chevauchent et s'emboîtent). With the impressive progress that has been made in transcribing spoken language, it is becoming increasingly possible to exploit transcribed data for tasks that require comprehension of what is said in a conversation. The work in this dissertation, carried out in the context of a project devoted to the development of a meeting assistant, contributes to ongoing efforts to teach machines to understand multi-party meeting speech. We have focused on the challenge of automatically generating abstractive meeting summaries.We first present our results on Abstractive Meeting Summarization (AMS), which aims to take a meeting transcription as input and produce an abstractive summary as output. We introduce a fully unsupervised framework for this task based on multi-sentence compression and budgeted submodular maximization. We also leverage recent advances in word embeddings and graph degeneracy applied to NLP, to take exterior semantic knowledge into account and to design custom diversity and informativeness measures.Next, we discuss our work on Dialogue Act Classification (DAC), whose goal is to assign each utterance in a discourse a label that represents its communicative intention. DAC yields annotations that are useful for a wide variety of tasks, including AMS. We propose a modified neural Conditional Random Field (CRF) layer that takes into account not only the sequence of utterances in a discourse, but also speaker information and in particular, whether there has been a change of speaker from one utterance to the next.The third part of the dissertation focuses on Abstractive Community Detection (ACD), a sub-task of AMS, in which utterances in a conversation are grouped according to whether they can be jointly summarized by a common abstractive sentence. We provide a novel approach to ACD in which we first introduce a neural contextual utterance encoder featuring three types of self-attention mechanisms and then train it using the siamese and triplet energy-based meta-architectures. We further propose a general sampling scheme that enables the triplet architecture to capture subtle patterns (e.g., overlapping and nested clusters).

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    Other literature type . 2021
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    Doctoral thesis . 2021
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      Hyper Article en Ligne
      Other literature type . 2021
      Hal-Diderot
      Doctoral thesis . 2021
      Data sources: Hal-Diderot
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Mende, Doreen; Levin, Boaz;

