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248 Research products

  • Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage
  • 2019-2023
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  • Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: M. P. A. van den Ende; J.-P. Ampuero;

    The versatility and cost efficiency of fibre-optic distributed acoustic sensing (DAS) technologies facilitate geophysical monitoring in environments that were previously inaccessible for instrumentation. Moreover, the spatio-temporal data density permitted by DAS naturally appeals to seismic array processing techniques, such as beamforming for source location. However, the measurement principle of DAS is inherently different from that of conventional seismometers, providing measurements of ground strain rather than ground motion, and so the suitability of traditional seismological methods requires in-depth evaluation. In this study, we evaluate the performance of a DAS array in the task of seismic beamforming, in comparison with a co-located nodal seismometer array. We find that, even though the nodal array achieves excellent performance in localising a regional ML 4.3 earthquake, the DAS array exhibits poor waveform coherence and consequently produces inadequate beamforming results that are dominated by the signatures of shallow scattered waves. We demonstrate that this behaviour is likely inherent to the DAS measurement principle, and so new strategies need to be adopted to tailor array processing techniques to this emerging measurement technology. One strategy demonstrated here is to convert the DAS strain rates to particle velocities by spatial integration using the nodal seismometer recordings as a reference, which dramatically improves waveform coherence and beamforming performance and warrants new types of “hybrid” array design that combine dense DAS arrays with sparse seismometer arrays.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Solid Earth (SE)arrow_drop_down
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    Solid Earth (SE)
    Article . 2021
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Solid Earth (SE)arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Solid Earth (SE)
      Article . 2021
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    Authors: Perez-Quintero, A. L.; Szurek, Boris;

    Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) from the genus Xanthomonas are proteins with the remarkable ability to directly bind the promoters of genes in the plant host to induce their expression, which often helps bacterial colonization. Metaphorically, TALEs act as spies that infiltrate the plant disguised as high-ranking civilians (transcription factors) to trick the plant into activating weak points that allow an invasion. Current knowledge of how TALEs operate allows researchers to predict their activity (counterespionage) and exploit their function, engineering them to do our bidding (a Manchurian agent). This has been possible thanks particularly to the discovery of their DNA binding mechanism, which obeys specific amino acid-DNA correspondences (the TALE code). Here, we review the history of how researchers discovered the way these proteins work and what has changed in the ten years since the discovery of the code. Recommended music for reading this review can be found in the Supplemental Material.

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    Horizon / Pleins textes
    Other literature type . 2019
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Horizon / Pleins tex...arrow_drop_down
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      Horizon / Pleins textes
      Other literature type . 2019
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    Authors: Alonso, Víctor L.;

    Au cours du xixe siècle, il y aura des jeux physiques sous forme de réminiscences, de relectures ou de nouvelles considérations. Ces jeux seront présents dans un tissu urbain en transformation, et leur acceptation sera ambiguë, selon qui les parraine, les légitime ou les pratique. La sociabilité qui en découle reflètera également cette réalité, en montrant une articulation complexe de formes et d’espaces quelque peu nouveaux. Ce travail entend montrer le développement de ces jeux et des formes de sociabilité qui leur sont associées, lesquels ont été intensément pratiqués aux îles Canaries, mais peu étudiés, en mettant l’accent sur les jeux physiques populaires, en particulier sur la lutte canarienne. Durante el siglo xix, habrá juegos físicos a modo de reminiscencias, relecturas, o nuevas consideraciones. Estarán presentes en un tejido urbano en transformación, y tendrán una consideración ambigua, dependiendo de quién los auspicie, legitime o practique. La sociabilidad vinculada también reflejará esa realidad, mostrando una compleja articulación de formas y espacios un tanto novedosa. Este trabajo pretende mostrar su desarrollo en Canarias, caracterizado por una intensa presencia, apenas tratada, para lo que incidiremos en los juegos físicos populares, especialmente en la lucha canaria. During the 19th century there will be physical plays as a reminiscence mode, rereading, or new additions. They will be present in a changing urban fabric, and will have an ambiguous consideration, depending on who sponsors, legitimizes or practices them. The sociability linked to those sports will also reflect that reality, showing a complex articulation of spaces and shapes, somewhat novel. This work aims to show its development in the Canary Islands, characterized by an intense presence, barely treated, for that we will focus on popular physical games, especially Canarian wrestling.

