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131 Research products

  • Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage
  • 2019-2023
  • Open Access
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Ferrari, Erika;

    Le patrimoine métallique est un témoin culturel de notre passé et, pour cette raison, sa préservation et sa transmission aux générations futures sont importantes. Plusieurs stratégies sont utilisées pour la protection du patrimoine cuivreux exposée en extérieur, dont l’utilisation des inhibiteurs de corrosion organiques. Les inhibiteurs utilisés pour le patrimoine sont généralement empruntés au domaine de l’industrie. Cependant, l’état de surface du métal, couvert par des couches de produits de corrosion complexes, et le protocole d’application des inhibiteurs diffèrent considérablement de l’application industrielle.La présente étude porte spécifiquement sur les inhibiteurs de corrosion pour la conservation des artefacts exposés à base de cuivre par une approche physico-chimique innovante. L'approche prend en compte la complexité de la couche de corrosion étudiée : une plaque de cuivre naturellement corrodée, représentative de la corrosion extérieure à long terme a été choisie. Pour l'étude, trois molécules organiques, caractérisées par des fonctions chimiques différentes ont été sélectionnées comme inhibiteurs de test : le benzotriazole (BTAH), un composé azolé, employé en conservation, dont l'efficacité est débattue et l’utilisation déconseillée en raison de sa toxicité ; l'acide décanoïque (HC10) un acide gras à longue chaîne qui a été proposé comme traitement pour les objets patrimoniaux ; l'acide benzotriazole-5-carboxylique (5CBT), un composé à fonctions mixtes azole-carboxyliques. La réactivité des inhibiteurs avec des phases minérales synthétiques représentatives des produits de corrosion ainsi que des échantillons corrodés anciens (100 ans) avant et après 6 mois d'exposition extérieure ont été étudiées en combinant des observations à l'échelle nanométrique (MET, FIB-tomographie) à celles obtenues à l'échelle microscopique (Raman, MEB-EDS) et des observations globales/globales (couleur, tension de surface, XRD). Des expériences complémentaires en milieux marqués ont permis d'étudier les évolutions de perméabilité (immersion en D₂O) et de comportement passif (immersion KBr). Deux mécanismes réactionnels ont été observés et une relation avec l'efficacité et la durabilité de l'inhibition est proposée. Les molécules caractérisées par la fonction azole (BTAH et 5CBT) réagissent selon un mécanisme d'adsorption-précipitation formant un complexe amorphe adsorbé (film nanométrique) sur la phase minérale substrat (cuprite et brochantite). Les deux traitements sur les couches anciennes de corrosion diffèrent par leur profondeur de pénétration, la formation du complexe BTAH étant détectée jusqu'à la couche interne de cuprite, tandis que la complexation 5CBT n'est observée que dans la partie externe de la brochantite. Ceci a un impact sur la perméabilité de l'eau et la passivité pour les traitements au BTAH qui montrent les meilleurs résultats, et suggère une formation de complexe Cu-BTA sur la partie externe de la couche de cuprite dans ce dernier traitement. La fonction carboxylique dans HC10 conduit à la précipitation du décanoate de cuivre par un mécanisme de dissolution-précipitation. Des cristaux de décanoate se forment sur la surface externe de brochantite : cela confère une quasi-superhydrophobie à l'échantillon après traitement. Cependant, le manque de liaison chimique forte entre le précipité et la surface induit la perte de la couche hydrophobe déposée en surface après 6 mois d'exposition à l'extérieur.En plus de ces résultats phénoménologiques, une nouvelle méthodologie basée sur l'expérience KBr pour tester les inhibiteurs des artefacts corrodés par le cuivre est également proposée. Metallic heritage artefacts represent cultural traces of our past, and for this reason, their preservation and transmission to future generations is important. To protect copper-based artworks exposed outdoors, several conservation strategies are followed, including the use of organic corrosion inhibitors. Inhibitors are usually borrowed from the industrial field. However, the surface state of the metal with the presence of complex corrosion layers, and the protocol of inhibitors' application differ considerably from the industrial ones.The present study specifically addresses corrosion inhibitors for conservation of copper-based exposed artifacts by an innovative physico-chemical approach. The approach takes into account the complexity of the corrosion layer under investigation: a naturally corroded copper plate, representative for outdoor long-term corrosion have been chosen. For the study, three organic molecules, characterized by different chemical functions have been selected as test inhibitors: benzotriazole (BTAH), an azole compound, employed in conservation, which efficiency is debated and its use discouraged due to toxicity; decanoic acid (HC10) a long-chain fatty acid that has been proposed as treatment for heritage objects; benzotriazole-5-carboxylic acid (5CBT), a compound with mixed azole-carboxylic functions.The reactivity of the inhibitors with synthetic mineral phases representative of corrosion products as well as ancient corroded samples (100 years) before and after 6-months outdoor exposure have been investigated by combining observations at the nanoscale (TEM, FIB-tomography) to those obtained at the microscale (Raman, SEM-EDS) and global/bulk observations (colour, surface tension, XRD). Additional experiments in marked environment allowed to investigate changes in permeability (D₂O immersion) and the evolution of passive behavior (KBr immersion).Two reaction mechanisms have been observed and a relationship with the efficiency and durability of the inhibition is proposed. The molecules BTAH and 5CBT interaction with copper atoms occurs via the azole function and both molecules react according to an adsorption-precipitation mechanism forming an adsorbed amorphous complex (nanometric film) on the substrate mineral phase (cuprite and brochantite). The two treatments on the ancient corrosion layers differ for their depth of penetration, with Cu-BTAH complex formation being detected until the cuprite inner layer, while 5CBT complexation is observed only in the outer part of the brochantite. This has an impact on the water permeability and passivity, with the BTAH treatments showing the best results, and suggests a complex formation with the outer cuprite layer in this last treatment. The carboxylic function in HC10 leads to the precipitation of copper decanoate by a dissolution-precipitation mechanism. Crystals of decanoate are formed on the outer surface of brochantite: this confers near super-hydrophobicity to the sample after treatment. However, the lack of bond between the precipitate and the surface determines the loss of the surface-deposited hydrophobic layer after 6 months of outdoor exposure.In addition to these phenomenological results, a new methodology based on the KBr experiment for testing inhibitors for copper corroded artefacts is also proposed.

