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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Börjesson, Lisa;
    Publisher: TextRelease

    Professional (i.e. extra-academic) contract archaeology is an internationally widespread practice contributing significantly to the archaeology literature. However, professional knowledge production in archaeology, and most notably the professional report genre, is at times described as problematic. The problem descriptions are ambiguous and can be grouped under at least three different topics: concerns for content quality and practical accessibility, concerns for the comparably low degree of analytical and theoretical synthesizing in reports and concerns for lack of mutual knowledge transfer between academic archaeologists and professional archaeologists. Technical issues of access are to an increasing extent being solved. Format standardizations are also developing. Hence the report genre becomes more accessible, and the content more readable and informative. Yet articulations of attitudes toward the genre in archaeology text books and journal articles remain focused on the genre’s problems. The aim of my ongoing dissertation research is to nuance the understanding of the professional report genre in archaeology. I do so by analyzing factors shaping reporting as it takes place in the intersection between academic norms, professional values and market logics. I argue an improved genre understanding is crucial to diminish cultural issues of access to the report literature, and also as a basis for development of reporting practices. In the dissertation research I analyze (1) perceptions about the report genre in archaeology literature, (2) information policy regulating reporting in archaeology, (3) how report writers and county board professionals interpret the reporting and report auditing work tasks and (4) the frames of reference report writers bring into reporting. The aim of this paper is to explicate the research design consisting of four sub-studies, to briefly report on findings from study no. 4, and to discuss preliminary, partial results from study no. 2.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    McIsaac, Stephen Robert;
    Publisher: eScholarship, University of California
    Country: United States

    In contemporary South Africa, spatial segregation, racism, and economic exclusion remain trenchant features of everyday life twenty-five years after the end of apartheid. Based on twenty months of ethnographic research in the township of Khayelitsha and Cape Town more broadly, this dissertation tracks different post-apartheid approaches to mental health care, which attempt to address these ongoing legacies. Through extensive fieldwork at a community-based organization that provides therapeutic support in isiXhosa, I argue that therapeutic practices by black South Africans de-stabilize and experiment with the normative confines of the psychotherapeutic encounter. Rather than treat individual psyches, therapists’ practices are oriented toward the relational space between generations, a political therapeutic driven by the affective force of the therapists’ own history of struggle toward a different future for black youth, who continue to be marked by the legacies of colonialism and apartheid (what I call “generational care” throughout the dissertation). Second, I argue that normative psychology continues to assume a nuclear family configuration as the norm against which all pathology is judged and therapeutic interventions practiced. I suggest this is particularly so for theories of attachment and infant development, which assume that only a particular configuration of the family—biological parents who unconditionally care for a child in the same physical space as them—is productive of “stable” subjects later in life. By following the history of psychiatry in South Africa, narratives of care from mental health professionals working on the Cape Flats, as well as policy and research agendas, I track how discourses of “cultural difference” evade processes of racialization and consequential racisms in normative psychological theories and interventions. I argue that different practical and conceptual therapeutic experiments are necessary, ones that imagine forms of care adequate to the lived afterlives of the settler-colonial project, and particularly ones for those related outside the nuclear family form.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Vasić Sandra; Marković Slobodan;
    Publisher: Psihologija
    Country: Serbia

    In this study the relationships between judgments of paintings denotative and connotative meanings was investigated. Denotative domain was defined as motif (represented object, e.g. portrait, landscape etc.) and message (information carried by paintings, e.g. celebration of patriotism). Connotative domain was defined as subjective experience, i.e. affective or metaphoric impression produced by painting (e.g. feeling of pleasure, impression of dynamics, and so on). In preliminary study the list of 39 motifs was specified empirically. The four dimensions of pictorial message were taken from the previous study (Markovic, 2006): Subjectivism, Ideology, Decoration and Constructivism vs. Realism. The four dimensions of paintings subjective experience were taken from the previous study as well (Radonjic and Markovic, 2005): Regularity, Attraction, Arousal and Relaxation. In Experiment 1 subjects were asked to associate 39 motifs with 18 paintings. In Experiment 2 subjects were asked to judge 24 paintings on four dimensions of pictorial message. Results form Experiment 1 have shown that dimensions of paintings subjective experience were significantly correlated with only five motifs (e.g. everyday life was negatively correlated with Arousal, battle was negatively correlated with Relaxation, and so on). Results from Experiment 2 have shown that Subjectivism and Constructivism are negatively correlated with Regularity, and positively correlated with Arousal. Decoration is negatively correlated with Arousal and positively with Attraction and Relaxation.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Avalloni de Morais, Rene;
    Country: Canada