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    Authors: Lame M.; Pittet P.; Ponchio F.; Markhoff B.; +1 Authors

    In this paper, we present an online communication-driven decision support system to align terms from a dataset with terms of another dataset (standardized controlled vocabulary or not). Heterotoki differs from existing proposals in that it takes place at the interface with humans, inviting the experts to commit on their definitions, so as to either agree to validate the mapping or to propose some enrichment to the terminologies. More precisely, differently to most of existing proposals that support terminology alignment, Heterotoki sustains the negotiation of meaning thanks to semantic coordination support within its interface design. This negotiation involves domain experts having produced multiple datasets.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ CNR ExploRAarrow_drop_down
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    Conference object . 2019
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    ISTI Open Portal
    Conference object . 2019
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      ISTI Open Portal
      Conference object . 2019
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    Authors: Bardiot, Clarisse; Jacquemin, Bernard; Michaan, Alexandre; Westeel, Jeanne; +2 Authors

    International audience; Eulalie is an operational, open-source, and free information system dedicated to electroacoustic music to document and preserve works. It is based on the Doremus ontology. We propose adapting this ontology to the specific field of electroacoustic music and its implementation in a database (Heurist, in dialogue with Nakala to host the documents). The project was born in the context of Art Zoyd Studios, a center for musical creation. One of the missions is to preserve the repertoire of the XXth and XXIst century pieces involving electronics. The principles of interoperability and Open Data have guided the different choices made throughout the project. Thus, it is not only possible to make the Art Zoyd Studios information database's content interact with other music resources, but the system itself, Eulalie, can be used by other institutions facing problems similar to those of Art Zoyd Studios.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ ZENODOarrow_drop_down
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    ZENODO
    Article . 2023
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
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    ZENODO
    Conference object . 2023
    License: CC BY
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      ZENODO
      Article . 2023
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Ferrari, Erika;

