The continuing relevance of Woolf’s work in the contemporary era and the many works that have persistently been influenced, if not inspired, by her work cannot but be a matter of great wonder. After the collection published by A-M. Smith-Di Biasio and C. Davison (Contemporary Woolf, 2014), the Société d’études Woolfiennes continues to support those that try to untangle the many ways in which Woolf resonates with writers, artists and readers, contemporary or past, learned or common, and invite...
The specialty of clinical physiology was established in Finland about 20 years later than in Sweden. In the early 1960s, six physicians working mainly in preclinical departments of physiology were certified as specialists in clinical physiology. Many of the first specialists working in hospitals received specialist training in Sweden. The first hospital laboratories of clinical physiology were established in Tampere Central Hospital and Turku University Hospital in 1968. Thereafter, laboratories of clinical physiology were also established in Helsinki University Hospital and in Kuopio University Hospital and later also in most central hospitals. After clinical physiology laboratories were set up in hospitals and the number of specialists increased, the specialty gradually had more impact in clinical work. In the 1999 reform, nuclear medicine, which had previously been a subspecialty, was combined with clinical physiology. Arto Uusitalo was nominated the first professor of clinical physiology in Tampere University in 1984. The first professor in Helsinki University was Anssi Sovijärvi (1994), in Kuopio University Esko Länsimies (1998), and in Turku University Jaakko Hartiala (2003). Today, at four universities professors of clinical physiology and nuclear medicine lead research and medical education in this specialty. The hospital laboratories have modern equipment, which promotes multidisciplinary research with clinicians in fruitful collaboration. The Finnish Society of Clinical Physiology was founded in 1975. Today, it has about 160 members, about half of whom are specialists in the field. On its 40th anniversary, the Society decided to publish the history of clinical physiology in Finland. publishedVersion Peer reviewed
Publication . Article . Preprint . Review . Other literature type . 2022
H. E. Markus Meier; Madline Kniebusch; Christian Dieterich; Matthias Gröger; Eduardo Zorita; Ragnar Elmgren; Kai Myrberg; Markus Ahola; Alena Bartosova; Erik Bonsdorff; +37 more
H. E. Markus Meier; Madline Kniebusch; Christian Dieterich; Matthias Gröger; Eduardo Zorita; Ragnar Elmgren; Kai Myrberg; Markus Ahola; Alena Bartosova; Erik Bonsdorff; Florian Börgel; René Capell; Ida Carlén; Thomas Carlund; Jacob Carstensen; Ole Bøssing Christensen; Volker Dierschke; Claudia Frauen; Morten Frederiksen; Elie Gaget; Anders Galatius; Jari Haapala; Antti Halkka; Gustaf Hugelius; Birgit Hünicke; Jaak Jaagus; Mart Jüssi; Jukka Käyhkö; Nina Kirchner; Erik Kjellström; Karol Kuliński; Andreas Lehmann; Göran Lindström; Wilhelm May; Paul A. Miller; Volker Mohrholz; Bärbel Müller-Karulis; Diego Pavón-Jordán; Markus Quante; Marcus Reckermann; Anna Rutgersson; Oleg P. Savchuk; Martin Stendel; Laura Tuomi; Markku Viitasalo; Ralf Weisse; Wenyan Zhang;
Abstract. Based on the Baltic Earth Assessment Reports of this thematic issue in Earth System Dynamics and recent peer-reviewed literature, current knowledge of the effects of global warming on past and future changes in climate of the Baltic Sea region is summarised and assessed. The study is an update of the Second Assessment of Climate Change (BACC II) published in 2015 and focuses on the atmosphere, land, cryosphere, ocean, sediments, and the terrestrial and marine biosphere. Based on the summaries of the recent knowledge gained in palaeo-, historical, and future regional climate research, we find that the main conclusions from earlier assessments still remain valid. However, new long-term, homogenous observational records, for example, for Scandinavian glacier inventories, sea-level-driven saltwater inflows, so-called Major Baltic Inflows, and phytoplankton species distribution, and new scenario simulations with improved models, for example, for glaciers, lake ice, and marine food web, have become available. In many cases, uncertainties can now be better estimated than before because more models were included in the ensembles, especially for the Baltic Sea. With the help of coupled models, feedbacks between several components of the Earth system have been studied, and multiple driver studies were performed, e.g. projections of the food web that include fisheries, eutrophication, and climate change. New datasets and projections have led to a revised understanding of changes in some variables such as salinity. Furthermore, it has become evident that natural variability, in particular for the ocean on multidecadal timescales, is greater than previously estimated, challenging our ability to detect observed and projected changes in climate. In this context, the first palaeoclimate simulations regionalised for the Baltic Sea region are instructive. Hence, estimated uncertainties for the projections of many variables increased. In addition to the well-known influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation, it was found that also other low-frequency modes of internal variability, such as the Atlantic Multidecadal Variability, have profound effects on the climate of the Baltic Sea region. Challenges were also identified, such as the systematic discrepancy between future cloudiness trends in global and regional models and the difficulty of confidently attributing large observed changes in marine ecosystems to climate change. Finally, we compare our results with other coastal sea assessments, such as the North Sea Region Climate Change Assessment (NOSCCA), and find that the effects of climate change on the Baltic Sea differ from those on the North Sea, since Baltic Sea oceanography and ecosystems are very different from other coastal seas such as the North Sea. While the North Sea dynamics are dominated by tides, the Baltic Sea is characterised by brackish water, a perennial vertical stratification in the southern subbasins, and a seasonal sea ice cover in the northern subbasins.