    Call Centers or Support Centers in different companies aggregate huge amount of audio data everyday. From all the conversations, few conversations demonstrate the disappointment of clients towards services, products or delivery. Finding the sentiment of the customer helps in determining whether the customer was satisfied with the service, product or not. However, manually analyzing the huge amount of audio data is time consuming, laborious, and burdensome. The aim of this research is to develop the deep learning based model which would enable to automatically evaluate the sentiment of a customer throughout a conversation with a call center agent. In this work, we developed Long Term Short Memory (LSTM) based deep learning models for customer audio call data analysis. The proposed pipeline consists of two sequential steps: a) Audio transcription: speech recognition of the conversations and document them in text; and b) Sentiment Analysis: conduct the sentiment analysis on the text data using Natural Language Processing (NLP). We compute spectrogram features from audio data and then fine-tune the LSTM based Deep Speech Model using customer call data. Deep Speech model can successfully transcribe the conversations between client and call center agent in a text form. Then we compute the 1-gram feature from text data which find the occurrence of the words responsible to identify the customer sentiments. We fed this feature into a LSTM based deep architecture which would enable to detect customer sentiments from text data. Recent advances in natural language understanding and generation facilitates to detect customer sentiments successfully as accurate as human experts. Both speech transcription and sentiment analysis part of the proposed tool are very generic in nature which could utilize for other audio data transcription and text sentiment analysis purposes. Tools were developed in python which can be easily transported and adapted in other programming environments.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Roberts, Ryan Nathaniel;
    Publisher: eScholarship, University of California
    Country: United States

    The relationship between tectonic environment and human activity has a long history that intimately involves the Ancient Near East and Levant. Texts from the third millennium onward attest to earthquake imagery while records of actual earthquakes cluster in two periods in the Middle and Neo-Assyrian periods. The research first examines the relationship between the tectonic environment and earthquake imagery that is found amidst Storm-god imagery. Next, close attention is paid to the textual and archaeoseismic evaluation of earthquakes recorded in Middle and Neo-Assyrian texts and the extent to which historical information from these texts can inform a reconstruction of the earthquake's effects. Within the Levant, a detailed archaeoseismic evaluation of Iron IIB sites with purported mid-eighth century seismic damage suggests better methodological controls are needed to identify seismic damage in the archaeological record. A number of interdisciplinary approaches, including post-disaster housing, earthquake eyewitness accounts, and gender and vulnerability studies are applied to Amos in order to provide a fresh perspective on identifying earthquake imagery within the book. These approaches help reconstruct the socioeconomic, political, and religious effects of the earthquake mentioned in Amos and illustrate how his oracles and prophetic validity would have been authenticated through the earthquake. These approaches also shed new light on "social justice" texts within Amos and how the aftermath of an earthquake would have underscored, anew, the gap between the rich and poor.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Allen, Meaghan;
    Publisher: LSE Review of Books
    Country: United Kingdom

    In Byzantine Intersectionality: Sexuality, Gender and Race in the Middle Ages, Roland Betancourt offers a new study that challenges the way that scholars have historically viewed Byzantine society and culture, using the methodology of intersectionality to uncover marginalised identities and recover medieval conversations around sexual and reproductive consent, sexual shaming and bullying, sexual attraction and desire, trans and nonbinary gender identities and the depiction of racialised minorities. This is an exciting and radical new project with an ethical dimension and urgency, writes Meaghan Allen, that seeks to illuminate forgotten figures and lived experiences that ripple through into our present moment.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Zárate, Salvador Elias;
    Publisher: eScholarship, University of California
    Country: United States

    My dissertation positions Black and Mexican migrant women workers’ reproductive labor as the foundation of Jim Crow era agriculture and extractive economies. My sites of analysis include racialized women’s reproductive labor in turpentine and lumber camps in Northwest Florida, the cotton fields of the San Joaquin Valley, and beet picking in Bracero era Salinas Valley. This dissertation argues that although women were contracted through relations of marriage and family to industries that produced their labor as non-value and which erased them as historical subjects, they created forms of sociality in excess to the demands of capital. Such an examination brings into conversation Critical Gender Studies, Black Studies, and Chicana/o Studies, alongside interventions by women of color feminists into Marxist labor theory, to reveal how Black and Mexican women workers created forms of life while negotiating the depletion their own. To explore the transmission of their life producing labor, I dovetail readings of plays, legal affidavits, and poems about turpentine debt bondage; coming-of-age stories about Black and Mexican migrant children’s reproductive labor in the cotton economy; oral histories about beet harvesting during the Bracero Program and the transnational labor of Mexican women on which it relied; and experimental ethnographies on Black and Mexican migrants’ gardening practices. Ultimately, this dissertation opens new lines of theoretical inquiry for exploring early twentieth century agriculture and extractive industries by centering the little explored histories of Black and Mexican women’s reproductive labor.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Wolfe, Hannah E.;
    Publisher: eScholarship, University of California
    Country: United States

    This dissertation is the study of a series of media art installations that deal with embodied technology which allows humans to interact with computers in different contexts. It explores the social effects of ubiquitous technology and the role for embodied media arts as a critique of interactive digital technologies which are replacing physically present forms of communication with our environment and with each other. In these works I examined the affordances of different physical spaces and observed how the social dynamics were affected. To probe these systems, I am using affective computing (computational expression of emotion) and tangible computing (objects with computational power). Intimate spaces allow for the ability to touch and to hold technology. Here the emotive haptic and emotive sonic response of a robot changed the way that people interacted with and viewed the robot and each other. Whether someone was directly interacting with the robot or simply observing drastically changed the emotion they thought the robot was expressing. Social spaces allow for the ability to interact interpersonally with technology. I explore how interactions change when they are embodied and public, while examining gender roles, female agency, and the line between human and machine. Interactive environments allow for movement and for multiple people interacting with large amounts of information and therefore each other. Personal mobile technology, multimodal interfaces, and distributed interfaces were used to allow multiple people to interact with the system and each other. Through these works, I show that media artworks, which embody technology and give it emotive qualities, critique the way that technology is used and change the way that people interact with it.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Strathman, Nicole Dawn;
    Publisher: eScholarship, University of California
    Country: United States