    Le patrimoine métallique est un témoin culturel de notre passé et, pour cette raison, sa préservation et sa transmission aux générations futures sont importantes. Plusieurs stratégies sont utilisées pour la protection du patrimoine cuivreux exposée en extérieur, dont l’utilisation des inhibiteurs de corrosion organiques. Les inhibiteurs utilisés pour le patrimoine sont généralement empruntés au domaine de l’industrie. Cependant, l’état de surface du métal, couvert par des couches de produits de corrosion complexes, et le protocole d’application des inhibiteurs diffèrent considérablement de l’application industrielle.La présente étude porte spécifiquement sur les inhibiteurs de corrosion pour la conservation des artefacts exposés à base de cuivre par une approche physico-chimique innovante. L'approche prend en compte la complexité de la couche de corrosion étudiée : une plaque de cuivre naturellement corrodée, représentative de la corrosion extérieure à long terme a été choisie. Pour l'étude, trois molécules organiques, caractérisées par des fonctions chimiques différentes ont été sélectionnées comme inhibiteurs de test : le benzotriazole (BTAH), un composé azolé, employé en conservation, dont l'efficacité est débattue et l’utilisation déconseillée en raison de sa toxicité ; l'acide décanoïque (HC10) un acide gras à longue chaîne qui a été proposé comme traitement pour les objets patrimoniaux ; l'acide benzotriazole-5-carboxylique (5CBT), un composé à fonctions mixtes azole-carboxyliques. La réactivité des inhibiteurs avec des phases minérales synthétiques représentatives des produits de corrosion ainsi que des échantillons corrodés anciens (100 ans) avant et après 6 mois d'exposition extérieure ont été étudiées en combinant des observations à l'échelle nanométrique (MET, FIB-tomographie) à celles obtenues à l'échelle microscopique (Raman, MEB-EDS) et des observations globales/globales (couleur, tension de surface, XRD). Des expériences complémentaires en milieux marqués ont permis d'étudier les évolutions de perméabilité (immersion en D₂O) et de comportement passif (immersion KBr). Deux mécanismes réactionnels ont été observés et une relation avec l'efficacité et la durabilité de l'inhibition est proposée. Les molécules caractérisées par la fonction azole (BTAH et 5CBT) réagissent selon un mécanisme d'adsorption-précipitation formant un complexe amorphe adsorbé (film nanométrique) sur la phase minérale substrat (cuprite et brochantite). Les deux traitements sur les couches anciennes de corrosion diffèrent par leur profondeur de pénétration, la formation du complexe BTAH étant détectée jusqu'à la couche interne de cuprite, tandis que la complexation 5CBT n'est observée que dans la partie externe de la brochantite. Ceci a un impact sur la perméabilité de l'eau et la passivité pour les traitements au BTAH qui montrent les meilleurs résultats, et suggère une formation de complexe Cu-BTA sur la partie externe de la couche de cuprite dans ce dernier traitement. La fonction carboxylique dans HC10 conduit à la précipitation du décanoate de cuivre par un mécanisme de dissolution-précipitation. Des cristaux de décanoate se forment sur la surface externe de brochantite : cela confère une quasi-superhydrophobie à l'échantillon après traitement. Cependant, le manque de liaison chimique forte entre le précipité et la surface induit la perte de la couche hydrophobe déposée en surface après 6 mois d'exposition à l'extérieur.En plus de ces résultats phénoménologiques, une nouvelle méthodologie basée sur l'expérience KBr pour tester les inhibiteurs des artefacts corrodés par le cuivre est également proposée. Metallic heritage artefacts represent cultural traces of our past, and for this reason, their preservation and transmission to future generations is important. To protect copper-based artworks exposed outdoors, several conservation strategies are followed, including the use of organic corrosion inhibitors. Inhibitors are usually borrowed from the industrial field. However, the surface state of the metal with the presence of complex corrosion layers, and the protocol of inhibitors' application differ considerably from the industrial ones.The present study specifically addresses corrosion inhibitors for conservation of copper-based exposed artifacts by an innovative physico-chemical approach. The approach takes into account the complexity of the corrosion layer under investigation: a naturally corroded copper plate, representative for outdoor long-term corrosion have been chosen. For the study, three organic molecules, characterized by different chemical functions have been selected as test inhibitors: benzotriazole (BTAH), an azole compound, employed in conservation, which efficiency is debated and its use discouraged due to toxicity; decanoic acid (HC10) a long-chain fatty acid that has been proposed as treatment for heritage objects; benzotriazole-5-carboxylic acid (5CBT), a compound with mixed azole-carboxylic functions.The reactivity of the inhibitors with synthetic mineral phases representative of corrosion products as well as ancient corroded samples (100 years) before and after 6-months outdoor exposure have been investigated by combining observations at the nanoscale (TEM, FIB-tomography) to those obtained at the microscale (Raman, SEM-EDS) and global/bulk observations (colour, surface tension, XRD). Additional experiments in marked environment allowed to investigate changes in permeability (D₂O immersion) and the evolution of passive behavior (KBr immersion).Two reaction mechanisms have been observed and a relationship with the efficiency and durability of the inhibition is proposed. The molecules BTAH and 5CBT interaction with copper atoms occurs via the azole function and both molecules react according to an adsorption-precipitation mechanism forming an adsorbed amorphous complex (nanometric film) on the substrate mineral phase (cuprite and brochantite). The two treatments on the ancient corrosion layers differ for their depth of penetration, with Cu-BTAH complex formation being detected until the cuprite inner layer, while 5CBT complexation is observed only in the outer part of the brochantite. This has an impact on the water permeability and passivity, with the BTAH treatments showing the best results, and suggests a complex formation with the outer cuprite layer in this last treatment. The carboxylic function in HC10 leads to the precipitation of copper decanoate by a dissolution-precipitation mechanism. Crystals of decanoate are formed on the outer surface of brochantite: this confers near super-hydrophobicity to the sample after treatment. However, the lack of bond between the precipitate and the surface determines the loss of the surface-deposited hydrophobic layer after 6 months of outdoor exposure.In addition to these phenomenological results, a new methodology based on the KBr experiment for testing inhibitors for copper corroded artefacts is also proposed.