Heredity is such a fundamental concept that it is hard to imagine a world where the connection between parents and offspring is not understood. Three hundred years ago thinking of the phenomenon of heredity bore on a cluster of distinct philosophical questions inherited from antiquity concerning the nature and origin of substances or beings that lacked biological meaning. We are reminded of this philosophical heritage by the fact that in the 18th century the study of reproduction, embryology and development was referred to as "the science of generation". It is now clear that reproduction, the biological process by which parents produce offspring, is a fundamental feature of all life on Earth. Heredity, the transmission of traits from parents to offspring via sexual or asexual reproduction, allows differences between individuals to accumulate and evolve through natural selection. Genetics is the study of heredity, and in particular, variation of fundamental units responsible for heredity. Ideas underlying this theory evolved in considerably different and unrelated ways across a number of knowledge domains, including philosophy, medicine, natural history, and breeding. The fusion of these different domains into a single comprehensive theory in 19th century biology was a historically and culturally interdependent process, thus examining genetic prehistory should unravel these entanglements. The major goal of our review is tracing the various threads of thought that gradually converged into our contemporary understanding of heredity. Peer reviewed
This paper provides information on different training models within clinical neuropsychology in Finland. Systematic specialization training program began in Finland in 1983. It was first organized mainly by the Finnish Neuropsychological Society and since 1997 by the Finnish universities. At present, close to 400 clinical neuropsychologists have completed the training. The number of professionals still does not cover the needs of the country (population 5.5 million, area 338,440 km2), and geographical disparities are a constant concern. The training models in Finland have changed over the years and will continue to evolve. Specialization training can be organized by national societies or by universities. It can lead to an academic degree or a diploma. It can be linked to doctoral studies or form a parallel track. Financial model can involve student fees or be governed by ministries (such as the Ministry of Education or Ministry of Health). This paper describes and compares different strategies in education that have impact on the output of professionals. One model does not fit all, or even one country at all times. The strategies of the stakeholder ministries can change over time. The experiences from Finland can be useful for other countries that are developing their models. The estimated need of practitioners and the educational resources including the available financial models for training differ between countries. The guiding principles in specialist training should focus on the advanced competencies expected from the neuropsychologist when entering the profession. publishedVersion Peer reviewed
The Victoria & Albert (V&A) Museum in London launched Explore the Collections in February 2021. This dynamic new platform was a project two years in the making. It’s an ambitious endeavor that brings together silos of information from the V&A’s collection, online editorial content, holdings from the National Art Library, and the museum archives.
Book review of The House of Fragile Things: Jewish Art Collectors and the Fall of France by James K. McAuley. Yale University Press, 2021. 301 p. ill. ISBN 978-0-300-23337-7 (h/c), $30.00. Reviewed January 2022 by Lee Sorensen, Librarian for Visual Studies and Dance, Duke University Libraries, firstname.lastname@example.org.
The Visionary Futures Collective (VFC) represents students, scholars and staff working in higher education or in academic-adjacent roles. All work in or around humanities disciplines, and are “increasing transparency, sharing vulnerability, and working collectively to imagine and create a better future for higher education.” One must dig a bit deeper to determine the specific challenges in higher education being referred to in the group’s mission statement. “Today Must be Sunday,” under “Our Projects,” then “News,” links to an online conversation that gives a sense of the challenges being referred to, along with the group’s desire to connect and collaborate online.