    At the turn of the twentieth century, photographers like Edward Curtis were creating romanticized images of Americans Indians. Far from merely serving as camera fodder, however, Native Americans during this period were independently producing their own photographic records. This dissertation offers a critical overview of how Native North Americans appropriated photography and integrated it into their ways of life in the second half of the nineteenth and the early twentieth centuries, both as patrons who commissioned portraits and as photographers who created collections. In this study, I investigate the practices through which Native-produced photographs have become entangled in a set of performative acts of remembrance that have helped sustain and generate tribal histories. The primary sources under investigation are early snapshots dating to approximately 1890 to 1940, created for and by indigenous peoples throughout the United States and Canada. By arguing that these photographs stand as counter-images to the hegemonic visual histories of their peoples, I demonstrate that Native-produced images undermine dominant narratives while simultaneously endorsing their own tribal histories. My goal is to prove that "Native American photography" as practiced by and for Native Americans is profoundly different than photography practiced by contemporary non-Natives.To help support these claims, I provide two case studies of amateur Native photographies that have become part of their cultural consciousness by virtue of being displayed in their respective community museums. Unlike most domestic images, the photographs taken by Jennie Ross Cobb (Cherokee) and George Johnston (Inland Tlingit) were neither bequeathed to family members nor gifted to friends. Instead, these photographers donated their images to aid in the foundation of new museums in their respective tribal communities. In the case of George Johnston, the eponymous museum in Teslin, Yukon Territory, was built to hold and preserve the photographs, while the pictures by Jennie Ross Cobb contributed to the efforts to valorize and restore the historic George M. Murrell Home in Tahlequah, Oklahoma, where they are now displayed. These localized, self-contained collections allow for an unprecedented look at how vernacular photographs work within indigenous communities to perform and recover memories.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Bernes, Jasper;
    Publisher: eScholarship, University of California
    Country: United States

