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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: M. P. A. van den Ende; J.-P. Ampuero;

    The versatility and cost efficiency of fibre-optic distributed acoustic sensing (DAS) technologies facilitate geophysical monitoring in environments that were previously inaccessible for instrumentation. Moreover, the spatio-temporal data density permitted by DAS naturally appeals to seismic array processing techniques, such as beamforming for source location. However, the measurement principle of DAS is inherently different from that of conventional seismometers, providing measurements of ground strain rather than ground motion, and so the suitability of traditional seismological methods requires in-depth evaluation. In this study, we evaluate the performance of a DAS array in the task of seismic beamforming, in comparison with a co-located nodal seismometer array. We find that, even though the nodal array achieves excellent performance in localising a regional ML 4.3 earthquake, the DAS array exhibits poor waveform coherence and consequently produces inadequate beamforming results that are dominated by the signatures of shallow scattered waves. We demonstrate that this behaviour is likely inherent to the DAS measurement principle, and so new strategies need to be adopted to tailor array processing techniques to this emerging measurement technology. One strategy demonstrated here is to convert the DAS strain rates to particle velocities by spatial integration using the nodal seismometer recordings as a reference, which dramatically improves waveform coherence and beamforming performance and warrants new types of “hybrid” array design that combine dense DAS arrays with sparse seismometer arrays.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Solid Earth (SE)arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Solid Earth (SE)
    Article . 2021
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Solid Earth (SE)arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Solid Earth (SE)
      Article . 2021
      Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Leplongeon, Alice;

    During the Nubia Salvage Campaign and the subsequent expeditions from the 1960's to the 1980's, numerous sites attributed to the Late Palaeolithic (~25-15 ka) were found in the Nile Valley, particularly in Nubia and Upper Egypt. This region is one of the few to have allowed human occupations during the dry Marine Isotope Stage 2 and is therefore key to understanding how human populations adapted to environmental changes at this time. This paper focuses on two sites located in Upper Egypt, excavated by the Combined Prehistoric Expedition: E71K18, attributed to the Afian industry and E71K20, attributed to the Silsilian industry. It aims to review the geomorphological and chronological evidence of the sites, present a technological analysis of the lithic assemblages in order to provide data that can be used in detailed comparative studies, which will allow discussion of technological variability in the Late Palaeolithic of the Nile Valley and its place within the regional context. The lithic analysis relies on the chaîne opératoire concept combined with an attribute analysis to allow quantification. This study (1) casts doubts on the chronology of E71K18 and related Afian industry, which could be older or younger than previously suggested, highlights (2) distinct technological characteristics for the Afian and the Silsilian, as well as (3) similar technological characteristics which allow to group them under a same broad techno-cultural complex, distinct from those north or south of the area. ispartof: PLOS ONE vol:12 issue:12 ispartof: location:United States status: published

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2017
    Data sources: PubMed Central
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Lirias
    Article . 2017
    Data sources: Lirias
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    PLoS ONE
    Article . 2017
    Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Kiel, Steffen; Glodny, Johannes; Birgel, Daniel; Bulot, Luc G.; +7 Authors

    Modern and Cenozoic deep-sea hydrothermal-vent and methane-seep communities are dominated by large tubeworms, bivalves and gastropods. In contrast, many Early Cretaceous seep communities were dominated by the largest Mesozoic rhynchonellid brachiopod, the dimerelloid Peregrinella, the paleoecologic and evolutionary traits of which are still poorly understood. We investigated the nature of Peregrinella based on 11 occurrences world wide and a literature survey. All in situ occurrences of Peregrinella were confirmed as methane-seep deposits, supporting the view that Peregrinella lived exclusively at methane seeps. Strontium isotope stratigraphy indicates that Peregrinella originated in the late Berriasian and disappeared after the early Hauterivian, giving it a geologic range of ca. 9.0 (+1.45/-0.85) million years. This range is similar to that of rhynchonellid brachiopod genera in general, and in this respect Peregrinella differs from seep-inhabiting mollusks, which have, on average, longer geologic ranges than marine mollusks in general. Furthermore, we found that (1) Peregrinella grew to larger sizes at passive continental margins than at active margins; (2) it grew to larger sizes at sites with diffusive seepage than at sites with advective fluid flow; (3) despite its commonly huge numerical abundance, its presence had no discernible impact on the diversity of other taxa at seep sites, including infaunal chemosymbiotic bivalves; and (4) neither its appearance nor its extinction coincides with those of other seep-restricted taxa or with global extinction events during the late Mesozoic. A preference of Peregrinella for diffusive seepage is inferred from the larger average sizes of Peregrinella at sites with more microcrystalline carbonate (micrite) and less seep cements. Because other seep-inhabiting brachiopods occur at sites where such cements are very abundant, we speculate that the various vent- and seep-inhabiting dimerelloid brachiopods since Devonian time may have adapted to these environments in more than one way. Open-Access-Publikationsfonds 2014