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    Authors: Saint-Raymond, Léa; Métraux, Maxime Georges;

    Sequestered by the French State as an "enemy asset" in 1944, Kojiro Matsukata’s collection was used as a national showcase through exhibitions until 1958. Few catalogues were transparent as to the works’ provenance from the collection. When we map and visualize this historical information, a significant contrast appears between the “real” circulation of artworks, as recorded in governmental archives, and the "official" circulation listed in catalogues. This discrepancy points to a propaganda effort in such a way as to bolster an artistic narrative that was key to French national pride, and studying it can further explain why the French decided to retain certain artworks for their own public collections and to “gift” the others back to Japan.

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    Purdue E-Scholar
    Other literature type . 2019
    Data sources: Purdue E-Scholar
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    Hyper Article en Ligne
    Other literature type . 2019
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    Authors: Shang, Guokan;

    Grâce aux progrès impressionnants qui ont été réalisés dans la transcription du langage parlé, il est de plus en plus possible d'exploiter les données transcrites pour des tâches qui requièrent la compréhension de ce que l'on dit dans une conversation. Le travail présenté dans cette thèse, réalisé dans le cadre d'un projet consacré au développement d'un assistant de réunion, contribue aux efforts en cours pour apprendre aux machines à comprendre les dialogues des réunions multipartites. Nous nous sommes concentrés sur le défi de générer automatiquement les résumés abstractifs de réunion.Nous présentons tout d'abord nos résultats sur le Résumé Abstractif de Réunion (RAR), qui consiste à prendre une transcription de réunion comme entrée et à produire un résumé abstractif comme sortie. Nous introduisons une approche entièrement non-supervisée pour cette tâche, basée sur la compression multi-phrases et la maximisation sous-modulaire budgétisée. Nous tirons également parti des progrès récents en vecteurs de mots et dégénérescence de graphes appliqués au TAL, afin de prendre en compte les connaissances sémantiques extérieures et de concevoir de nouvelles mesures de diversité et d'informativité.Ensuite, nous discutons de notre travail sur la Classification en Actes de Dialogue (CAD), dont le but est d'attribuer à chaque énoncé d'un discours une étiquette qui représente son intention communicative. La CAD produit des annotations qui sont utiles pour une grande variété de tâches, y compris le RAR. Nous proposons une couche neuronale modifiée de Champ Aléatoire Conditionnel (CAC) qui prend en compte non seulement la séquence des énoncés dans un discours, mais aussi les informations sur les locuteurs et en particulier, s'il y a eu un changement de locuteur d'un énoncé à l'autre.La troisième partie de la thèse porte sur la Détection de Communauté Abstractive (DCA), une sous-tâche du RAR, dans laquelle les énoncés d'une conversation sont regroupés selon qu'ils peuvent être résumés conjointement par une phrase abstractive commune. Nous proposons une nouvelle approche de la DCA dans laquelle nous introduisons d'abord un encodeur neuronal contextuel d'énoncé qui comporte trois types de mécanismes d'auto-attention, puis nous l'entraînons en utilisant les méta-architectures siamoise et triplette basées sur l'énergie. Nous proposons en outre une méthode d'échantillonnage générale qui permet à l'architecture triplette de capturer des motifs subtils (p. ex., des groupes qui se chevauchent et s'emboîtent). With the impressive progress that has been made in transcribing spoken language, it is becoming increasingly possible to exploit transcribed data for tasks that require comprehension of what is said in a conversation. The work in this dissertation, carried out in the context of a project devoted to the development of a meeting assistant, contributes to ongoing efforts to teach machines to understand multi-party meeting speech. We have focused on the challenge of automatically generating abstractive meeting summaries.We first present our results on Abstractive Meeting Summarization (AMS), which aims to take a meeting transcription as input and produce an abstractive summary as output. We introduce a fully unsupervised framework for this task based on multi-sentence compression and budgeted submodular maximization. We also leverage recent advances in word embeddings and graph degeneracy applied to NLP, to take exterior semantic knowledge into account and to design custom diversity and informativeness measures.Next, we discuss our work on Dialogue Act Classification (DAC), whose goal is to assign each utterance in a discourse a label that represents its communicative intention. DAC yields annotations that are useful for a wide variety of tasks, including AMS. We propose a modified neural Conditional Random Field (CRF) layer that takes into account not only the sequence of utterances in a discourse, but also speaker information and in particular, whether there has been a change of speaker from one utterance to the next.The third part of the dissertation focuses on Abstractive Community Detection (ACD), a sub-task of AMS, in which utterances in a conversation are grouped according to whether they can be jointly summarized by a common abstractive sentence. We provide a novel approach to ACD in which we first introduce a neural contextual utterance encoder featuring three types of self-attention mechanisms and then train it using the siamese and triplet energy-based meta-architectures. We further propose a general sampling scheme that enables the triplet architecture to capture subtle patterns (e.g., overlapping and nested clusters).