    International audience

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    Oskar Bordeaux
    Part of book or chapter of book . 2017
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    Other literature type . 2017
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    {"references": ["Guile, M. (2006). Clyde School 1910-1975, An Uncommon History. Melbourne: Clyde Old Girls' Association.", "Hay, O. J. (1966). The Chronicles of Clyde. Melbourne: Brown Prior Anderson.", "Holmgren, I. (1934). The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1934, George H Whipple, George R Minot, William P Murphy. Award Cermony Speech, December 10.", "Macpherson, I. (1936). To the Natural Science Section at the Goetheanum, Dornach near Basle, Switzerland. Typewrtten agreement signed by Ileen Macpherson, dated 22nd January 1936, 2 pp.; original held in Dokumentation am Goetheanum Bibliothek Kunstsammlung Archiv, Dornach.", "Magill, E. (1975). In Memoriam Ernesto Genoni 1885-1975. Goetheanum News, 43(11/12), 6-7.", "Northbourne, Lord. (1940). Look to the Land. London: Dent.", "Old Geelong Grammarians. (1994). Directory of Old Geelong Grammarians including Old Girls of Clyde School and the Hermitage. Melbourne: Michael Thornton Publishing.", "Paull, J. (2011a). Attending the first organic agriculture course: Rudolf Steiner's Agriculture Course at Koberwitz, 1924. European Journal of Social Sciences, 21(1), 64-70.", "Paull, J. (2011b). The Betteshanger Summer School: Missing link between biodynamic agriculture and organic farming. Journal of Organic Systems, 6(2), 13-26.", "Paull, J. (2011c). Biodynamic Agriculture: The journey from Koberwitz to the World, 1924-1938. Journal of Organic Systems, 6(1), 27-41.", "Paull, J. (2011d). The secrets of Koberwitz: The diffusion of Rudolf Steiner's Agriculture Course and the founding of Biodynamic Agriculture. Journal of Social Research & Policy, 2(1), 19-29.", "Paull, J. (2013). A history of the organic agriculture movement in Australia. In B. Mascitelli & A. Lobo (Eds.), Organics in the Global Food Chain (pp. 37-60). Ballarat: Connor Court Publishing.", "Paull, J. (2014). Ernesto Genoni: Australia's pioneer of biodynamic agriculture. Journal of Organics, 1(1), 57-81.", "Paull, J. (2016a). Angels of the First Class: The Anthroposophic Art of Ernesto Genoni, Goetheanum, 1924. Hobart: Vital Years Conference 2016 - Cradle of a Healthy Life, Tarremah Steiner School, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia, 5-9 July.", "Paull, J. (2016b). The Anthroposophic Art of Ernesto Genoni, Goetheanum, 1924. Journal of Organics, 3(2), 1-24.", "Pfeiffer, E. (1938). Bio-Dynamic Farming and Gardening: Soil Fertility Renewal and Preservation (F. Heckel, Trans.). New York: Anthroposophic Press.", "Shaw, M. T. (1960). Recollections of Clyde (1916-1922): (Single page, 1922 folder, Clyde School Archives).", "Springvale Botanical Cemetery. (1975). Genoni, Ernesto Fermo - Date of service 14/02/1975, Cremated, The cremated remains have been scattered. Springvale: Springvale Botanical Cemetery.", "Springvale Botanical Cemetery. (1984). Macpherson, Edith Ileen - Date of service 06/06/1984, Cremated, The cremated remains have been scattered. Springvale: Springvale Botanical Cemetery.", "Steiner, R. (1923a). The Apocalypse. (Series VI. For Members of the The Anthroposophical Society Only (struck through). Inscribed in her hand: Ileen Macpherson). London: Anthroposophical Publishing Co.", "Steiner, R. (1923b). The Gospel of St Mark with a Supplement. (Series XXIV and XXX. For Members of the The Anthroposophical Society Only. Inscribed in her hand: Ileen Macpherson, Demeter, Box 49, Dandenong P.O.). London: Anthroposophical Publishing Co.", "Steiner, R. (1924a). Agriculture Course (\"Printed for private circulation only\"; 1929, first English language edition; George Kaufmann Trans ed.). Dornach, Switzerland: Goetheanum.", "Steiner, R. (1924b). To All Members: The Meetings at Koberwitz and Breslau. Anthroposophical Movement, 1, 9-11.", "Steiner, R. (1932). The Gem Book: An Art in Jewellery, Hints and Sketches. (Inscribed in her hand: Ileen Macpherson, 432 Punt Hill, South Yarra, then Demeter Farm, Princes Highway, Dandenong & dated 1934). London: H Collison.", "Steiner, R. (1953). Evolution in the Aspect of Realities. (Series XXXV. For Members of the The Anthroposophical Society only. Inscribed in her hand: Ileen Macpherson, Demeter, Dandenong). London: The Anthroposophical Society.", "Steiner, R. (nd). Christ and the Spiritual World or The Search for the Holy Grail. (Printed for members of the General Anthroposophical Society only. Inscribed in her hand: Ileen Macpherson, Demeter, Dandenong, then Namur Street via Noble Park, Vic ). London: Rudolf Steiner Publishing Co.", "Triaca, M. (1985). Amelia, A Long Journey. Melbourne: Greenhouse Publications.", "Wanliss, M. (1914). Sports. The Cluthan, The Journal of Clyde Girl's Grammar School, 1(2), 8-10.", "Webb-Ware, E., & Currie, M. (1916). General News. The Cluthan, The Journal of Clyde Girl's Grammar School, 1(5), 2-3."]} Edith Ileen Macpherson (1898-1984) was a co-founder of Australia’s original Demeter Farm (c.1934-1954) along with her partner Ernesto Genoni (1885-1974). Ileen was a member of Rudolf Steiner’s Experimental Circle of Anthroposophic Farmers and Gardeners (from 1936). Ernesto was the first Australian member (from 1928). At their Demeter Farm in Dandenong, Victoria, they practiced biodynamic agriculture on over 40 acres (16 ha) through the years of the Great Depression, through World War II, and for the first decade of the post-war years, producing milk, fruit, and vegetables. Ileen was an early Australian Anthroposophist and follower of Rudolf Steiner. It was a blow to their Demeter Farm enterprise when she fell ill. Eventually she was no longer able to manage physical work at all and this fell to Ernesto. Although she is remembered as ‘the woman in the wheelchair’ this paper reveals that she was previously an active, fit and keen sportswoman, participating in basketball, tennis, running, hockey, and dancing. At school she was known as ‘Ikey’, she was a prefect, she was a member of the school sports committee, and she won the prize for “best all-round sport”. Ileen was confined to a wheelchair for the last four decades of her life. The cause has generally been misunderstood and misattributed, and is revealed here to be pernicious anaemia (lack of vitamin B12). This condition is now easily and successfully treatable, but it was then generally fatal. Ileen was a financial supporter of the Anthroposophical movement in Australia during her lifetime. Her benefaction has continued since her death via the Ileen Macpherson Trust which reports having dispensed over $600,000 for Anthroposophic causes in Australia. A portrait of Ileen by Italian/Australian artist Ernesto Genoni and photographs of Ileen are presented. "Ileen Macpherson accepted the impulse to assist in a venture for applying Bio-Dynamic methods and resolved with Ernesto Genoni to attempt a practical activity. A small farm was purchased on Princes Highway near Dandenong, approximately 18 miles from Melbourne, and a serious effort which lasted 18 years was attempted. It was worked as a small dairy farm, and the manure built into the compost in the Bio-Dynamic way. They made their own preparations and sprays and produced very good vegetables which were sold in the wholesale market in the city and also from a truck on the side of the road. Constant hard work and many grievous trials were endured by the pioneers who undertook the first Bio- Dynamic venture in Victoria" (Edith Magill, 1975, p.7).