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2014
    Data sources: PubMed Central
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    PLoS ONE
    Article . 2014
    Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    GEO-LEO e-docs
    Article . 2014
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: GEO-LEO e-docs
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2014
      Data sources: PubMed Central
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      PLoS ONE
      Article . 2014
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      GEO-LEO e-docs
      Article . 2014
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: GEO-LEO e-docs
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Chevrier, Benoît; Lespez, Laurent; Lebrun, Brice; Garnier, Aline; +7 Authors

    International audience; The end of the Palaeolithic represents one of the least-known periods in the history of western Africa, both in terms of its chronology and the identification of cultural assemblages entities based on the typo-technical analyses of its industries. In this context, the site of Fatandi V offers new data to discuss the cultural pattern during the Late Stone Age in western Africa. Stratigraphic, taphonomical and sedimentological analyses show the succession of three sedimentary units. Several concentrations with rich lithic material were recognized. An in situ occupation, composed of bladelets, segments, and bladelet and flake cores, is confirmed while others concentrations of lithic materials have been more or less disturbed by erosion and pedogenic post-depositional processes. The sequence is well-dated from 12 convergent OSL dates. Thanks to the dating of the stratigraphic units and an OSL date from the layer (11,300-9,200 BCE [13.3-11.2 ka at 68%, 14.3-10.3 ka at 95%]), the artefacts are dated to the end of Pleistocene or Early Holocene. Palaeoenvironmental data suggest that the settlement took place within a mosaic environment and more precisely at the transition between the open landscape of savanna on the glacis and the plateau, and the increasingly densely-wooded alluvial corridor. These humid areas must have been particularly attractive during the dry season by virtue of their rich resources (raw materials, water, trees, and bushes). The Fatandi V site constitutes the first stratified site of the Pleistocene/Holocene boundary in Senegal with both precise geochronological and palaeoenvironmental data. It complements perfectly the data already obtained in Mali and in the rest of western Africa, and thus constitutes a reference point for this period. In any case, the assemblage of Fatandi V, with its bladelets and segments and in the absence of ceramics and grinding material, fits with a cultural group using exclusively geometric armatures which strongly differs from another group characterized by the production of bifacial armatures, accompanied in its initial phase by ceramics (or stoneware) and grinding material.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2020
    Data sources: PubMed Central
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    PLoS ONE
    Article . 2020
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2020
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      PLoS ONE
      Article . 2020
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    Authors: Tressaud, Alain;

    International audience; Advances in Fluorine Science is a new book series presenting critical multidisciplinary overviews on areas in which fluorine and fluoride compounds have a decisive impact. The individual volumes of Advances in Fluorine Science are thematic, addressing comprehensively both the science and applications on topics including the Environment, Green chemistry, Medicine, Health & Life Sciences, New Technologies & Materials Science, Energy and the Earth Sciences.In the present volume, the key-position of fluoro-products in agriculture is reviewed, since a large percentage of agro-chemicals and pesticides contain at least one fluorine atom. However, improvements in the use of fluorine-based products in agrochemicals cannot be developed without taking into consideration a safer environment, on both levels of greener synthesis routes and a reduction of the negative impact on plants and organisms. Within this scope, fluorine has a very peculiar place, since its high reactivity yields several advantages, for instance in by-passing various polluting multi-step reactions.Fluorine-based materials are reviewed as efficient tools for protecting our cultural heritage. Also using up-to-date techniques such as ion beam analysis, this element can help relative dating applications, ranging from burial durations of archaeological bones and teeth to the determination of exposure ages of meteorites on the Antarctic ice shield.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Oskar Bordeauxarrow_drop_down
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    Oskar Bordeaux
    Book . 2006
    Data sources: Oskar Bordeaux
    Hal-Diderot
    Book . 2006
    Data sources: Hal-Diderot
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: E. Qorbani; E. Qorbani; D. Zigone; M. R. Handy; +1 Authors