    Most people spend much of their lives working. By working, I mean "wage labor": activity undertaken in exchange for money in a society where money is necessary for survival. This has not always been the case, and it is not the case universally, in all places, or for everyone. But it is now a fact of life so foundational in most parts of the world as to seem a feature of nature rather than history. I begin with truism because I think that the fact of work, in all its bluntness, has never been accorded proper importance in literary criticism or cultural criticism in general. There is, of course, a convenient explanation for the absence: historically, art has been either the province of the leisured classes or something made and experienced outside of the bounds of the workday. Art is, therefore, an exception to the rule of work. And even Marxist critics – those whom one would expect to believe, as Marx did, that production and labor were foundational in capitalism –tend to approach the painting or the poem from the side of the market, consumption, and everyday life, for the understandable reasons outlined above. If they tell a story about capitalism's determinative effect on art, it is usually a story about the penetration of market logics into the realm of art, a story about commodification. Few ask what the work of art might share with work in general or how the constant technological and social refashioning of the workplace might affect the horizon of possibility for artworks.My dissertation, "The Work of Art in the Age of Deindustrialization," attempts to provide one answer to these questions, a historical answer, by a reading of important literary and artistic works from the 1960s and 1970s. These are decades in which twin political and economic crises – the political militancy we associate with 1968, on the one hand, and the crisis of profitability and the dollar we associate with 1973 on the other – force a profound restructuring of capitalism and class relations. In particular, the multiple transformations of the labor process – deindustrialization, the rise of the service sector, the introduction of information technologies into the burgeoning managerial and white-collar sectors – provide a useful vantage from which to investigate the rapid changes in art and writing. Whereas the much-documented aesthetics of objects, things and facticity associated with modernism took its bearings from the factory-system (or, in a variant, anti-industrial form, from the artisanal and craft forms industrialization was in the process of destroying) such a cultural mode becomes increasingly anachronistic in the postwar era. As I argue, the productivist aesthetic of modernism gives way to an aesthetic of administration and distribution that takes signs and social relations rather than physical matter as its primary "material." Instead of the factory or workshop, such a mode draws from the routinized cognitions of office work and the forced conviviality of the service sector.The relationship between the economic and the cultural is not, as it might seem, a case of simple synchronicity or one-to-one correspondence. Experimental poetry, for example, is avant-garde in the sole sense that it is speculative, a laboratorial mode which runs ahead of the work-a-day world rather than simply reflecting it. Such experimental modes elaborated critical responses and forms of technical imagination which aimed to respond to the rigid hierarchies of 1960s society and yet, via a kind of "cunning of reason," laid some of the foundations for the new work relations which became dominant in the 1980s and 1990s. Indeed, part of my argument is that some of the most recognizable of avant-garde devices – erasing, replacing, counting, sorting, arranging by chance or rule – have been thoroughly integrated into the very office machinery (now generalized into the home) which writers use to produce their works.Such recuperation builds upon an uneasy affinity between left- and right-wing critiques of postwar capitalism. If leftists, countercultural figures and artists took aim at the rigid, bureaucratic and hierarchical nature of the corporate form and worklife in postwar society, targeting the managerial layer in particular, they found strange bedfellows in a class of business management theorists and economists who saw in that same layer a hindrance to profitability. In response to the artistic and countercultural critique, businesses concoct a new, flexible, "flattened" and adaptive corporate form that trims the middle-managerial layer by imposing upon workers a set of pseudo-democratic work relations under the sign of such corporate shibboleths as teamwork, flexibility, participation, creativity and self-management. Rather than the industrialization of culture that Adorno and Horkheimer famously bemoan, my dissertation describes the same operation in reverse – the "culturization" (or aestheticization) of industry, where the workday absorbs the resources, faculties and affects associated with the aesthetic. This operation is designed to produce more highly-productive, motivated workers but also to ward off and absorb the countercultural and artistic critiques that might lead to disaffection. The aesthetic, in this regard, becomes a mechanism for the establishment of a pseudo-democracy and a pseudo-autarky. If "self-management" – the ideal of labor militants, communists and anarchists since the 19th century – once meant freedom from the imperatives of the boss it now means, increasingly, in light of this reorganization, an internalization of such imperatives.My first chapter traces the thematics of "management" and "self-management" as they appear in the early poetry of John Ashbery, and in his controversial book The Tennis-Court Oath (1962) in particular. Numerous poems in this collection – developed from an earlier poem, "The Instructional Manual" – take up the position of the midlevel employee, who is both the object of commands and the producer of commands. The contradictions in this standpoint – examined in C. Wright Mills' White Collar and many subsequent studies of "the new middle class"provide insight into this transitional moment in capitalism, in which the extensive growth of deskilled white-collar work created, for large firms and the post-war bureaucracy, a crisis of management. One of the ways in which this appears in Ashbery's poetry is through a subtle and inventive play with free indirect discourse and point of view, in which individual moments and voices manifest as antagonistic fragments in an intersubjective field, requiring the "managerial" intervention of the arranging, organizing poetic voice or mind, a mind that is itself fragmented by its multiple allegiances and responsibilities. The experimental collages of The Tennis Court Oath illuminate the curious ambiguity of that special commodity, labor-power, which is at once object and subject: a thinking object, a commodity that speaks.As I discuss in my second chapter, one site where all of these meanings are contested – a site that again attracts the interest of both artists and business management theorists – is the emergent discourse of cybernetics, Through the central notion of "feedback," cybernetics presents an image of social self-regulation based upon reciprocal, horizontal relations rather than explicit hierarchies. Writers and conceptual artists borrow from this discourse to model utopian social forms, ones where form is embedded less in explicit command than in something like a changeable grammar or syntax – cybernetics calls this "information" – which can be revealed and manipulated by art. To give just two examples, both Hannah Weiner in her Code Poems and Dan Graham in his Works for Magazine Pages follow the founder of cybernetics, Norbert Wiener, by treating information – and by extension, the formative powers of cultural labor – as a kind of anti-entropic, organizing force. Following Benjamin Buchloh, I describe this development as an "administrative aesthetic," since the cultural artifact comes to see its vocation as one of regulating social relations. Though I treat only a handful of figures in this chapter, the list of writers and artists influenced by this conception of information (and its close cousin, entropy) provides a remarkable cross-section of the period. A partial list of figures who help forge these new aesthetic values would include, in fiction, William Burroughs, William Gass, Kurt Vonnegut, Philip K. Dick and Thomas Pynchon; in poetry, Charles Olson, John Ashbery, A.R. Ammons, Hannah Weiner and Bernadette Mayer; and in art, Hans Haacke, Robert Smithson, Dan Graham and Martha Rosler.One of the reasons why it has been difficult to approach the cultural transformations of the 1960s and 1970s from the side of labor rather than, say, consumption– from the side of the workday rather than leisure time – is that increasingly these two spheres commingle, and the values associated with leisure time are invoked to make the workday more tolerable, at the same time as the protocols and routines associated with work colonize the space of leisure time. This crossing of spheres bears in particular upon the relations between unpaid "reproductive" or domestic labor (the housework associated with women) and waged labor. The subject of my third chapter, Bernadette Mayer's project Memory (1972) – performance, installation and epic poem – investigates the crossing and blurring of these spheres, as everyday life is increasingly subsumed by the protocols of office work, and as office work is increasingly colored in the shades and hues of the street or the home. Memory models this process of merger and blurring through its incorporation of multiple media (type, photography, audio recording), artistic genres and techniques. In this sense, Mayer's elaboration of a "total" artwork which merges different technologies into one single apparatus prefigures the coming reorganization of office work around the personal computer.