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    Hyper Article en Ligne
    Other literature type . 2021
    Hal-Diderot
    Doctoral thesis . 2021
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      Hyper Article en Ligne
      Other literature type . 2021
      Hal-Diderot
      Doctoral thesis . 2021
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    Authors: Štular, Benjamin; Lozić, Edisa; Eichert, Stefan;

    International audience; The use of topographic airborne LiDAR data has become an essential part of archaeological prospection, and the need for an archaeology-specific data processing workflow is well known. It is therefore surprising that little attention has been paid to the key element of processing: an archaeology-specific DEM. Accordingly, the aim of this paper is to describe an archaeology-specific DEM in detail, provide a tool for its automatic precision assessment, and determine the appropriate grid resolution. We define an archaeology-specific DEM as a subtype of DEM, which is interpolated from ground points, buildings, and four morphological types of archaeological features. We introduce a confidence map (QGIS plug-in) that assigns a confidence level to each grid cell. This is primarily used to attach a confidence level to each archaeological feature, which is useful for detecting data bias in archaeological interpretation. Confidence mapping is also an effective tool for identifying the optimal grid resolution for specific datasets. Beyond archaeological applications, the confidence map provides clear criteria for segmentation, which is one of the unsolved problems of DEM interpolation. All of these are important steps towards the general methodological maturity of airborne LiDAR in archaeology, which is our ultimate goal.; L'utilisation de données LiDAR aéroportées topographiques est devenue un élément essentiel de la prospection archéologique, et la nécessité d'un flux de travail de traitement des données spécifique à l'archéologie est bien connue. Il est donc surprenant que peu d'attention ait été accordée à l'élément clé du traitement: un MNE spécifique à l'archéologie. En conséquence, le but de cet article est de décrire en détail un MNE spécifique à l'archéologie, de fournir un outil pour son évaluation automatique de la précision et de déterminer la résolution de grille appropriée. Nous définissons un DEM spécifique à l'archéologie comme un sous-type de DEM, qui est interpolé à partir de points au sol, de bâtiments et de quatre types morphologiques de caractéristiques archéologiques. Nous introduisons une carte de confiance (plug-in QGIS) qui attribue un niveau de confiance à chaque cellule de la grille. Ceci est principalement utilisé pour attacher un niveau de confiance à chaque caractéristique archéologique, ce qui est utile pour détecter les biais de données dans l'interprétation archéologique. La cartographie de confiance est également un outil efficace pour identifier la résolution de grille optimale pour des ensembles de données spécifiques. Au-delà des applications archéologiques, la carte de confiance fournit des critères clairs pour la segmentation, qui est l'un des problèmes non résolus de l'interpolation DEM. Tous ces éléments sont des étapes importantes vers la maturité méthodologique générale du LiDAR aéroporté en archéologie, qui est notre objectif ultime.