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    Authors: Saint-Raymond, Léa; Métraux, Maxime Georges;

    Sequestered by the French State as an "enemy asset" in 1944, Kojiro Matsukata’s collection was used as a national showcase through exhibitions until 1958. Few catalogues were transparent as to the works’ provenance from the collection. When we map and visualize this historical information, a significant contrast appears between the “real” circulation of artworks, as recorded in governmental archives, and the "official" circulation listed in catalogues. This discrepancy points to a propaganda effort in such a way as to bolster an artistic narrative that was key to French national pride, and studying it can further explain why the French decided to retain certain artworks for their own public collections and to “gift” the others back to Japan.

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    Other literature type . 2019
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    Hyper Article en Ligne
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    Authors: Desmond, A;

    It is the task of archaeologists to account for a wide range of cultural practises and processes using a limited range of surviving artefacts and features. In Palaeolithic contexts, organic materials such as leather goods (bags/pouches, shoes, clothing, slings, etc.) and woven fibre artefacts (baskets, cordage, textiles, etc.) are vastly underrepresented (Croes 1997, Soffer et al. 2000, Taylor 1966). How, then, can archaeologists working in great time depths account for artefacts crafted from leather and/or plant materials? One approach is the systematic examination of osseous tools: a preferred tool material for perishable craft production in cultures around the world. The aims of the following research were to apply new or novel inductive methods to prehistoric bone tools, in order to gain an enhanced understanding of their place(s) within the cultural repertoire of prehistoric groups, with an emphasis on perishable craft production. The basis for these analyses are bone tools from the North African Palaeolithic site of Taforalt, and ethnographic bone tools housed at the Phoebe A. Hearst Museum of Anthropology (PAHMA) and at the Pitt Rivers Museum (PRM). Investigations were organised using a chaîne opératoire approach (Leroi-Gourhan 1964, 1968). This approach encompasses the technical processes of bone tool creation and use, the tasks the bone tools were used to perform (and products they were used to produce), and ways in which information about bone tools can be shared in reproducible, high-fidelity formats. In the broadest sense, these methods have illuminated a number of formerly unknown cultural strategies and capacities among the Palaeolithic inhabitants of Taforalt. By studying bone tools from Taforalt, it was possible to understand intentionality in raw material selection, to see an emphasis on the creation of small, thin pointed tools, and to gain proxy evidence for coiled basketry production in the absence of the baskets themselves. These baskets, in turn, likely supported the collection, processing, cooking, and storage of food resources such as acorns, pine nuts, and snails. Crafted technologies would have enabled the population at Taforalt to maintain reliable food sources irrespective of seasonality, and to support an expanding population, in turn enabling people to continue to develop specialised cultural roles and technological forms. The ultimate goal of this research has been to understand whether bone tools can be used as proxy stand-ins for activities, technologies, and people who are otherwise archaeologically imperceptible, especially in the remote past. The following studies show that these methods, when applied to bone tools, can successfully scaffold a more nuanced understanding of prehistoric lifeways, and in particular, perishable craft production.

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    Authors: Abe, K.; Abe, S.; Alvarez-Crespo, N.; Conforti, V.; +196 Authors

    Galaxy clusters are expected to be dark matter (DM) reservoirs and storage rooms for the cosmic-ray protons (CRp) that accumulate along the cluster's formation history. Accordingly, they are excellent targets to search for signals of DM annihilation and decay at gamma-ray energies and are predicted to be sources of large-scale gamma-ray emission due to hadronic interactions in the intracluster medium. We estimate the sensitivity of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) to detect diffuse gamma-ray emission from the Perseus galaxy cluster. We perform a detailed spatial and spectral modelling of the expected signal for the DM and the CRp components. For each, we compute the expected CTA sensitivity. The observing strategy of Perseus is also discussed. In the absence of a diffuse signal (non-detection), CTA should constrain the CRp to thermal energy ratio within the radius $R_{500}$ down to about $X_{500}10^{27}$s for DM masses above 1 TeV. These constraints will provide unprecedented sensitivity to the physics of both CRp acceleration and transport at cluster scale and to TeV DM particle models, especially in the decay scenario. Comment: 93 pages (including author list, appendix and references), 143 figures. Submitted to JCAP