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    Authors: Pianzola, Federico; Rebora, Simone; Lauer, Gerhard;

    International audience; The end of deep reading is a commonplace in public debates, whenever societies talk about youth, books, and the digital age. In contrast to this, we show for the first time and in detail, how intensively young readers write and comment literary texts at an unprecedented scale. We present several analyses of how fiction is transmitted through the social reading platform Wattpad, one of the largest platforms for user-generated stories, including novels, fanfiction, humour, classics, and poetry. By mixed quantitative and qualitative methods and scalable reading we scrutinise texts and comments on Wattpad, what themes are preferred in 13 languages, what role does genre play for readers behaviour, and what kind of emotional engagement is prevalent when young readers share stories. Our results point out the rise of a global reading culture in youth reading besides national preferences for certain topics and genres, patterns of reading engagement, aesthetic values and social interaction. When reading Teen Fiction social-bonding (affective interaction) is prevalent, when reading Classics social-cognitive interaction (collective intelligence) is prevalent. An educational outcome suggests that readers who engage in Teen Fiction learn to read Classics and to judge books not only in direct emotional response to character’s behaviour, but focusing more on contextualised interpretation of the text.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2020
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    PLoS ONE
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    Article . 2020
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      Article . 2020
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    Authors: Rawsthorne, Helen Mair;

    Abstract: The prosopographical approach is adapted to the study of the "life cycles" of a group of technical objects that we will call artefacts. The novel approach is put to the test by applying it to a real group of artefacts to answer historical research questions about them. The chosen group of artefacts is composed of the thirty-three tide prediction machines ever built. Tide prediction machines are analogue computers that were used to predict the times of high and low tides worldwide from the end of the 1800s up to the digital age. The artefact prosopography makes use of digital humanities tools and is successful in giving an analysis of the common features in the lives of tide prediction machines, which gives an appreciation of their importance, the extent of their use and usefulness, and an impression of the shape of their lives.

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    Report . 2019
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    Report . 2019
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      Report . 2019
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    Authors: Liu, Xiao;