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    Remote Sensing
    Article . 2021
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    Authors: Gelati, Francesco;

    The European Holocaust Research Infrastructure (EHRI) portal website aims to aggregate digitally available archival descriptions concerning the Holocaust. This portal is actually a meta-catalogue, or an information aggregator, whose biggest goal is to have up-to-date information by means of building sustainable data pipelines between EHRI and its content providers. Just like in similar archival information aggregators (e.g. Archives Portal Europe or Monasterium), the XML-based metadata standard Encoded Archival Description (EAD) plays a key role. The article presents how EADs are imported into the portal, mainly thanks to the Open Archive Initiative protocols.

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    Hal-Diderot
    Other literature type . 2019
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    Part of book or chapter of book . 2019
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    ZENODO
    Part of book or chapter of book . 2019
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      Hal-Diderot
      Other literature type . 2019
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      Part of book or chapter of book . 2019
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    Authors: Georgakakis, Didier;

    Tout est dit, et pense-t-on a été dit, sur les « eurocrates », leurs privilèges, leur idéologie (néo-libérale pour les uns, au contraire régulatrice et étatiste pour d’autres, technocratique pour tous) et les diktats multiples qu’ils imposeraient. Rares sont pourtant les analyses qui dépassent ces anathèmes et traite de la diversité sociologique des fonctionnaires européens, de la complexité de leur position et des fondations de leur pouvoir individuel et collectif. À y regarder de plus près, ce groupe vit pourtant une transformation assez majeure. Originellement pensé comme un corps assez unique de permanents de l’Europe proche d’une fonction publique d’État et destiné à neutraliser les nombreux conflits d’intérêts politiques, économiques et sociaux qui vont de pair avec une « Union toujours plus étroite », cette infrastructure humaine de l’intégration européenne a subi de profondes transformations qui l’ont progressivement bien plus rapprochée du modèle des manageurs internationaux indifféremment publics et privés que de son modèle d’origine. Ce mouvement, né dans un contexte chargé de réformes administratives et institutionnelles, d’élargissements, puis de crise économique et monétaire, représente un déplacement important ; il est plus encore à l’origine d’une véritable crise sociologique qui fragilise ce collectif et comprend de nombreuses conséquences sur le processus européen et sa direction. Fruit d’un ensemble d’enquêtes sociologiques de terrain sur les fonctionnaires européens et le mystère de leur formation en tant que groupe, ce livre tranche avec la somme d’anathèmes et leur pendant de justifications que déchaine ordinairement la seule évocation des « eurocrates ». En en éclairant des aspects largement méconnus, il s’interroge sur les transformations de leur pouvoir et, au-delà, du projet européen lui-même. La question du sens et de la direction à venir de l’Europe est indissociable d’une réflexion sur sa fonction publique dans tous les sens du terme.

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    OpenEdition
    Book . 2019
    Data sources: OpenEdition
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Johnston, Andrew; Segrestin, Blanche;

    International audience; In this chapter, we explore the evolving relationship between managers, directors, shareholders and companies over the course of the twentieth century. Focusing on the U.K., we show that, during the first half of the twentieth century, an absence of law allowed managers to acquire considerable de facto authority and power within companies, and that this was legitimated by reference to the specific competences that managers possessed. The role of management was not only to rationalize production and to reduce costs, but also to develop new capabilities and to devise strategies by which enterprises would innovate by exploring the unknown, a role which brought with it new social responsibilities. Company law, which predated the emergence of professional management, allowed space for managers to operate with the autonomy necessary to perform these functions, but did not guarantee it, making it vulnerable to later changes that sought to put shareholders back at the heart of the company. The second half of the twentieth century witnessed a succession of hard and soft law reforms which progressively diminished managerial autonomy and authority, transferring power to shareholders and independent directors. This transfer coincided with a move away from managerial conceptions of control, with their emphasis on balancing the competing interests at stake in the enterprise, towards an unbalanced system that creates powerful incentives for executives and managers to transfer value to shareholders (and themselves). As a whole, the chapter shows that law and soft law have exercised a powerful influence over the way in which companies are managed and governed in the U.K.