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    Authors: Marie, Florence;

    International audience; Traduction et notes de traduction d’un essai de Dorothy Richardson paru en 1925, dont le titre abrégé est « Women in the Arts ». La traduction est assortie d’un commentaire qui vise à montrer que ce texte annonce, même si c’est de façon fort peu développée, les idées que devaient mettre en avant Linda Nochlin et Griselda Pollock lorsqu’elles ont expliqué et analysé la prévalence et la ténacité du canon masculin.; A translation (together with notes) of an essay by Dorothy Richardson first published in 1925. The short title of the essay is “Women in the Arts”. The translation is followed by a commentary in which I try to show that the essay anticipates some of the ideas that Linda Nochlin and Griselda Pollock developed when they explained and analysed the hegemony and the persistence of the male canon.

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    Authors: M. P. A. van den Ende; J.-P. Ampuero;

    The versatility and cost efficiency of fibre-optic distributed acoustic sensing (DAS) technologies facilitate geophysical monitoring in environments that were previously inaccessible for instrumentation. Moreover, the spatio-temporal data density permitted by DAS naturally appeals to seismic array processing techniques, such as beamforming for source location. However, the measurement principle of DAS is inherently different from that of conventional seismometers, providing measurements of ground strain rather than ground motion, and so the suitability of traditional seismological methods requires in-depth evaluation. In this study, we evaluate the performance of a DAS array in the task of seismic beamforming, in comparison with a co-located nodal seismometer array. We find that, even though the nodal array achieves excellent performance in localising a regional ML 4.3 earthquake, the DAS array exhibits poor waveform coherence and consequently produces inadequate beamforming results that are dominated by the signatures of shallow scattered waves. We demonstrate that this behaviour is likely inherent to the DAS measurement principle, and so new strategies need to be adopted to tailor array processing techniques to this emerging measurement technology. One strategy demonstrated here is to convert the DAS strain rates to particle velocities by spatial integration using the nodal seismometer recordings as a reference, which dramatically improves waveform coherence and beamforming performance and warrants new types of “hybrid” array design that combine dense DAS arrays with sparse seismometer arrays.

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    Authors: Perez-Quintero, A. L.; Szurek, Boris;

    Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) from the genus Xanthomonas are proteins with the remarkable ability to directly bind the promoters of genes in the plant host to induce their expression, which often helps bacterial colonization. Metaphorically, TALEs act as spies that infiltrate the plant disguised as high-ranking civilians (transcription factors) to trick the plant into activating weak points that allow an invasion. Current knowledge of how TALEs operate allows researchers to predict their activity (counterespionage) and exploit their function, engineering them to do our bidding (a Manchurian agent). This has been possible thanks particularly to the discovery of their DNA binding mechanism, which obeys specific amino acid-DNA correspondences (the TALE code). Here, we review the history of how researchers discovered the way these proteins work and what has changed in the ten years since the discovery of the code. Recommended music for reading this review can be found in the Supplemental Material.

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    Horizon / Pleins textes
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      Other literature type . 2019
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    Authors: Alonso, Víctor L.;