    We study the crustal structure under the Eastern and Southern Alps using ambient noise tomography. We use cross-correlations of ambient seismic noise between pairs of 71 permanent stations and 19 stations of the Eastern Alpine Seismic Investigation (EASI) profile to derive new 3D shear velocity models for the crust. Continuous records from 2014 and 2015 are cross-correlated to estimate Green's functions of Rayleigh and Love waves propagating between the station pairs. Group velocities extracted from the cross-correlations are inverted to obtain isotropic 3D Rayleigh- and Love-wave shear-wave velocity models. Our models image several velocity anomalies and contrasts and reveal details of the crustal structure. Velocity variations at short periods correlate very closely with the lithologies of tectonic units at the surface and projected to depth. Low-velocity zones, associated with the Po and Molasse sedimentary basins, are imaged well to the south and north of the Alps, respectively. We find large high-velocity zones associated with the crystalline basement that forms the core of the Tauern Window. Small-scale velocity anomalies are also aligned with geological units of the Austroalpine nappes. Clear velocity contrasts in the Tauern Window along vertical cross sections of the velocity model show the depth extent of the tectonic units and their bounding faults. A mid-crustal velocity contrast is interpreted as a manifestation of intracrustal decoupling in the Eastern Alps that accommodated eastward escape of the Alcapa block.

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    Solid Earth (SE)
    Article . 2020
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    Authors: Vernier, Martin;

    This paper is intending to give a descriptive account of four sites from Central Ladakh that nearby inhabitants consider to be ancient open-air gold mines and, in so doing, tries to link some physical remains with what the legend of the ants, inherited from Antiquity, may be interpreted as meaning. The point here is not to add another page to the tale, but rather to point to some possible archaeological evidence supporting the fact that Ladakh might well be considered as a possible location of origin for these gold-related tales. Ces notes proposent un compte rendu descriptif de quatre sites du Ladakh central que les habitants considèrent comme d’anciennes mines d’or et tentent ainsi un rapprochement entre vestiges archéologiques et la légende des fourmis chercheuses d’or héritée de l’Antiquité. Plutôt qu’une nouvelle page de ce mythe persistant de l’ouest himalayen, la démarche tente donc, sur la base d’évidences archéologiques, de démontrer que le Ladakh pourrait bien être considéré comme un possible lieu d’origine de cette légende aux accents d’eldorado.

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    Article . 2020
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      Article . 2020
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    Authors: Daujeard, C.; Geraads, Denis; Gallotti, Rosalia; Lefèvre, David; +3 Authors

    International audience; In many Middle Pleistocene sites, the co-occurrence of hominins with carnivores, who both contributed to faunal accumulations, suggests competition for resources as well as for living spaces. Despite this, there is very little evidence of direct interaction between them to-date. Recently, a human femoral diaphysis has been recognized in SouthWest of Casablanca (Morocco), in the locality called Thomas Quarry I. This site is famous for its Middle Pleisto-cene fossil hominins considered representatives of Homo rhodesiensis. The bone was discovered in Unit 4 of the Grotte à Hominidés (GH), dated to c. 500 ky and was associated with Acheulean artefacts and a rich mammalian fauna. Anatomically, it fits well within the group of known early Middle Pleistocene Homo, but its chief point of interest is that the diaphyseal ends display numerous tooth marks showing that it had been consumed shortly after death by a large carnivore, probably a hyena. This bone represents the first evidence of consumption of human remains by carnivores in the cave. Whether predated or scav-enged, this chewed femur indicates that humans were a resource for carnivores, underlining their close relationships during the Middle Pleistocene in Atlantic Morocco.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2016
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    Article . 2016
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    Authors: Bertini, Adele; Sadori, Laura; Combourieu-Nebout, Nathalie; Donders, Timme H.; +14 Authors