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    CORE (RIOXX-UK Aggregator)
    Part of book or chapter of book . 2021
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Mouchi, Vincent; Emmanuel, Laurent; FOREST, Vianney; Rivalan, André;

    International audience; In an area named Mermian (municipality of Agde, South of France), a significant amount of fragmented italic amphorae from the 2 nd century BC was discovered, located at a depth of 6 to 8 meters under the bed of the Hérault river. As no ship wreck was found in the vicinity, the reason of the presence of these amphora fragments, whose faces present a large accumulation of oyster shells, is unknown. Reconstructed geomorphological maps of the area present Mermian as a riverine site already at this period, and several hypothetical explanations on the role of these amphorae exist (landfill linked to a neighbouring habitat, bank reinforcement linked to a ford crossing, river landing, etc.). In order to define whether the amphorae were transported to this location and from where, we analysed the stable carbon and oxygen isotopes of the oyster shells. The δ 13 C and δ 18 O indicate that all oysters lived in the same environment, refuting a potential transport during the oyster accumulation. Moreover, the analysis of Mytilaster sp. shells in the sediment around the oyster shells also reported a marine origin, suggesting that these oysters were also buried in a marine deposit. Transport to Mermian from a coastal locality is unlikely but may still have happened, although no trace of human handling were observed on the fragments. Still, the presence of other marine or brackish molluscs in the sediment discards the interpretation of Mermian being a continental locality.

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    Open Quaternary
    Article . 2020
    Data sources: Open Quaternary
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    DOAJ-Articles
    Article . 2020
    Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
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      Open Quaternary
      Article . 2020
      Data sources: Open Quaternary
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      DOAJ-Articles
      Article . 2020
      Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
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    Authors: PANTIDOS, Panagiotis; GIVRY, Damien;

    In this study an effort is made to provide links between the world of physics (theoretical) model about energy transfer with the world of objects and events. Taking into account a holistic approach on energy based on conservation of energy principle and a semiotic approach based on the multimodality of teaching, it was investigated whether a ‘no contact, contact plus change’ pattern can signify in the material world the separation and the interaction between the physical systems and the changes within the systems. An analysis of a teacher’s actions from a physics lesson and a physics textbook concerning mechanical work and heat as mechanisms of energy transfer was made, identifying the no contact, contact + change pattern in speech, written text, bodily acts and inscriptions. It was shown that this semiotic schema has the potential to transfer the physics model about mechanical work and heat to the world of objects and events avoiding ambiguities that create conceptual blending between transformation and transfer of energy. In addition, illustrating the idea of change by movement for mechanical work (position change) and by haptic contact or different colours for heat (temperature change) might be of great importance in teaching activities about transfer of energy. Review of Science, Mathematics and ICT Education, Forthcoming papers

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    Oskar Bordeaux
    Article . 2021
    Data sources: Oskar Bordeaux
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    Authors: CARAGLIO, Agnès; RÍOS, Patricia; LIESAU, Corina;

    International audience; In the archaeological literature, the Bell Beaker tradition is usually suggested as a male and warrior "ideology", especially through grave goods. However, it does not reflect a monolithic cultural ‘identity’ but rather a real blended cultural practice reconciled at regional levels through ongoing interactions between collective and individual symbolic concepts. In Central Iberia, recent studies of the Bell Beaker funerary contexts have revealed recurrent practices, such the use of artificial caves and hypogea and the extraction and movement of human bones, as in the well-known Camino de las Yeseras site (San Fernando de Henares, Madrid). Our aim is to shed new light on the distribution of Bell Beaker ceramics in funerary structures through "Social Network Analysis". For example, are we able to establish relationships between the decoration of Bell Beaker vases and the individuals buried in single or collective graves, using similarity indexes between ceramics and network representations? Is the presence of some decorations linked to age or gender? Do stylistic identities have any relation to DNA heritage? The degree of similarity between the decorations executed on the vases from single graves and those deposited in collective graves could help to highlight specific burial categories or personae involved in the spread of particular collective decorative patterns. Network analysis tools can lead us to visualise these intra-site interactions, and gain greater understanding of the social context and the diversity of burial dynamics. The vessels analysed belong to eight Bell beaker tombs documented in Camino de las Yeseras during the second half of the third millennium BCE. In relation to the topic of this paper, we want to highlight the presumed impact of intra-site relations that Bell Beaker customs and funerary rituals could have on the consolidation of social inequalities among the first metallurgical societies of the Central Iberian Peninsula.

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    Oskar Bordeaux
    Part of book or chapter of book . 2021
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131 Research products
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Ferrari, Erika;