    Au cours du xixe siècle, il y aura des jeux physiques sous forme de réminiscences, de relectures ou de nouvelles considérations. Ces jeux seront présents dans un tissu urbain en transformation, et leur acceptation sera ambiguë, selon qui les parraine, les légitime ou les pratique. La sociabilité qui en découle reflètera également cette réalité, en montrant une articulation complexe de formes et d’espaces quelque peu nouveaux. Ce travail entend montrer le développement de ces jeux et des formes de sociabilité qui leur sont associées, lesquels ont été intensément pratiqués aux îles Canaries, mais peu étudiés, en mettant l’accent sur les jeux physiques populaires, en particulier sur la lutte canarienne. Durante el siglo xix, habrá juegos físicos a modo de reminiscencias, relecturas, o nuevas consideraciones. Estarán presentes en un tejido urbano en transformación, y tendrán una consideración ambigua, dependiendo de quién los auspicie, legitime o practique. La sociabilidad vinculada también reflejará esa realidad, mostrando una compleja articulación de formas y espacios un tanto novedosa. Este trabajo pretende mostrar su desarrollo en Canarias, caracterizado por una intensa presencia, apenas tratada, para lo que incidiremos en los juegos físicos populares, especialmente en la lucha canaria. During the 19th century there will be physical plays as a reminiscence mode, rereading, or new additions. They will be present in a changing urban fabric, and will have an ambiguous consideration, depending on who sponsors, legitimizes or practices them. The sociability linked to those sports will also reflect that reality, showing a complex articulation of spaces and shapes, somewhat novel. This work aims to show its development in the Canary Islands, characterized by an intense presence, barely treated, for that we will focus on popular physical games, especially Canarian wrestling.

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    Authors: Lame M.; Pittet P.; Ponchio F.; Markhoff B.; +1 Authors

    In this paper, we present an online communication-driven decision support system to align terms from a dataset with terms of another dataset (standardized controlled vocabulary or not). Heterotoki differs from existing proposals in that it takes place at the interface with humans, inviting the experts to commit on their definitions, so as to either agree to validate the mapping or to propose some enrichment to the terminologies. More precisely, differently to most of existing proposals that support terminology alignment, Heterotoki sustains the negotiation of meaning thanks to semantic coordination support within its interface design. This negotiation involves domain experts having produced multiple datasets.

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      ISTI Open Portal
      Conference object . 2019
      Data sources: ISTI Open Portal
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    Authors: Bardiot, Clarisse; Jacquemin, Bernard; Michaan, Alexandre; Westeel, Jeanne; +2 Authors

    International audience; Eulalie is an operational, open-source, and free information system dedicated to electroacoustic music to document and preserve works. It is based on the Doremus ontology. We propose adapting this ontology to the specific field of electroacoustic music and its implementation in a database (Heurist, in dialogue with Nakala to host the documents). The project was born in the context of Art Zoyd Studios, a center for musical creation. One of the missions is to preserve the repertoire of the XXth and XXIst century pieces involving electronics. The principles of interoperability and Open Data have guided the different choices made throughout the project. Thus, it is not only possible to make the Art Zoyd Studios information database's content interact with other music resources, but the system itself, Eulalie, can be used by other institutions facing problems similar to those of Art Zoyd Studios.

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    ZENODO
    Article . 2023
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    Authors: Ferrari, Erika;