    L’internet et les nouvelles formes de média de communication, d’information, et de divertissement ont entraîné une croissance massive de la quantité des données numériques. Le traitement et l’interprétation automatique de ces données permettent de créer des bases de connaissances, de rendre les recherches plus efficaces et d’effectuer des recherches sur les médias sociaux. Les travaux de recherche sur le traitement automatique du langage naturel concernent la conception et le développement d’algorithmes, qui permettent aux ordinateurs de traiter automatiquement le langage naturel dans les textes, les contenus audio, les images ou les vidéos, pour des tâches spécifiques. De par la complexité du langage humain, le traitement du langage naturel sous forme textuelle peut être divisé en 4 niveaux : la morphologie, la syntaxe, la sémantique et la pragmatique. Les technologies actuelles du traitement du langage naturel ont eu de grands succès sur les tâches liées auxdeux premiers niveaux, ce qui a permis la commercialisation de beaucoup d’applications comme les moteurs de recherche. Cependant, les moteurs de recherches avancés (structurels) nécessitent une interprétation du langage plus avancée. L’extraction d’information consiste à extraire des informations structurelles à partir des ressources non annotées ou semi-annotées, afin de permettre des recherches avancées et la création automatique des bases de connaissances. Cette thèse étudie le problème d’extraction d’information dans le domaine spécifique de l’extraction des événements biomédicaux. Nous proposons une solution efficace, qui fait un compromis entre deux types principaux de méthodes proposées dans la littérature. Cette solution arrive à un bon équilibre entre la performance et la rapidité, ce qui la rend utilisable pour traiter des données à grande échelle. Elle a des performances compétitives face aux meilleurs modèles existant avec une complexité en temps de calcul beaucoup plus faible. Lors la conception de ce modèle, nous étudions également les effets des différents classifieurs qui sont souvent proposés pour la résolution des problèmes de classification multi-classe. Nous testons également deux méthodes permettant d’intégrer des représentations vectorielles des mots appris par apprentissage profond (deep learning). Même si les classifieurs différents et l’intégration des vecteurs de mots n’améliorent pas grandement la performance, nous pensons que ces directions de recherche ont du potentiel et sont prometteuses pour améliorer l’extraction d’information. Internet as well as all the modern media of communication, information and entertainment entails a massive increase of digital data quantities. Automatically processing and understanding these massive data enables creating large knowledge bases, more efficient search, social medial research, etc. Natural language processing research concerns the design and development of algorithms that allow computers to process natural language in texts, audios, images or videos automatically for specific tasks. Due to the complexity of human language, natural language processing of text can be divided into four levels: morphology, syntax, semantics and pragmatics. Current natural language processing technologies have achieved great successes in the tasks of the first two levels, leading to successes in many commercial applications such as search. However, advanced structured search engine would require computers to understand language deeper than at the morphology and syntactic levels. Information extraction is designed to extract meaningful structural information from unannotated or semi-annotated resources to enable advanced search and automatically create knowledge bases for further use. This thesis studies the problem of information extraction in the specific domain of biomedical event extraction. We propose an efficient solution, which is a trade-off between the two main trends of methods proposed in previous work. This solution reaches a good balance point between performance and speed, which is suitable to process large scale data. It achieves competitive performance to the best models with a much lower computational complexity. While designing this model, we also studied the effects of different classifiers that are usually proposed to solve the multi-class classification problem. We also tested two simple methods to integrate word vector representations learned by deep learning method into our model. Even if different classifiers and the integration of word vectors do not greatly improve the performance, we believe that these research directions carry some promising potential for improving information extraction.

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    Other literature type . 2014
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    Doctoral thesis . 2014
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    Authors: Tran, Quoc-Tan;

    The growing importance of the computational turn deeply affected the landscape of the social sciences and humanities. One of the most profound transformations caused by the development of digital technologies is the changes of the practice conditions and the production of knowledge. In recent years, French academics working in the humanities and social sciences have been devoting attention to the practices of "Digital Humanities", a new territory that fosters collaboration, openness, and enhancement of knowledge. The scope of this work is bounded to ten special thematic issues in nine French academic journals. The aim is to map main themes and emerging practices, in terms of research, knowledge production and dissemination, and also the modalities that allow Digital Humanities to develop new social and editorial assignments. The corpus is composed of seventy-three articles in nine academic journals, dedicated to various and differentiated topics of "Digital Humanities".

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    Conference object . 2017
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    Conference object . 2017
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      Conference object . 2017
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    Authors: Saleh, Fathi;

    The art of documenting heritage in the modern times is the art of using the different evolving technologies in order to document as well as to highlight the different aspects of this heritage. For this reason the center for documentation of cultural and natural heritage was created to materialize this concept in a holistic approach treating different aspects of cultural and natural heritage (tangible and intangible) at threedifferent levels: national, regional and specific.

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    Authors: Zalc, Claire;

    AbstractDuring its first days of existence, the Vichy regime ordered a review of recent naturalizations. In accordance with a law passed on July 22, 1940, denaturalization decisions were made on a ...