    Le patrimoine métallique est un témoin culturel de notre passé et, pour cette raison, sa préservation et sa transmission aux générations futures sont importantes. Plusieurs stratégies sont utilisées pour la protection du patrimoine cuivreux exposée en extérieur, dont l’utilisation des inhibiteurs de corrosion organiques. Les inhibiteurs utilisés pour le patrimoine sont généralement empruntés au domaine de l’industrie. Cependant, l’état de surface du métal, couvert par des couches de produits de corrosion complexes, et le protocole d’application des inhibiteurs diffèrent considérablement de l’application industrielle.La présente étude porte spécifiquement sur les inhibiteurs de corrosion pour la conservation des artefacts exposés à base de cuivre par une approche physico-chimique innovante. L'approche prend en compte la complexité de la couche de corrosion étudiée : une plaque de cuivre naturellement corrodée, représentative de la corrosion extérieure à long terme a été choisie. Pour l'étude, trois molécules organiques, caractérisées par des fonctions chimiques différentes ont été sélectionnées comme inhibiteurs de test : le benzotriazole (BTAH), un composé azolé, employé en conservation, dont l'efficacité est débattue et l’utilisation déconseillée en raison de sa toxicité ; l'acide décanoïque (HC10) un acide gras à longue chaîne qui a été proposé comme traitement pour les objets patrimoniaux ; l'acide benzotriazole-5-carboxylique (5CBT), un composé à fonctions mixtes azole-carboxyliques. La réactivité des inhibiteurs avec des phases minérales synthétiques représentatives des produits de corrosion ainsi que des échantillons corrodés anciens (100 ans) avant et après 6 mois d'exposition extérieure ont été étudiées en combinant des observations à l'échelle nanométrique (MET, FIB-tomographie) à celles obtenues à l'échelle microscopique (Raman, MEB-EDS) et des observations globales/globales (couleur, tension de surface, XRD). Des expériences complémentaires en milieux marqués ont permis d'étudier les évolutions de perméabilité (immersion en D₂O) et de comportement passif (immersion KBr). Deux mécanismes réactionnels ont été observés et une relation avec l'efficacité et la durabilité de l'inhibition est proposée. Les molécules caractérisées par la fonction azole (BTAH et 5CBT) réagissent selon un mécanisme d'adsorption-précipitation formant un complexe amorphe adsorbé (film nanométrique) sur la phase minérale substrat (cuprite et brochantite). Les deux traitements sur les couches anciennes de corrosion diffèrent par leur profondeur de pénétration, la formation du complexe BTAH étant détectée jusqu'à la couche interne de cuprite, tandis que la complexation 5CBT n'est observée que dans la partie externe de la brochantite. Ceci a un impact sur la perméabilité de l'eau et la passivité pour les traitements au BTAH qui montrent les meilleurs résultats, et suggère une formation de complexe Cu-BTA sur la partie externe de la couche de cuprite dans ce dernier traitement. La fonction carboxylique dans HC10 conduit à la précipitation du décanoate de cuivre par un mécanisme de dissolution-précipitation. Des cristaux de décanoate se forment sur la surface externe de brochantite : cela confère une quasi-superhydrophobie à l'échantillon après traitement. Cependant, le manque de liaison chimique forte entre le précipité et la surface induit la perte de la couche hydrophobe déposée en surface après 6 mois d'exposition à l'extérieur.En plus de ces résultats phénoménologiques, une nouvelle méthodologie basée sur l'expérience KBr pour tester les inhibiteurs des artefacts corrodés par le cuivre est également proposée. Metallic heritage artefacts represent cultural traces of our past, and for this reason, their preservation and transmission to future generations is important. To protect copper-based artworks exposed outdoors, several conservation strategies are followed, including the use of organic corrosion inhibitors. Inhibitors are usually borrowed from the industrial field. However, the surface state of the metal with the presence of complex corrosion layers, and the protocol of inhibitors' application differ considerably from the industrial ones.The present study specifically addresses corrosion inhibitors for conservation of copper-based exposed artifacts by an innovative physico-chemical approach. The approach takes into account the complexity of the corrosion layer under investigation: a naturally corroded copper plate, representative for outdoor long-term corrosion have been chosen. For the study, three organic molecules, characterized by different chemical functions have been selected as test inhibitors: benzotriazole (BTAH), an azole compound, employed in conservation, which efficiency is debated and its use discouraged due to toxicity; decanoic acid (HC10) a long-chain fatty acid that has been proposed as treatment for heritage objects; benzotriazole-5-carboxylic acid (5CBT), a compound with mixed azole-carboxylic functions.The reactivity of the inhibitors with synthetic mineral phases representative of corrosion products as well as ancient corroded samples (100 years) before and after 6-months outdoor exposure have been investigated by combining observations at the nanoscale (TEM, FIB-tomography) to those obtained at the microscale (Raman, SEM-EDS) and global/bulk observations (colour, surface tension, XRD). Additional experiments in marked environment allowed to investigate changes in permeability (D₂O immersion) and the evolution of passive behavior (KBr immersion).Two reaction mechanisms have been observed and a relationship with the efficiency and durability of the inhibition is proposed. The molecules BTAH and 5CBT interaction with copper atoms occurs via the azole function and both molecules react according to an adsorption-precipitation mechanism forming an adsorbed amorphous complex (nanometric film) on the substrate mineral phase (cuprite and brochantite). The two treatments on the ancient corrosion layers differ for their depth of penetration, with Cu-BTAH complex formation being detected until the cuprite inner layer, while 5CBT complexation is observed only in the outer part of the brochantite. This has an impact on the water permeability and passivity, with the BTAH treatments showing the best results, and suggests a complex formation with the outer cuprite layer in this last treatment. The carboxylic function in HC10 leads to the precipitation of copper decanoate by a dissolution-precipitation mechanism. Crystals of decanoate are formed on the outer surface of brochantite: this confers near super-hydrophobicity to the sample after treatment. However, the lack of bond between the precipitate and the surface determines the loss of the surface-deposited hydrophobic layer after 6 months of outdoor exposure.In addition to these phenomenological results, a new methodology based on the KBr experiment for testing inhibitors for copper corroded artefacts is also proposed.

