Contemporary critics and modern historians have both faulted the Albigensian Crusade, directed against heretics in the south of France, for weakening attempts to recover Jerusalem for Christendom in the early thirteenth century. This essay explores the competition between the Albigensian and Fifth Crusades. Placing these crusades alongside each other, this essay will examine the conversation between them. It is often charged that the armed and eventually royal effort against the Albigensian heretics drained French crusaders and resources from Pope Innocent III’s second great push from 1213 to recapture Jerusalem that eventually led to a negotiated settlement under Emperor Frederick II in 1229—the year of the capitulation of Count Raymond VII of Toulouse in the Treaty of Paris. Certainly the Albigensian Crusade played its part among the European conflicts which distracted potential crusaders from setting out for the Holy Land, but this picture is incomplete. In fact, the correlation between crusade preachers and crusaders who participated in the Albigensian Crusade and the Fifth Crusade suggests that the former may have indirectly strengthened participation in the latter. By contextualising contemporary criticism of the Albigensian Crusades in favour of the drive to the East and examining the participants in and timing of expeditions to the French Midi, Egypt, and Syria, this essay argues that the Albigensian Crusade reinforced as much as distracted from the Fifth Crusade.
International audience; The present work aims to develop a text summarisation system for financial texts with a focus on the fluidity of the target language. Linguistic analysis shows that the process of writing summaries should take into account not only terminological and collocational extraction, but also a range of linguistic material referred to here as the "support lexicon", that plays an important role in the cognitive organisation of the field. On this basis, this paper highlights the relevance of pre-training the CamemBERT model on a French financial dataset to extend its domainspecific vocabulary and fine-tuning it on extractive summarisation. We then evaluate the impact of textual data augmentation, improving the performance of our extractive text summarisation model by up to 6%-11%.
International audience; Section one presents a method of analysis developed over the years in order to model and visualise the evolution of architectural objects. The method combines a systematic description of transformations, qualification and classification of references, and visualisation tools that support reasoning tasks inside an object’s lifeline, and across the whole collection of objects. In this section some fundamental epistemological issues will be discussed (diachronic bias, intersubjectivity, historical criticism, etc.). Details will be given on the choices we made in order to describe architectural transformations and to cope with classic uncertainty problems (trustworthiness, precision, credibility, etc.). Section one is concluded by a chapter presenting the set of time-oriented data visualisations designed for section two of the catalogue, and by an overview of that catalogue’s general layout.; Rozdział pierwszy porusza podstawowe zagadnienia epistemologiczne związane z analizą ewolucji obiektów architektonicznych (analiza diachroniczna, intersubiektywność, krytyka historyczna, ...) i przedstawia opracowaną przez nas metodę. Poruszamy tu między innymi problem zróżnicowanej precyzji i wiarygodności danych historycznych, klasyfikację transformacji jakim podlegają obiekty architektoniczne, czy rolę wizualizacji w procesach analizy danych historycznych.
Publication . Article . Part of book or chapter of book . Preprint . Conference object . 2021
Although abbreviations are fairly common in handwritten sources, particularly in medieval and modern Western manuscripts, previous research dealing with computational approaches to their expansion is scarce. Yet abbreviations present particular challenges to computational approaches such as handwritten text recognition and natural language processing tasks. Often, pre-processing ultimately aims to lead from a digitised image of the source to a normalised text, which includes expansion of the abbreviations. We explore different setups to obtain such a normalised text, either directly, by training HTR engines on normalised (i.e., expanded, disabbreviated) text, or by decomposing the process into discrete steps, each making use of specialist models for recognition, word segmentation and normalisation. The case studies considered here are drawn from the medieval Latin tradition. Accompanying data available at: https://zenodo.org/record/5071964
Identifying the Breton lays in Middle English as a coherent corpus is a challenge for several reasons because they are rather difficult to distinguish from the romance genre. Very tellingly, in her contribution to the Cambridge History of Medieval English Literature dedicated to romance, Rosalind Field does not consider these lays as a separate group; rather, she inscribes most of them within the romance genre. In her analysis, there is no such subcategory as “Middle English Breton lays,” but instead short romances that occasionally resort to “the procedures of the Breton lai,” among which she mentions Sir Orfeo and Sir Launfal.1 Although she refers to features she deems characteristic of the Breton lais, such as “the formal brevity and the allure of Celtic magic,” she regards them as a tradition more than as a prescribed genre.2 My contention is precisely that in this particular case, generic markers consist of a well-informed inscription within a tradition of composition. Roughly speaking, the diversity of approaches— thematic, structural, or cultural3—yields two groups of poems, which vary depending on the critic. On the one hand, one may consider the lays that are undoubtedly of Breton descent, namely Lay Le Freine and Sir Launfal, both translated from lays by Marie de France. Sir Launfal is a palimpsest in its own right, as Colette Stevanovitch’s essay in this volume demonstrates.
International audience; The last phase of the nineteenth-century China was in a state of dramatic political instability, caused both by foreign aggression and internal troubles. The fall of the Qing dynasty seemed more and more likely, and the presence of the foreign (people, goods, ideas) on the imperial soil aroused confl icting reactions: shame and pride, the desire to emulate and the desire to rekindle "traditional" culture(s), as well as the evidence of the necessity of rapid modernization, at least in the technical fi eld. Stretched between these overlapping poles, cinema as a technical development and as a new form of entertainment appeared very quickly as a formidable way to get to know the West, as well as a medium to be appropriated by local standards. Early movies made by the Lumière Company were travelling to China, and it was easy to understand the clamor made by the depiction of contemporary Europe. La sortie des usines Lumière à Lyon (August and Louis Lumière, 1895), for example, is a manifestation of a scientifi c accomplishment of the West (a movie) and at the same time is showing where this new object was made (the camera factory): spectators could see men and women coming out of a modern (soon to be Fordist) industry, some of them riding bicycles. In The Last Emperor (1987) Bertolucci poetizes the seduction of the newly imported (foreign) innovation of locomotion. Audiences could be in awe of the epitome of the industrialization of Europe via an astonishing product of this progress, the movie projector. This scientifi c curiosity is displayed as an attraction: movies are shown in theatres, tea houses, expositions, and slowly contribute to the shaping of the fast-growing eastern metropolis via the building of ad hoc modern cinema theatres. The local public showed a desire to appropriate the representational device, linking it to the shadow puppetry that they used to appreciate. The debate is still ongoing to clarify how much the cultural appreciation of puppet theatre has been a source of inspiration for the adoption of the term yingxi fi rst, and dianying later. The former merges the "shadow (ying)" with the "spectacle (xi)," and the latter is a word that conjures ideas of electricity (therefore modernity) and the theatrical/traditional visual apparatus. As Emi-lie Yueh-yu Yeh states, the fi rst fi lm magazine used the title The Motion Picture Review ; 1 yet, in an article published in the very same review, she cautions readers in remembering that "Central to these dominant historiographical discourses lies the yingxi concept and its literal English translation 'shadow play.' " Scholars of Chinese fi lm history, in both China and the West, have adopted the ideas of yingxi and its translated twin "shadow play" to frame the reception of cinema in late 15 MASTERPIECES OF EARLY CINEMA Corrado Neri 15031-1823d-1Pass-r03.indd 205