    Lake Ohrid (Balkan peninsula) is the oldest European extant lake and one of the deepest and largest. Such a unique, terrestrial natural archive is especially relevant for both paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic reconstructions but also for genetic studies. In the frame of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP), a deep drilling campaign was carried out within the scope of the Scientific Collaboration on Past Speciation Conditions in Lake Ohrid (SCOPSCO) project in 2013. Here, we present the summary of palynological analyses carried out in the upper 200 m of the overall 569 m long DEEP site sediment succession from the central part of the lake. These studies, performed by an international palynological team, document the main floristic, vegetation and climate changes during the last ca 500 kyr, at a millennial-scale resolution (~1.6 kyr). The continuous sediment infill permitted to trace multiple non-forested/ forested phases as a response to Glacial/Interglacial cycles as well as to sub-Milankovitch climate changes. The pollen record, corresponding with marine isotope stages MIS 13 to MIS 1, points to a progressive change from cooler and wetter to warmer and drier interglacials. New palynological studies are underway to reconstruct vegetational and climatic conditions over older intervals as well as to obtain high resolution data for some key intervals such as MIS 5-6, MIS 11-12, MIS 35-42. The complete record of changes in flora composition and vegetation during both glacials and interglacials will furnish indispensable insights for understanding the role of refugia, ecosystem resilience and maintenance of terrestrial biodiversity in the Mediterranean area.

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    Article . 2016
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      Article . 2016
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    Authors: Bentley, Michael,; Cofaigh, Colm,; Anderson, John,; Conway, Howard; +73 Authors

    The Weddell Sea sector is one of the main formation sites for Antarctic Bottom Water and an outlet for about one fifth of Antarctica’s continental ice volume. Over the last few decades, studies on glacialegeological records in this sector have provided conflicting reconstructions of changes in ice-sheet extent and ice-sheet thickness since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM at ca 23e19 calibrated kiloyears before present, cal ka BP). Terrestrial geomorphological records and exposure ages obtained from rocks in the hinterland of the Weddell Sea, ice-sheet thickness constraints from ice cores and some radiocarbon dates on offshore sediments were interpreted to indicate no significant ice thickening and locally restricted grounding-line advance at the LGM. Other marine geological and geophysical studies concluded that subglacial bedforms mapped on theWeddell Sea continental shelf, subglacial deposits and sediments over-compacted by overriding ice recovered in cores, and the few available radiocarbon ages from marine sediments are consistent with major ice-sheet advance at the LGM. Reflecting the geological interpretations, different icesheet models have reconstructed conflicting LGM ice-sheet configurations for the Weddell Sea sector. Consequently, the estimated contributions of ice-sheet build-up in the Weddell Sea sector to the LGM sealevel low-stand of w130 m vary considerably. In this paper, we summarise and review the geological records of past ice-sheet margins and past icesheet elevations in the Weddell Sea sector. We compile marine and terrestrial chronological data constraining former ice-sheet size, thereby highlighting different levels of certainty, and present two alternative scenarios of the LGM ice-sheet configuration, including time-slice reconstructions for post- LGM grounding-line retreat. Moreover, we discuss consistencies and possible reasons for inconsistencies between the various reconstructions and propose objectives for future research. The aim of our study is to provide two alternative interpretations of glacialegeological datasets on Antarctic Ice- Sheet History for the Weddell Sea sector, which can be utilised to test and improve numerical icesheet models

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    Article . 2014
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    Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    Authors: M. P. A. van den Ende; J.-P. Ampuero;