Advanced search in Research products
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The following results are related to Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
4,547 Research products, page 1 of 455
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Börjesson, Lisa;
    Publisher: TextRelease

    Professional (i.e. extra-academic) contract archaeology is an internationally widespread practice contributing significantly to the archaeology literature. However, professional knowledge production in archaeology, and most notably the professional report genre, is at times described as problematic. The problem descriptions are ambiguous and can be grouped under at least three different topics: concerns for content quality and practical accessibility, concerns for the comparably low degree of analytical and theoretical synthesizing in reports and concerns for lack of mutual knowledge transfer between academic archaeologists and professional archaeologists. Technical issues of access are to an increasing extent being solved. Format standardizations are also developing. Hence the report genre becomes more accessible, and the content more readable and informative. Yet articulations of attitudes toward the genre in archaeology text books and journal articles remain focused on the genre’s problems. The aim of my ongoing dissertation research is to nuance the understanding of the professional report genre in archaeology. I do so by analyzing factors shaping reporting as it takes place in the intersection between academic norms, professional values and market logics. I argue an improved genre understanding is crucial to diminish cultural issues of access to the report literature, and also as a basis for development of reporting practices. In the dissertation research I analyze (1) perceptions about the report genre in archaeology literature, (2) information policy regulating reporting in archaeology, (3) how report writers and county board professionals interpret the reporting and report auditing work tasks and (4) the frames of reference report writers bring into reporting. The aim of this paper is to explicate the research design consisting of four sub-studies, to briefly report on findings from study no. 4, and to discuss preliminary, partial results from study no. 2.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    McIsaac, Stephen Robert;
    Publisher: eScholarship, University of California
    Country: United States

    In contemporary South Africa, spatial segregation, racism, and economic exclusion remain trenchant features of everyday life twenty-five years after the end of apartheid. Based on twenty months of ethnographic research in the township of Khayelitsha and Cape Town more broadly, this dissertation tracks different post-apartheid approaches to mental health care, which attempt to address these ongoing legacies. Through extensive fieldwork at a community-based organization that provides therapeutic support in isiXhosa, I argue that therapeutic practices by black South Africans de-stabilize and experiment with the normative confines of the psychotherapeutic encounter. Rather than treat individual psyches, therapists’ practices are oriented toward the relational space between generations, a political therapeutic driven by the affective force of the therapists’ own history of struggle toward a different future for black youth, who continue to be marked by the legacies of colonialism and apartheid (what I call “generational care” throughout the dissertation). Second, I argue that normative psychology continues to assume a nuclear family configuration as the norm against which all pathology is judged and therapeutic interventions practiced. I suggest this is particularly so for theories of attachment and infant development, which assume that only a particular configuration of the family—biological parents who unconditionally care for a child in the same physical space as them—is productive of “stable” subjects later in life. By following the history of psychiatry in South Africa, narratives of care from mental health professionals working on the Cape Flats, as well as policy and research agendas, I track how discourses of “cultural difference” evade processes of racialization and consequential racisms in normative psychological theories and interventions. I argue that different practical and conceptual therapeutic experiments are necessary, ones that imagine forms of care adequate to the lived afterlives of the settler-colonial project, and particularly ones for those related outside the nuclear family form.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Vasić Sandra; Marković Slobodan;
    Publisher: Psihologija
    Country: Serbia

    In this study the relationships between judgments of paintings denotative and connotative meanings was investigated. Denotative domain was defined as motif (represented object, e.g. portrait, landscape etc.) and message (information carried by paintings, e.g. celebration of patriotism). Connotative domain was defined as subjective experience, i.e. affective or metaphoric impression produced by painting (e.g. feeling of pleasure, impression of dynamics, and so on). In preliminary study the list of 39 motifs was specified empirically. The four dimensions of pictorial message were taken from the previous study (Markovic, 2006): Subjectivism, Ideology, Decoration and Constructivism vs. Realism. The four dimensions of paintings subjective experience were taken from the previous study as well (Radonjic and Markovic, 2005): Regularity, Attraction, Arousal and Relaxation. In Experiment 1 subjects were asked to associate 39 motifs with 18 paintings. In Experiment 2 subjects were asked to judge 24 paintings on four dimensions of pictorial message. Results form Experiment 1 have shown that dimensions of paintings subjective experience were significantly correlated with only five motifs (e.g. everyday life was negatively correlated with Arousal, battle was negatively correlated with Relaxation, and so on). Results from Experiment 2 have shown that Subjectivism and Constructivism are negatively correlated with Regularity, and positively correlated with Arousal. Decoration is negatively correlated with Arousal and positively with Attraction and Relaxation.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Avalloni de Morais, Rene;
    Country: Canada

