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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Bolun \\"Namir\\" Xia; Vipula D. Rawte; Aparna Gupta; Mohammed J. Zaki;

    These six zipped folders contain the saved weights of the best frozen model for FETILDA (w/BERT, w/FinBERT, and w/Longformer) obtained from experimenting on the US Bank dataset that we collected, which contains 10-K reports submitted by US banks from 2006 to 2016. Three of the six zipped folders contain weights obtained using historical scores as features in training FETILDA, and the other three contain weights obtained without doing so. They are clearly labeled in the names of the folders and files. The files are in the PyTorch .pt format.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Lyle, Mitchell W; Drury, Anna Joy; Tian, Jun; Wilkens, Roy H; +1 Authors

    Coherent variation of CaCO3 burial is a feature of the Cenozoic eastern equatorial Pacific. Nevertheless, there has been a long-standing ambiguity whether changes in CaCO3 dissolution or changes in equatorial primary production might cause the variability. Since productivity and dissolution leave distinctive regional signals, a regional synthesis of data using updated age models and high-resolution stratigraphic correlation is an important constraint to distinguish between dissolution and production as factors that cause low CaCO3. Furthermore the new chronostratigraphy is an important foundation for future paleoceanographic studies. The ability to distinguish between primary production and dissolution is also important to establish a regional carbonate compensation depth (CCD). We report late Miocene to recent time series of X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) derived bulk sediment composition and mass accumulation rates (MAR) from eastern equatorial Pacific Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Sites U1335, U1337, U1338 and Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 849, and also report bulk density derived CaCO3 MAR at ODP Sites 848, 850 and 851. We use physical properties, XRF bulk chemical scans, and images along with available chronostratrigraphy to inter-correlate records in depth space. We then apply a new equatorial Pacific age model to create correlated age records for the last 8 Myr with resolutions of 1-2 kyr. Large magnitude changes in CaCO3 and bio-SiO2 (biogenic opal) MAR occurred within that time period but clay deposition has remained relatively constant, indicating that changes in Fe deposition from dust is only a secondary feedback to equatorial productivity. Because clay deposition is relatively constant, ratios of CaCO3 % or biogenic SiO2 % to clay emulate changes of biogenic MAR. We define 5 major Plio-Pleistocene Low CaCO3 % (PPLC) intervals since 5.3 Ma. Two were caused primarily by high bio-SiO2 burial that diluted CaCO3 (PPLC-2—1685-2135 ka, and PPLC-5—4465-4737 ka), while 3 were caused by enhanced dissolution of CaCO3 (PPLC-1—51-402 ka, PPLC-3—2248-2684 ka, and PPLC-4—2915-4093 ka). Regional patterns of CaCO3 % minima can distinguish between low CaCO3 caused by high diatom bio-SiO2 dilution versus lows caused by high CaCO3 dissolution. CaCO3 dissolution can be confirmed through scanning XRF measurements of Ba. High diatom production causes lowest CaCO3 % within the equatorial high productivity zone, while higher dissolution causes lowest CaCO3 at higher latitudes where CaCO3 production is lower. The two diatom production intervals, PPLC-2 and PPLC-5, have different geographic footprints from each other because of regional changes in eastern Pacific nutrient storage after the closure of the Panama Seaway. Because of the regional variability in carbonate production and sedimentation, the carbonate compensation depth (CCD) approach is only useful to examine large changes in CaCO3 dissolution. Tables SM-1 to SM-7: splice tables used for the 7 ODP and IODP drill sites in this study Tables SM-8 to SM-13: Chronostratigraphic depth ties among the drill sites. Tables SM-14 to SM-17: Age models for each drill site and age-depth ties at each site. Tables SM-18 to SM-23: scanning XRF data for 4 drill sites, and opal calibration data for Site 849 Tables SM-24 to SM-27: CaCO3 % estimated from Gamma Ray measured density for ODP Sites 848, 849, 850, and 851 Tables SM-28 to SM-34: Mass Accumulation Rates (MAR) for the 7 drill sites Tables SM-35 to SM-37: calculations of CCD from CaCO3 MAR