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    The Journal of Modern History
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Volot, F; Zweigenbaum, P; Bachimont, B; Ben Said, M; +3 Authors

    The use of a taxonomy, such as the concept type lattice (CTL) of Conceptual Graphs, is a central structuring piece in a knowledge-based system. The knowledge it contains is constantly used by the system, and its structure provides a guide for the acquisition of other pieces of knowledge. We show how UMLS can be used as a knowledge resource to build a CTL and how the CTL can help the process of acquisition for other kinds of knowledge. We illustrate this method in the context of the MENELAS natural language understanding project.

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    Authors: Shang, Guokan;

    Grâce aux progrès impressionnants qui ont été réalisés dans la transcription du langage parlé, il est de plus en plus possible d'exploiter les données transcrites pour des tâches qui requièrent la compréhension de ce que l'on dit dans une conversation. Le travail présenté dans cette thèse, réalisé dans le cadre d'un projet consacré au développement d'un assistant de réunion, contribue aux efforts en cours pour apprendre aux machines à comprendre les dialogues des réunions multipartites. Nous nous sommes concentrés sur le défi de générer automatiquement les résumés abstractifs de réunion.Nous présentons tout d'abord nos résultats sur le Résumé Abstractif de Réunion (RAR), qui consiste à prendre une transcription de réunion comme entrée et à produire un résumé abstractif comme sortie. Nous introduisons une approche entièrement non-supervisée pour cette tâche, basée sur la compression multi-phrases et la maximisation sous-modulaire budgétisée. Nous tirons également parti des progrès récents en vecteurs de mots et dégénérescence de graphes appliqués au TAL, afin de prendre en compte les connaissances sémantiques extérieures et de concevoir de nouvelles mesures de diversité et d'informativité.Ensuite, nous discutons de notre travail sur la Classification en Actes de Dialogue (CAD), dont le but est d'attribuer à chaque énoncé d'un discours une étiquette qui représente son intention communicative. La CAD produit des annotations qui sont utiles pour une grande variété de tâches, y compris le RAR. Nous proposons une couche neuronale modifiée de Champ Aléatoire Conditionnel (CAC) qui prend en compte non seulement la séquence des énoncés dans un discours, mais aussi les informations sur les locuteurs et en particulier, s'il y a eu un changement de locuteur d'un énoncé à l'autre.La troisième partie de la thèse porte sur la Détection de Communauté Abstractive (DCA), une sous-tâche du RAR, dans laquelle les énoncés d'une conversation sont regroupés selon qu'ils peuvent être résumés conjointement par une phrase abstractive commune. Nous proposons une nouvelle approche de la DCA dans laquelle nous introduisons d'abord un encodeur neuronal contextuel d'énoncé qui comporte trois types de mécanismes d'auto-attention, puis nous l'entraînons en utilisant les méta-architectures siamoise et triplette basées sur l'énergie. Nous proposons en outre une méthode d'échantillonnage générale qui permet à l'architecture triplette de capturer des motifs subtils (p. ex., des groupes qui se chevauchent et s'emboîtent). With the impressive progress that has been made in transcribing spoken language, it is becoming increasingly possible to exploit transcribed data for tasks that require comprehension of what is said in a conversation. The work in this dissertation, carried out in the context of a project devoted to the development of a meeting assistant, contributes to ongoing efforts to teach machines to understand multi-party meeting speech. We have focused on the challenge of automatically generating abstractive meeting summaries.We first present our results on Abstractive Meeting Summarization (AMS), which aims to take a meeting transcription as input and produce an abstractive summary as output. We introduce a fully unsupervised framework for this task based on multi-sentence compression and budgeted submodular maximization. We also leverage recent advances in word embeddings and graph degeneracy applied to NLP, to take exterior semantic knowledge into account and to design custom diversity and informativeness measures.Next, we discuss our work on Dialogue Act Classification (DAC), whose goal is to assign each utterance in a discourse a label that represents its communicative intention. DAC yields annotations that are useful for a wide variety of tasks, including AMS. We propose a modified neural Conditional Random Field (CRF) layer that takes into account not only the sequence of utterances in a discourse, but also speaker information and in particular, whether there has been a change of speaker from one utterance to the next.The third part of the dissertation focuses on Abstractive Community Detection (ACD), a sub-task of AMS, in which utterances in a conversation are grouped according to whether they can be jointly summarized by a common abstractive sentence. We provide a novel approach to ACD in which we first introduce a neural contextual utterance encoder featuring three types of self-attention mechanisms and then train it using the siamese and triplet energy-based meta-architectures. We further propose a general sampling scheme that enables the triplet architecture to capture subtle patterns (e.g., overlapping and nested clusters).