    Call Centers or Support Centers in different companies aggregate huge amount of audio data everyday. From all the conversations, few conversations demonstrate the disappointment of clients towards services, products or delivery. Finding the sentiment of the customer helps in determining whether the customer was satisfied with the service, product or not. However, manually analyzing the huge amount of audio data is time consuming, laborious, and burdensome. The aim of this research is to develop the deep learning based model which would enable to automatically evaluate the sentiment of a customer throughout a conversation with a call center agent. In this work, we developed Long Term Short Memory (LSTM) based deep learning models for customer audio call data analysis. The proposed pipeline consists of two sequential steps: a) Audio transcription: speech recognition of the conversations and document them in text; and b) Sentiment Analysis: conduct the sentiment analysis on the text data using Natural Language Processing (NLP). We compute spectrogram features from audio data and then fine-tune the LSTM based Deep Speech Model using customer call data. Deep Speech model can successfully transcribe the conversations between client and call center agent in a text form. Then we compute the 1-gram feature from text data which find the occurrence of the words responsible to identify the customer sentiments. We fed this feature into a LSTM based deep architecture which would enable to detect customer sentiments from text data. Recent advances in natural language understanding and generation facilitates to detect customer sentiments successfully as accurate as human experts. Both speech transcription and sentiment analysis part of the proposed tool are very generic in nature which could utilize for other audio data transcription and text sentiment analysis purposes. Tools were developed in python which can be easily transported and adapted in other programming environments.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Roberts, Ryan Nathaniel;
    Publisher: eScholarship, University of California
    Country: United States

    The relationship between tectonic environment and human activity has a long history that intimately involves the Ancient Near East and Levant. Texts from the third millennium onward attest to earthquake imagery while records of actual earthquakes cluster in two periods in the Middle and Neo-Assyrian periods. The research first examines the relationship between the tectonic environment and earthquake imagery that is found amidst Storm-god imagery. Next, close attention is paid to the textual and archaeoseismic evaluation of earthquakes recorded in Middle and Neo-Assyrian texts and the extent to which historical information from these texts can inform a reconstruction of the earthquake's effects. Within the Levant, a detailed archaeoseismic evaluation of Iron IIB sites with purported mid-eighth century seismic damage suggests better methodological controls are needed to identify seismic damage in the archaeological record. A number of interdisciplinary approaches, including post-disaster housing, earthquake eyewitness accounts, and gender and vulnerability studies are applied to Amos in order to provide a fresh perspective on identifying earthquake imagery within the book. These approaches help reconstruct the socioeconomic, political, and religious effects of the earthquake mentioned in Amos and illustrate how his oracles and prophetic validity would have been authenticated through the earthquake. These approaches also shed new light on "social justice" texts within Amos and how the aftermath of an earthquake would have underscored, anew, the gap between the rich and poor.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Allen, Meaghan;
    Publisher: LSE Review of Books
    Country: United Kingdom

    In Byzantine Intersectionality: Sexuality, Gender and Race in the Middle Ages, Roland Betancourt offers a new study that challenges the way that scholars have historically viewed Byzantine society and culture, using the methodology of intersectionality to uncover marginalised identities and recover medieval conversations around sexual and reproductive consent, sexual shaming and bullying, sexual attraction and desire, trans and nonbinary gender identities and the depiction of racialised minorities. This is an exciting and radical new project with an ethical dimension and urgency, writes Meaghan Allen, that seeks to illuminate forgotten figures and lived experiences that ripple through into our present moment.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Zárate, Salvador Elias;
    Publisher: eScholarship, University of California
    Country: United States

    My dissertation positions Black and Mexican migrant women workers’ reproductive labor as the foundation of Jim Crow era agriculture and extractive economies. My sites of analysis include racialized women’s reproductive labor in turpentine and lumber camps in Northwest Florida, the cotton fields of the San Joaquin Valley, and beet picking in Bracero era Salinas Valley. This dissertation argues that although women were contracted through relations of marriage and family to industries that produced their labor as non-value and which erased them as historical subjects, they created forms of sociality in excess to the demands of capital. Such an examination brings into conversation Critical Gender Studies, Black Studies, and Chicana/o Studies, alongside interventions by women of color feminists into Marxist labor theory, to reveal how Black and Mexican women workers created forms of life while negotiating the depletion their own. To explore the transmission of their life producing labor, I dovetail readings of plays, legal affidavits, and poems about turpentine debt bondage; coming-of-age stories about Black and Mexican migrant children’s reproductive labor in the cotton economy; oral histories about beet harvesting during the Bracero Program and the transnational labor of Mexican women on which it relied; and experimental ethnographies on Black and Mexican migrants’ gardening practices. Ultimately, this dissertation opens new lines of theoretical inquiry for exploring early twentieth century agriculture and extractive industries by centering the little explored histories of Black and Mexican women’s reproductive labor.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Wolfe, Hannah E.;
    Publisher: eScholarship, University of California
    Country: United States