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    Authors: Dupont, Lydie M;

    To obtain a continuous vegetation record of the ancient climate cycles, we studied pollen, spores and micro-charcoal of deep-sea sediments from IODP Site U1479 retrieved from SW of Cape Town. We compared our palynological results of the Pleistocene with previously published results of Pliocene material from the same site. We found that the vegetation of the Greater Cape Floristic Region, in particular Fynbos and Afrotemperate forest, respond to precessional forcing of climate, probably induced by the latitudinal insolation gradient. The micro-charcoal record confirms the importance of fires in the Fynbos vegetation. In addition, lowering of sea-level during the Pleistocene glacials enlarged the terrestrial environment substantially. The expansion of the Palaeo-Agulhas Plain extended the Ericaceae-rich and Asteraceae-rich types of Fynbos, at least on the western part of the plain.

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    Authors: Kim, Ji-Eun; Westerhold, Thomas; Griffith, Elizabeth M; Alegret, Laia; +2 Authors

    A bulk composite carbonate stable isotope, X-ray fluorescence (XRF) scanning (elemental barium), biogenic barium and benthic foraminiferal record in deep sea sediments from the tropical Pacific was produced from 71.5 to 66 million years ago to determine variations in carbon export in the Pacific during the Maastrichtian. The cores were drilled on Shatsky Rise in the tropical Pacific at Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 198 Sites 1209 and 1210 whose current locations are 32°39.1081′N, 158°30.3564′E (2387 m below sea level) and 32°13.420′N, 158°15.5623′E (2573 m below sea level), respectively (Bralower et al., 2002). Bulk carbonate δ18O and δ13C were measured in 1394 samples from both Sites 1209 (1096) and 1210 (298) about every 5 cm at MARUM, University Bremen. Bulk carbonate analyses were carried out on a Finnigan MAT 251 mass spectrometer equipped with automated carbonate preparation line (Kiel III) and reported relative to the Vienna Pee Dee Belemnite (VPDB) international standard, determined via adjustment to calibrated in-house standards and NBS-19. Non-destructive XRF data were collected every 2 cm down-core using XRF core scanner Avaatech serial no. 17 from the XRF core scanning facility at the IODP Gulf Coast Repository at Texas A&M University (College Station, USA). Data were collected over a 1.2 cm² area with a down-core slit size of 10 mm using generator settings of 50 kV and a current of 0.75 mA, ideally for detecting Ba, and a sampling time of 12 s in each run directly at the split core surface of the archive half. Discrete samples from 5 intervals that consist of 51 samples in total were processed to determine the marine barite content using a barite separation process modified from Paytan et al. (1996) and excess-Ba (bio-Ba) by measuring the digested bulk sample on a Perkin Elmer 3000DV ICP-OES and using equation from Dymond et al. (1992). Additional samples for benthic foraminifera were taken from over 2 of the 5 intervals that have barite data. Benthic foraminiferal quantitative analysis was carried out at University of Zaragoza based on representative splits of approximately 300 specimens larger than 63 µm.

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    Authors: Ahn, Jinho; Yang, Ji-Woong;

    Below we present the early Holocene discrete CH4 dataset from Siple Dome (SDMA), Antarctica, measured at Oregon State University (OSU) and Seoul National University (SNU) by discrete wet extraction technique. Analytical method is described in Grachev et al. (2009, doi:10.1029/2008GB003330) and Mitchell et al. (2011, doi:10.1029/2010JG001441) for OSU data, and Yang et al. (2017) for SNU data. SDMA CH4 composite record was constructed by combining OSU data for 7.6 - 9.0 ka and SNU data for 9.0 - 11.6 ka to maximize temporal resolution. SDMA gas chronology was synchronized to Greenland Ice Core Chronology 2005 (GICC05) scale. For detailed description on synchronization and age uncertainty please refer to Yang et al. (2017).