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    Other literature type . 2021
    Hal-Diderot
    Doctoral thesis . 2021
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    Authors: Mende, Doreen; Levin, Boaz;

    International audience

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    Part of book or chapter of book . 2017
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    {"references": ["Guile, M. (2006). Clyde School 1910-1975, An Uncommon History. Melbourne: Clyde Old Girls' Association.", "Hay, O. J. (1966). The Chronicles of Clyde. Melbourne: Brown Prior Anderson.", "Holmgren, I. (1934). The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1934, George H Whipple, George R Minot, William P Murphy. Award Cermony Speech, December 10.", "Macpherson, I. (1936). To the Natural Science Section at the Goetheanum, Dornach near Basle, Switzerland. Typewrtten agreement signed by Ileen Macpherson, dated 22nd January 1936, 2 pp.; original held in Dokumentation am Goetheanum Bibliothek Kunstsammlung Archiv, Dornach.", "Magill, E. (1975). In Memoriam Ernesto Genoni 1885-1975. Goetheanum News, 43(11/12), 6-7.", "Northbourne, Lord. (1940). Look to the Land. London: Dent.", "Old Geelong Grammarians. (1994). Directory of Old Geelong Grammarians including Old Girls of Clyde School and the Hermitage. Melbourne: Michael Thornton Publishing.", "Paull, J. (2011a). Attending the first organic agriculture course: Rudolf Steiner's Agriculture Course at Koberwitz, 1924. European Journal of Social Sciences, 21(1), 64-70.", "Paull, J. (2011b). The Betteshanger Summer School: Missing link between biodynamic agriculture and organic farming. Journal of Organic Systems, 6(2), 13-26.", "Paull, J. (2011c). Biodynamic Agriculture: The journey from Koberwitz to the World, 1924-1938. Journal of Organic Systems, 6(1), 27-41.", "Paull, J. (2011d). The secrets of Koberwitz: The diffusion of Rudolf Steiner's Agriculture Course and the founding of Biodynamic Agriculture. Journal of Social Research & Policy, 2(1), 19-29.", "Paull, J. (2013). A history of the organic agriculture movement in Australia. In B. Mascitelli & A. Lobo (Eds.), Organics in the Global Food Chain (pp. 37-60). Ballarat: Connor Court Publishing.", "Paull, J. (2014). Ernesto Genoni: Australia's pioneer of biodynamic agriculture. Journal of Organics, 1(1), 57-81.", "Paull, J. (2016a). Angels of the First Class: The Anthroposophic Art of Ernesto Genoni, Goetheanum, 1924. Hobart: Vital Years Conference 2016 - Cradle of a Healthy Life, Tarremah Steiner School, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia, 5-9 July.", "Paull, J. (2016b). The Anthroposophic Art of Ernesto Genoni, Goetheanum, 1924. Journal of Organics, 3(2), 1-24.", "Pfeiffer, E. (1938). Bio-Dynamic Farming and Gardening: Soil Fertility Renewal and Preservation (F. Heckel, Trans.). New York: Anthroposophic Press.", "Shaw, M. T. (1960). Recollections of Clyde (1916-1922): (Single page, 1922 folder, Clyde School Archives).", "Springvale Botanical Cemetery. (1975). Genoni, Ernesto Fermo - Date of service 14/02/1975, Cremated, The cremated remains have been scattered. Springvale: Springvale Botanical Cemetery.", "Springvale Botanical Cemetery. (1984). Macpherson, Edith Ileen - Date of service 06/06/1984, Cremated, The cremated remains have been scattered. Springvale: Springvale Botanical Cemetery.", "Steiner, R. (1923a). The Apocalypse. (Series VI. For Members of the The Anthroposophical Society Only (struck through). Inscribed in her hand: Ileen Macpherson). London: Anthroposophical Publishing Co.", "Steiner, R. (1923b). The Gospel of St Mark with a Supplement. (Series XXIV and XXX. For Members of the The Anthroposophical Society Only. Inscribed in her hand: Ileen Macpherson, Demeter, Box 49, Dandenong P.O.). London: Anthroposophical Publishing Co.", "Steiner, R. (1924a). Agriculture Course (\"Printed for private circulation