    Le patrimoine métallique est un témoin culturel de notre passé et, pour cette raison, sa préservation et sa transmission aux générations futures sont importantes. Plusieurs stratégies sont utilisées pour la protection du patrimoine cuivreux exposée en extérieur, dont l’utilisation des inhibiteurs de corrosion organiques. Les inhibiteurs utilisés pour le patrimoine sont généralement empruntés au domaine de l’industrie. Cependant, l’état de surface du métal, couvert par des couches de produits de corrosion complexes, et le protocole d’application des inhibiteurs diffèrent considérablement de l’application industrielle.La présente étude porte spécifiquement sur les inhibiteurs de corrosion pour la conservation des artefacts exposés à base de cuivre par une approche physico-chimique innovante. L'approche prend en compte la complexité de la couche de corrosion étudiée : une plaque de cuivre naturellement corrodée, représentative de la corrosion extérieure à long terme a été choisie. Pour l'étude, trois molécules organiques, caractérisées par des fonctions chimiques différentes ont été sélectionnées comme inhibiteurs de test : le benzotriazole (BTAH), un composé azolé, employé en conservation, dont l'efficacité est débattue et l’utilisation déconseillée en raison de sa toxicité ; l'acide décanoïque (HC10) un acide gras à longue chaîne qui a été proposé comme traitement pour les objets patrimoniaux ; l'acide benzotriazole-5-carboxylique (5CBT), un composé à fonctions mixtes azole-carboxyliques. La réactivité des inhibiteurs avec des phases minérales synthétiques représentatives des produits de corrosion ainsi que des échantillons corrodés anciens (100 ans) avant et après 6 mois d'exposition extérieure ont été étudiées en combinant des observations à l'échelle nanométrique (MET, FIB-tomographie) à celles obtenues à l'échelle microscopique (Raman, MEB-EDS) et des observations globales/globales (couleur, tension de surface, XRD). Des expériences complémentaires en milieux marqués ont permis d'étudier les évolutions de perméabilité (immersion en D₂O) et de comportement passif (immersion KBr). Deux mécanismes réactionnels ont été observés et une relation avec l'efficacité et la durabilité de l'inhibition est proposée. Les molécules caractérisées par la fonction azole (BTAH et 5CBT) réagissent selon un mécanisme d'adsorption-précipitation formant un complexe amorphe adsorbé (film nanométrique) sur la phase minérale substrat (cuprite et brochantite). Les deux traitements sur les couches anciennes de corrosion diffèrent par leur profondeur de pénétration, la formation du complexe BTAH étant détectée jusqu'à la couche interne de cuprite, tandis que la complexation 5CBT n'est observée que dans la partie externe de la brochantite. Ceci a un impact sur la perméabilité de l'eau et la passivité pour les traitements au BTAH qui montrent les meilleurs résultats, et suggère une formation de complexe Cu-BTA sur la partie externe de la couche de cuprite dans ce dernier traitement. La fonction carboxylique dans HC10 conduit à la précipitation du décanoate de cuivre par un mécanisme de dissolution-précipitation. Des cristaux de décanoate se forment sur la surface externe de brochantite : cela confère une quasi-superhydrophobie à l'échantillon après traitement. Cependant, le manque de liaison chimique forte entre le précipité et la surface induit la perte de la couche hydrophobe déposée en surface après 6 mois d'exposition à l'extérieur.En plus de ces résultats phénoménologiques, une nouvelle méthodologie basée sur l'expérience KBr pour tester les inhibiteurs des artefacts corrodés par le cuivre est également proposée. Metallic heritage artefacts represent cultural traces of our past, and for this reason, their preservation and transmission to future generations is important. To protect copper-based artworks exposed outdoors, several conservation strategies are followed, including the use of organic corrosion inhibitors. Inhibitors are usually borrowed from the industrial field. However, the surface state of the metal with the presence of complex corrosion layers, and the protocol of inhibitors' application differ considerably from the industrial ones.The present study specifically addresses corrosion inhibitors for conservation of copper-based exposed artifacts by an innovative physico-chemical approach. The approach takes into account the complexity of the corrosion layer under investigation: a naturally corroded copper plate, representative for outdoor long-term corrosion have been chosen. For the study, three organic molecules, characterized by different chemical functions have been selected as test inhibitors: benzotriazole (BTAH), an azole compound, employed in conservation, which efficiency is debated and its use discouraged due to toxicity; decanoic acid (HC10) a long-chain fatty acid that has been proposed as treatment for heritage objects; benzotriazole-5-carboxylic acid (5CBT), a compound with mixed azole-carboxylic functions.The reactivity of the inhibitors with synthetic mineral phases representative of corrosion products as well as ancient corroded samples (100 years) before and after 6-months outdoor exposure have been investigated by combining observations at the nanoscale (TEM, FIB-tomography) to those obtained at the microscale (Raman, SEM-EDS) and global/bulk observations (colour, surface tension, XRD). Additional experiments in marked environment allowed to investigate changes in permeability (D₂O immersion) and the evolution of passive behavior (KBr immersion).Two reaction mechanisms have been observed and a relationship with the efficiency and durability of the inhibition is proposed. The molecules BTAH and 5CBT interaction with copper atoms occurs via the azole function and both molecules react according to an adsorption-precipitation mechanism forming an adsorbed amorphous complex (nanometric film) on the substrate mineral phase (cuprite and brochantite). The two treatments on the ancient corrosion layers differ for their depth of penetration, with Cu-BTAH complex formation being detected until the cuprite inner layer, while 5CBT complexation is observed only in the outer part of the brochantite. This has an impact on the water permeability and passivity, with the BTAH treatments showing the best results, and suggests a complex formation with the outer cuprite layer in this last treatment. The carboxylic function in HC10 leads to the precipitation of copper decanoate by a dissolution-precipitation mechanism. Crystals of decanoate are formed on the outer surface of brochantite: this confers near super-hydrophobicity to the sample after treatment. However, the lack of bond between the precipitate and the surface determines the loss of the surface-deposited hydrophobic layer after 6 months of outdoor exposure.In addition to these phenomenological results, a new methodology based on the KBr experiment for testing inhibitors for copper corroded artefacts is also proposed.