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    Authors: Saint-Raymond, Léa; Métraux, Maxime Georges;

    Sequestered by the French State as an "enemy asset" in 1944, Kojiro Matsukata’s collection was used as a national showcase through exhibitions until 1958. Few catalogues were transparent as to the works’ provenance from the collection. When we map and visualize this historical information, a significant contrast appears between the “real” circulation of artworks, as recorded in governmental archives, and the "official" circulation listed in catalogues. This discrepancy points to a propaganda effort in such a way as to bolster an artistic narrative that was key to French national pride, and studying it can further explain why the French decided to retain certain artworks for their own public collections and to “gift” the others back to Japan.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Purdue E-Scholararrow_drop_down
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    Purdue E-Scholar
    Other literature type . 2019
    Data sources: Purdue E-Scholar
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    Hyper Article en Ligne
    Other literature type . 2019
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    Authors: Shang, Guokan;

    Grâce aux progrès impressionnants qui ont été réalisés dans la transcription du langage parlé, il est de plus en plus possible d'exploiter les données transcrites pour des tâches qui requièrent la compréhension de ce que l'on dit dans une conversation. Le travail présenté dans cette thèse, réalisé dans le cadre d'un projet consacré au développement d'un assistant de réunion, contribue aux efforts en cours pour apprendre aux machines à comprendre les dialogues des réunions multipartites. Nous nous sommes concentrés sur le défi de générer automatiquement les résumés abstractifs de réunion.Nous présentons tout d'abord nos résultats sur le Résumé Abstractif de Réunion (RAR), qui consiste à prendre une transcription de réunion comme entrée et à produire un résumé abstractif comme sortie. Nous introduisons une approche entièrement non-supervisée pour cette tâche, basée sur la compression multi-phrases et la maximisation sous-modulaire budgétisée. Nous tirons également parti des progrès récents en vecteurs de mots et dégénérescence de graphes appliqués au TAL, afin de prendre en compte les connaissances sémantiques extérieures et de concevoir de nouvelles mesures de diversité et d'informativité.Ensuite, nous discutons de notre travail sur la Classification en Actes de Dialogue (CAD), dont le but est d'attribuer à chaque énoncé d'un discours une étiquette qui représente son intention communicative. La CAD produit des annotations qui sont utiles pour une grande variété de tâches, y compris le RAR. Nous proposons une couche neuronale modifiée de Champ Aléatoire Conditionnel (CAC) qui prend en compte non seulement la séquence des énoncés dans un discours, mais aussi les informations sur les locuteurs et en particulier, s'il y a eu un changement de locuteur d'un énoncé à l'autre.La troisième partie de la thèse porte sur la Détection de Communauté Abstractive (DCA), une sous-tâche du RAR, dans laquelle les énoncés d'une conversation sont regroupés selon qu'ils peuvent être résumés conjointement par une phrase abstractive commune. Nous proposons une nouvelle approche de la DCA dans laquelle nous introduisons d'abord un encodeur neuronal contextuel d'énoncé qui comporte trois types de mécanismes d'auto-attention, puis nous l'entraînons en utilisant les méta-architectures siamoise et triplette basées sur l'énergie. Nous proposons en outre une méthode d'échantillonnage générale qui permet à l'architecture triplette de capturer des motifs subtils (p. ex., des groupes qui se chevauchent et s'emboîtent). With the impressive progress that has been made in transcribing spoken language, it is becoming increasingly possible to exploit transcribed data for tasks that require comprehension of what is said in a conversation. The work in this dissertation, carried out in the context of a project devoted to the development of a meeting assistant, contributes to ongoing efforts to teach machines to understand multi-party meeting speech. We have focused on the challenge of automatically generating abstractive meeting summaries.We first present our results on Abstractive Meeting Summarization (AMS), which aims to take a meeting transcription as input and produce an abstractive summary as output. We introduce a fully unsupervised framework for this task based on multi-sentence compression and budgeted submodular maximization. We also leverage recent advances in word embeddings and graph degeneracy applied to NLP, to take exterior semantic knowledge into account and to design custom diversity and informativeness measures.Next, we discuss our work on Dialogue Act Classification (DAC), whose goal is to assign each utterance in a discourse a label that represents its communicative intention. DAC yields annotations that are useful for a wide variety of tasks, including AMS. We propose a modified neural Conditional Random Field (CRF) layer that takes into account not only the sequence of utterances in a discourse, but also speaker information and in particular, whether there has been a change of speaker from one utterance to the next.The third part of the dissertation focuses on Abstractive Community Detection (ACD), a sub-task of AMS, in which utterances in a conversation are grouped according to whether they can be jointly summarized by a common abstractive sentence. We provide a novel approach to ACD in which we first introduce a neural contextual utterance encoder featuring three types of self-attention mechanisms and then train it using the siamese and triplet energy-based meta-architectures. We further propose a general sampling scheme that enables the triplet architecture to capture subtle patterns (e.g., overlapping and nested clusters).