    This dissertation is the study of a series of media art installations that deal with embodied technology which allows humans to interact with computers in different contexts. It explores the social effects of ubiquitous technology and the role for embodied media arts as a critique of interactive digital technologies which are replacing physically present forms of communication with our environment and with each other. In these works I examined the affordances of different physical spaces and observed how the social dynamics were affected. To probe these systems, I am using affective computing (computational expression of emotion) and tangible computing (objects with computational power). Intimate spaces allow for the ability to touch and to hold technology. Here the emotive haptic and emotive sonic response of a robot changed the way that people interacted with and viewed the robot and each other. Whether someone was directly interacting with the robot or simply observing drastically changed the emotion they thought the robot was expressing. Social spaces allow for the ability to interact interpersonally with technology. I explore how interactions change when they are embodied and public, while examining gender roles, female agency, and the line between human and machine. Interactive environments allow for movement and for multiple people interacting with large amounts of information and therefore each other. Personal mobile technology, multimodal interfaces, and distributed interfaces were used to allow multiple people to interact with the system and each other. Through these works, I show that media artworks, which embody technology and give it emotive qualities, critique the way that technology is used and change the way that people interact with it.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Strathman, Nicole Dawn;
    Publisher: eScholarship, University of California
    Country: United States

    At the turn of the twentieth century, photographers like Edward Curtis were creating romanticized images of Americans Indians. Far from merely serving as camera fodder, however, Native Americans during this period were independently producing their own photographic records. This dissertation offers a critical overview of how Native North Americans appropriated photography and integrated it into their ways of life in the second half of the nineteenth and the early twentieth centuries, both as patrons who commissioned portraits and as photographers who created collections. In this study, I investigate the practices through which Native-produced photographs have become entangled in a set of performative acts of remembrance that have helped sustain and generate tribal histories. The primary sources under investigation are early snapshots dating to approximately 1890 to 1940, created for and by indigenous peoples throughout the United States and Canada. By arguing that these photographs stand as counter-images to the hegemonic visual histories of their peoples, I demonstrate that Native-produced images undermine dominant narratives while simultaneously endorsing their own tribal histories. My goal is to prove that "Native American photography" as practiced by and for Native Americans is profoundly different than photography practiced by contemporary non-Natives.To help support these claims, I provide two case studies of amateur Native photographies that have become part of their cultural consciousness by virtue of being displayed in their respective community museums. Unlike most domestic images, the photographs taken by Jennie Ross Cobb (Cherokee) and George Johnston (Inland Tlingit) were neither bequeathed to family members nor gifted to friends. Instead, these photographers donated their images to aid in the foundation of new museums in their respective tribal communities. In the case of George Johnston, the eponymous museum in Teslin, Yukon Territory, was built to hold and preserve the photographs, while the pictures by Jennie Ross Cobb contributed to the efforts to valorize and restore the historic George M. Murrell Home in Tahlequah, Oklahoma, where they are now displayed. These localized, self-contained collections allow for an unprecedented look at how vernacular photographs work within indigenous communities to perform and recover memories.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Bernes, Jasper;
    Publisher: eScholarship, University of California
    Country: United States