only\"; 1929, first English language edition; George Kaufmann Trans ed.). Dornach, Switzerland: Goetheanum.", "Steiner, R. (1924b). To All Members: The Meetings at Koberwitz and Breslau. Anthroposophical Movement, 1, 9-11.", "Steiner, R. (1932). The Gem Book: An Art in Jewellery, Hints and Sketches. (Inscribed in her hand: Ileen Macpherson, 432 Punt Hill, South Yarra, then Demeter Farm, Princes Highway, Dandenong & dated 1934). London: H Collison.", "Steiner, R. (1953). Evolution in the Aspect of Realities. (Series XXXV. For Members of the The Anthroposophical Society only. Inscribed in her hand: Ileen Macpherson, Demeter, Dandenong). London: The Anthroposophical Society.", "Steiner, R. (nd). Christ and the Spiritual World or The Search for the Holy Grail. (Printed for members of the General Anthroposophical Society only. Inscribed in her hand: Ileen Macpherson, Demeter, Dandenong, then Namur Street via Noble Park, Vic ). London: Rudolf Steiner Publishing Co.", "Triaca, M. (1985). Amelia, A Long Journey. Melbourne: Greenhouse Publications.", "Wanliss, M. (1914). Sports. The Cluthan, The Journal of Clyde Girl's Grammar School, 1(2), 8-10.", "Webb-Ware, E., & Currie, M. (1916). General News. The Cluthan, The Journal of Clyde Girl's Grammar School, 1(5), 2-3."]} Edith Ileen Macpherson (1898-1984) was a co-founder of Australia’s original Demeter Farm (c.1934-1954) along with her partner Ernesto Genoni (1885-1974). Ileen was a member of Rudolf Steiner’s Experimental Circle of Anthroposophic Farmers and Gardeners (from 1936). Ernesto was the first Australian member (from 1928). At their Demeter Farm in Dandenong, Victoria, they practiced biodynamic agriculture on over 40 acres (16 ha) through the years of the Great Depression, through World War II, and for the first decade of the post-war years, producing milk, fruit, and vegetables. Ileen was an early Australian Anthroposophist and follower of Rudolf Steiner. It was a blow to their Demeter Farm enterprise when she fell ill. Eventually she was no longer able to manage physical work at all and this fell to Ernesto. Although she is remembered as ‘the woman in the wheelchair’ this paper reveals that she was previously an active, fit and keen sportswoman, participating in basketball, tennis, running, hockey, and dancing. At school she was known as ‘Ikey’, she was a prefect, she was a member of the school sports committee, and she won the prize for “best all-round sport”. Ileen was confined to a wheelchair for the last four decades of her life. The cause has generally been misunderstood and misattributed, and is revealed here to be pernicious anaemia (lack of vitamin B12). This condition is now easily and successfully treatable, but it was then generally fatal. Ileen was a financial supporter of the Anthroposophical movement in Australia during her lifetime. Her benefaction has continued since her death via the Ileen Macpherson Trust which reports having dispensed over $600,000 for Anthroposophic causes in Australia. A portrait of Ileen by Italian/Australian artist Ernesto Genoni and photographs of Ileen are presented. "Ileen Macpherson accepted the impulse to assist in a venture for applying Bio-Dynamic methods and resolved with Ernesto Genoni to attempt a practical activity. A small farm was purchased on Princes Highway near Dandenong, approximately 18 miles from Melbourne, and a serious effort which lasted 18 years was attempted. It was worked as a small dairy farm, and the manure built into the compost in the Bio-Dynamic way. They made their own preparations and sprays and produced very good vegetables which were sold in the wholesale market in the city and also from a truck on the side of the road. Constant hard work and many grievous trials were endured by the pioneers who undertook the first Bio- Dynamic venture in Victoria" (Edith Magill, 1975, p.7).

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