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    Other literature type . 2021
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    Doctoral thesis . 2021
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      Other literature type . 2021
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      Doctoral thesis . 2021
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    Authors: Štular, Benjamin; Lozić, Edisa; Eichert, Stefan;

    International audience; The use of topographic airborne LiDAR data has become an essential part of archaeological prospection, and the need for an archaeology-specific data processing workflow is well known. It is therefore surprising that little attention has been paid to the key element of processing: an archaeology-specific DEM. Accordingly, the aim of this paper is to describe an archaeology-specific DEM in detail, provide a tool for its automatic precision assessment, and determine the appropriate grid resolution. We define an archaeology-specific DEM as a subtype of DEM, which is interpolated from ground points, buildings, and four morphological types of archaeological features. We introduce a confidence map (QGIS plug-in) that assigns a confidence level to each grid cell. This is primarily used to attach a confidence level to each archaeological feature, which is useful for detecting data bias in archaeological interpretation. Confidence mapping is also an effective tool for identifying the optimal grid resolution for specific datasets. Beyond archaeological applications, the confidence map provides clear criteria for segmentation, which is one of the unsolved problems of DEM interpolation. All of these are important steps towards the general methodological maturity of airborne LiDAR in archaeology, which is our ultimate goal.; L'utilisation de données LiDAR aéroportées topographiques est devenue un élément essentiel de la prospection archéologique, et la nécessité d'un flux de travail de traitement des données spécifique à l'archéologie est bien connue. Il est donc surprenant que peu d'attention ait été accordée à l'élément clé du traitement: un MNE spécifique à l'archéologie. En conséquence, le but de cet article est de décrire en détail un MNE spécifique à l'archéologie, de fournir un outil pour son évaluation automatique de la précision et de déterminer la résolution de grille appropriée. Nous définissons un DEM spécifique à l'archéologie comme un sous-type de DEM, qui est interpolé à partir de points au sol, de bâtiments et de quatre types morphologiques de caractéristiques archéologiques. Nous introduisons une carte de confiance (plug-in QGIS) qui attribue un niveau de confiance à chaque cellule de la grille. Ceci est principalement utilisé pour attacher un niveau de confiance à chaque caractéristique archéologique, ce qui est utile pour détecter les biais de données dans l'interprétation archéologique. La cartographie de confiance est également un outil efficace pour identifier la résolution de grille optimale pour des ensembles de données spécifiques. Au-delà des applications archéologiques, la carte de confiance fournit des critères clairs pour la segmentation, qui est l'un des problèmes non résolus de l'interpolation DEM. Tous ces éléments sont des étapes importantes vers la maturité méthodologique générale du LiDAR aéroporté en archéologie, qui est notre objectif ultime.

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    Remote Sensing
    Article . 2021
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    Authors: Gelati, Francesco;

    The European Holocaust Research Infrastructure (EHRI) portal website aims to aggregate digitally available archival descriptions concerning the Holocaust. This portal is actually a meta-catalogue, or an information aggregator, whose biggest goal is to have up-to-date information by means of building sustainable data pipelines between EHRI and its content providers. Just like in similar archival information aggregators (e.g. Archives Portal Europe or Monasterium), the XML-based metadata standard Encoded Archival Description (EAD) plays a key role. The article presents how EADs are imported into the portal, mainly thanks to the Open Archive Initiative protocols.

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    ZENODO
    Part of book or chapter of book . 2019
    License: CC BY
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    ZENODO
    Part of book or chapter of book . 2019
    License: CC BY
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      ZENODO
      Part of book or chapter of book . 2019
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      ZENODO
      Part of book or chapter of book . 2019
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Datacite
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