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    Authors: Saint-Raymond, Léa; Métraux, Maxime Georges;

    Sequestered by the French State as an "enemy asset" in 1944, Kojiro Matsukata’s collection was used as a national showcase through exhibitions until 1958. Few catalogues were transparent as to the works’ provenance from the collection. When we map and visualize this historical information, a significant contrast appears between the “real” circulation of artworks, as recorded in governmental archives, and the "official" circulation listed in catalogues. This discrepancy points to a propaganda effort in such a way as to bolster an artistic narrative that was key to French national pride, and studying it can further explain why the French decided to retain certain artworks for their own public collections and to “gift” the others back to Japan.

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    Purdue E-Scholar
    Other literature type . 2019
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    Hyper Article en Ligne
    Other literature type . 2019
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    Authors: Desmond, A;

    It is the task of archaeologists to account for a wide range of cultural practises and processes using a limited range of surviving artefacts and features. In Palaeolithic contexts, organic materials such as leather goods (bags/pouches, shoes, clothing, slings, etc.) and woven fibre artefacts (baskets, cordage, textiles, etc.) are vastly underrepresented (Croes 1997, Soffer et al. 2000, Taylor 1966). How, then, can archaeologists working in great time depths account for artefacts crafted from leather and/or plant materials? One approach is the systematic examination of osseous tools: a preferred tool material for perishable craft production in cultures around the world. The aims of the following research were to apply new or novel inductive methods to prehistoric bone tools, in order to gain an enhanced understanding of their place(s) within the cultural repertoire of prehistoric groups, with an emphasis on perishable craft production. The basis for these analyses are bone tools from the North African Palaeolithic site of Taforalt, and ethnographic bone tools housed at the Phoebe A. Hearst Museum of Anthropology (PAHMA) and at the Pitt Rivers Museum (PRM). Investigations were organised using a chaîne opératoire approach (Leroi-Gourhan 1964, 1968). This approach encompasses the technical processes of bone tool creation and use, the tasks the bone tools were used to perform (and products they were used to produce), and ways in which information about bone tools can be shared in reproducible, high-fidelity formats. In the broadest sense, these methods have illuminated a number of formerly unknown cultural strategies and capacities among the Palaeolithic inhabitants of Taforalt. By studying bone tools from Taforalt, it was possible to understand intentionality in raw material selection, to see an emphasis on the creation of small, thin pointed tools, and to gain proxy evidence for coiled basketry production in the absence of the baskets themselves. These baskets, in turn, likely supported the collection, processing, cooking, and storage of food resources such as acorns, pine nuts, and snails. Crafted technologies would have enabled the population at Taforalt to maintain reliable food sources irrespective of seasonality, and to support an expanding population, in turn enabling people to continue to develop specialised cultural roles and technological forms. The ultimate goal of this research has been to understand whether bone tools can be used as proxy stand-ins for activities, technologies, and people who are otherwise archaeologically imperceptible, especially in the remote past. The following studies show that these methods, when applied to bone tools, can successfully scaffold a more nuanced understanding of prehistoric lifeways, and in particular, perishable craft production.