    Most people spend much of their lives working. By working, I mean "wage labor": activity undertaken in exchange for money in a society where money is necessary for survival. This has not always been the case, and it is not the case universally, in all places, or for everyone. But it is now a fact of life so foundational in most parts of the world as to seem a feature of nature rather than history. I begin with truism because I think that the fact of work, in all its bluntness, has never been accorded proper importance in literary criticism or cultural criticism in general. There is, of course, a convenient explanation for the absence: historically, art has been either the province of the leisured classes or something made and experienced outside of the bounds of the workday. Art is, therefore, an exception to the rule of work. And even Marxist critics – those whom one would expect to believe, as Marx did, that production and labor were foundational in capitalism –tend to approach the painting or the poem from the side of the market, consumption, and everyday life, for the understandable reasons outlined above. If they tell a story about capitalism's determinative effect on art, it is usually a story about the penetration of market logics into the realm of art, a story about commodification. Few ask what the work of art might share with work in general or how the constant technological and social refashioning of the workplace might affect the horizon of possibility for artworks.My dissertation, "The Work of Art in the Age of Deindustrialization," attempts to provide one answer to these questions, a historical answer, by a reading of important literary and artistic works from the 1960s and 1970s. These are decades in which twin political and economic crises – the political militancy we associate with 1968, on the one hand, and the crisis of profitability and the dollar we associate with 1973 on the other – force a profound restructuring of capitalism and class relations. In particular, the multiple transformations of the labor process – deindustrialization, the rise of the service sector, the introduction of information technologies into the burgeoning managerial and white-collar sectors – provide a useful vantage from which to investigate the rapid changes in art and writing. Whereas the much-documented aesthetics of objects, things and facticity associated with modernism took its bearings from the factory-system (or, in a variant, anti-industrial form, from the artisanal and craft forms industrialization was in the process of destroying) such a cultural mode becomes increasingly anachronistic in the postwar era. As I argue, the productivist aesthetic of modernism gives way to an aesthetic of administration and distribution that takes signs and social relations rather than physical matter as its primary "material." Instead of the factory or workshop, such a mode draws from the routinized cognitions of office work and the forced conviviality of the service sector.The relationship between the economic and the cultural is not, as it might seem, a case of simple synchronicity or one-to-one correspondence. Experimental poetry, for example, is avant-garde in the sole sense that it is speculative, a laboratorial mode which runs ahead of the work-a-day world rather than simply reflecting it. Such experimental modes elaborated critical responses and forms of technical imagination which aimed to respond to the rigid hierarchies of 1960s society and yet, via a kind of "cunning of reason," laid some of the foundations for the new work relations which became dominant in the 1980s and 1990s. Indeed, part of my argument is that some of the most recognizable of avant-garde devices – erasing, replacing, counting, sorting, arranging by chance or rule – have been thoroughly integrated into the very office machinery (now generalized into the home) which writers use to produce their works.Such recuperation builds upon an uneasy affinity between left- and right-wing critiques of postwar capitalism. If leftists, countercultural figures and artists took aim at the rigid, bureaucratic and hierarchical nature of the corporate form and worklife in postwar society, targeting the managerial layer in particular, they found strange bedfellows in a class of business management theorists and economists who saw in that same layer a hindrance to profitability. In response to the artistic and countercultural critique, businesses concoct a new, flexible, "flattened" and adaptive corporate form that trims the middle-managerial layer by imposing upon workers a set of pseudo-democratic work relations under the sign of such corporate shibboleths as teamwork, flexibility, participation, creativity and self-management. Rather than the industrialization of culture that Adorno and Horkheimer famously bemoan, my dissertation describes the same operation in reverse – the "culturization" (or aestheticization) of industry, where the workday absorbs the resources, faculties and affects associated with the aesthetic. This operation is designed to produce more highly-productive, motivated workers but also to ward off and absorb the countercultural and artistic critiques that might lead to disaffection. The aesthetic, in this regard, becomes a mechanism for the establishment of a pseudo-democracy and a pseudo-autarky. If "self-management" – the ideal of labor militants, communists and anarchists since the 19th century – once meant freedom from the imperatives of the boss it now means, increasingly, in light of this reorganization, an internalization of such imperatives.My first chapter traces the thematics of "management" and "self-management" as they appear in the early poetry of John Ashbery, and in his controversial book The Tennis-Court Oath (1962) in particular. Numerous poems in this collection – developed from an earlier poem, "The Instructional Manual" – take up the position of the midlevel employee, who is both the object of commands and the producer of commands. The contradictions in this standpoint – examined in C. Wright Mills' White Collar and many subsequent studies of "the new middle class"provide insight into this transitional moment in capitalism, in which the extensive growth of deskilled white-collar work created, for large firms and the post-war bureaucracy, a crisis of management. One of the ways in which this appears in Ashbery's poetry is through a subtle and inventive play with free indirect discourse and point of view, in which individual moments and voices manifest as antagonistic fragments in an intersubjective field, requiring the "managerial" intervention of the arranging, organizing poetic voice or mind, a mind that is itself fragmented by its multiple allegiances and responsibilities. The experimental collages of The Tennis Court Oath illuminate the curious ambiguity of that special commodity, labor-power, which is at once object and subject: a thinking object, a commodity that speaks.As I discuss in my second chapter, one site where all of these meanings are contested – a site that again attracts the interest of both artists and business management theorists – is the emergent discourse of cybernetics, Through the central notion of "feedback," cybernetics presents an image of social self-regulation based upon reciprocal, horizontal relations rather than explicit hierarchies. Writers and conceptual artists borrow from this discourse to model utopian social forms, ones where form is embedded less in explicit command than in something like a changeable grammar or syntax – cybernetics calls this "information" – which can be revealed and manipulated by art. To give just two examples, both Hannah Weiner in her Code Poems and Dan Graham in his Works for Magazine Pages follow the founder of cybernetics, Norbert Wiener, by treating information – and by extension, the formative powers of cultural labor – as a kind of anti-entropic, organizing force. Following Benjamin Buchloh, I describe this development as an "administrative aesthetic," since the cultural artifact comes to see its vocation as one of regulating social relations. Though I treat only a handful of figures in this chapter, the list of writers and artists influenced by this conception of information (and its close cousin, entropy) provides a remarkable cross-section of the period. A partial list of figures who help forge these new aesthetic values would include, in fiction, William Burroughs, William Gass, Kurt Vonnegut, Philip K. Dick and Thomas Pynchon; in poetry, Charles Olson, John Ashbery, A.R. Ammons, Hannah Weiner and Bernadette Mayer; and in art, Hans Haacke, Robert Smithson, Dan Graham and Martha Rosler.One of the reasons why it has been difficult to approach the cultural transformations of the 1960s and 1970s from the side of labor rather than, say, consumption– from the side of the workday rather than leisure time – is that increasingly these two spheres commingle, and the values associated with leisure time are invoked to make the workday more tolerable, at the same time as the protocols and routines associated with work colonize the space of leisure time. This crossing of spheres bears in particular upon the relations between unpaid "reproductive" or domestic labor (the housework associated with women) and waged labor. The subject of my third chapter, Bernadette Mayer's project Memory (1972) – performance, installation and epic poem – investigates the crossing and blurring of these spheres, as everyday life is increasingly subsumed by the protocols of office work, and as office work is increasingly colored in the shades and hues of the street or the home. Memory models this process of merger and blurring through its incorporation of multiple media (type, photography, audio recording), artistic genres and techniques. In this sense, Mayer's elaboration of a "total" artwork which merges different technologies into one single apparatus prefigures the coming reorganization of office work around the personal computer.