    The versatility and cost efficiency of fibre-optic distributed acoustic sensing (DAS) technologies facilitate geophysical monitoring in environments that were previously inaccessible for instrumentation. Moreover, the spatio-temporal data density permitted by DAS naturally appeals to seismic array processing techniques, such as beamforming for source location. However, the measurement principle of DAS is inherently different from that of conventional seismometers, providing measurements of ground strain rather than ground motion, and so the suitability of traditional seismological methods requires in-depth evaluation. In this study, we evaluate the performance of a DAS array in the task of seismic beamforming, in comparison with a co-located nodal seismometer array. We find that, even though the nodal array achieves excellent performance in localising a regional ML 4.3 earthquake, the DAS array exhibits poor waveform coherence and consequently produces inadequate beamforming results that are dominated by the signatures of shallow scattered waves. We demonstrate that this behaviour is likely inherent to the DAS measurement principle, and so new strategies need to be adopted to tailor array processing techniques to this emerging measurement technology. One strategy demonstrated here is to convert the DAS strain rates to particle velocities by spatial integration using the nodal seismometer recordings as a reference, which dramatically improves waveform coherence and beamforming performance and warrants new types of “hybrid” array design that combine dense DAS arrays with sparse seismometer arrays.

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      Article . 2021
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    Authors: Leplongeon, Alice;

    During the Nubia Salvage Campaign and the subsequent expeditions from the 1960's to the 1980's, numerous sites attributed to the Late Palaeolithic (~25-15 ka) were found in the Nile Valley, particularly in Nubia and Upper Egypt. This region is one of the few to have allowed human occupations during the dry Marine Isotope Stage 2 and is therefore key to understanding how human populations adapted to environmental changes at this time. This paper focuses on two sites located in Upper Egypt, excavated by the Combined Prehistoric Expedition: E71K18, attributed to the Afian industry and E71K20, attributed to the Silsilian industry. It aims to review the geomorphological and chronological evidence of the sites, present a technological analysis of the lithic assemblages in order to provide data that can be used in detailed comparative studies, which will allow discussion of technological variability in the Late Palaeolithic of the Nile Valley and its place within the regional context. The lithic analysis relies on the chaîne opératoire concept combined with an attribute analysis to allow quantification. This study (1) casts doubts on the chronology of E71K18 and related Afian industry, which could be older or younger than previously suggested, highlights (2) distinct technological characteristics for the Afian and the Silsilian, as well as (3) similar technological characteristics which allow to group them under a same broad techno-cultural complex, distinct from those north or south of the area. ispartof: PLOS ONE vol:12 issue:12 ispartof: location:United States status: published

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2017
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    Article . 2017
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    Article . 2017
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    Authors: Kiel, Steffen; Glodny, Johannes; Birgel, Daniel; Bulot, Luc G.; +7 Authors

    Modern and Cenozoic deep-sea hydrothermal-vent and methane-seep communities are dominated by large tubeworms, bivalves and gastropods. In contrast, many Early Cretaceous seep communities were dominated by the largest Mesozoic rhynchonellid brachiopod, the dimerelloid Peregrinella, the paleoecologic and evolutionary traits of which are still poorly understood. We investigated the nature of Peregrinella based on 11 occurrences world wide and a literature survey. All in situ occurrences of Peregrinella were confirmed as methane-seep deposits, supporting the view that Peregrinella lived exclusively at methane seeps. Strontium isotope stratigraphy indicates that Peregrinella originated in the late Berriasian and disappeared after the early Hauterivian, giving it a geologic range of ca. 9.0 (+1.45/-0.85) million years. This range is similar to that of rhynchonellid brachiopod genera in general, and in this respect Peregrinella differs from seep-inhabiting mollusks, which have, on average, longer geologic ranges than marine mollusks in general. Furthermore, we found that (1) Peregrinella grew to larger sizes at passive continental margins than at active margins; (2) it grew to larger sizes at sites with diffusive seepage than at sites with advective fluid flow; (3) despite its commonly huge numerical abundance, its presence had no discernible impact on the diversity of other taxa at seep sites, including infaunal chemosymbiotic bivalves; and (4) neither its appearance nor its extinction coincides with those of other seep-restricted taxa or with global extinction events during the late Mesozoic. A preference of Peregrinella for diffusive seepage is inferred from the larger average sizes of Peregrinella at sites with more microcrystalline carbonate (micrite) and less seep cements. Because other seep-inhabiting brachiopods occur at sites where such cements are very abundant, we speculate that the various vent- and seep-inhabiting dimerelloid brachiopods since Devonian time may have adapted to these environments in more than one way. Open-Access-Publikationsfonds 2014

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2014
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    Article . 2014
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