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    Authors: Hodell, David A; Channell, James E T;

    We present a 3.2 Myr record of stable isotopes and physical properties at IODP Site U1308 (reoccupation of DSDP Site 609) located within the ice-rafted detritus (IRD) belt of the North Atlantic. We compare the isotope and lithological proxies at Site U1308 with other North Atlantic records (e.g., sites 982, 607/U1313, and U1304) to reconstruct the history of orbital and millennial-scale climate variability during the Quaternary. The Site U1308 record documents a progressive increase in the intensity of Northern Hemisphere glacial–interglacial cycles during the late Pliocene and Quaternary, with mode transitions at ~2.7, 1.5, 0.9, and 0.65 Ma. These transitions mark times of change in the growth and stability of Northern Hemisphere ice sheets. They also coincide with increases in vertical carbon isotope gradients between the intermediate and deep ocean, suggesting changes in deep carbon storage and atmospheric CO2. Orbital and millennial climate variability co-evolved during the Quaternary such that the trend towards larger and thicker ice sheets was accompanied by changes in the style, frequency, and intensity of millennial-scale variability. This co-evolution may be important for explaining the observed patterns of Quaternary climate change.

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    Authors: Terrén-Serrano, Guillermo; Martínez-Ramón, Manel;

    This repository contains the software necessary for extracting the features and selecting the Sun intersecting cloudy pixels using the functions contained in files posted in other repositories.See preprint article: https://arxiv.org/pdf/2110.05622.pdfSee preprint article: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=4064631See realated data: https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.zcrjdfn9mAdditional funding was provided by the King Felipe VI Endowed Chair of the University of New Mexico.

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    Authors: Westerhold, Thomas; Röhl, Ursula; Pälike, Heiko; Wilkens, Roy H; +2 Authors

    Deciphering the driving mechanisms of Earth system processes, including the climate dynamics expressed as paleoceanographic events, requires a complete, continuous, and high-resolution stratigraphy that is very accurately dated. In this study, we construct a robust astronomically calibrated age model for the middle Eocene to early Oligocene interval (31-43 Ma) in order to permit more detailed study of the exceptional climatic events that occurred during this time, including the Middle Eocene Climate Optimum and the Eocene/Oligocene transition. A goal of this effort is to accurately date the middle Eocene to early Oligocene composite section cored during the Pacific Equatorial Age Transect (PEAT, IODP Exp. 320/321). The stratigraphic framework for the new time scale is based on the identification of the stable long eccentricity cycle in published and new high-resolution records encompassing bulk and benthic stable isotope, calibrated XRF core scanning, and magnetostratigraphic data from ODP Sites 171B-1052, 189-1172, 199-1218, and 207-1260 as well as IODP Sites 320-U1333, and -U1334 spanning magnetic polarity Chrons C12n to C20n. Subsequently we applied orbital tuning of the records to the La2011 orbital solution. The resulting new time scale revises and refines the existing orbitally tuned age model and the Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale from 31 to 43 Ma. Our newly defined absolute age for the Eocene/Oligocene boundary validates the astronomical tuned age of 33.89 Ma identified at the Massignano (Italy) global stratotype section and point. Our compilation of geochemical records of climate-controlled variability in sedimentation through the middle-to-late Eocene and early Oligocene demonstrates strong power in the eccentricity band that is readily tuned to the latest astronomical solution. Obliquity driven cyclicity is only apparent during very long eccentricity cycle minima around 35.5 Ma, 38.3 Ma and 40.1 Ma.

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    Authors: Alonso-Garcia, Montserrat; Kleiven, Helga F; McManus, Jerry F; Moffa-Sanchez, Paola; +2 Authors

    Arctic freshwater discharges to the Labrador Sea from melting glaciers and sea-ice can have a deep impact on ocean circulation dynamics in the North Atlantic, modifying climate and deep water formation in this region. In this study, we present for the first time a high resolution record of ice-rafting in the Labrador Sea over the last millennium to assess the effects of freshwater discharges in this region on ocean circulation and climate. The occurrence of ice-rafted debris (IRD) in the Labrador Sea was studied using sediments from Site GS06-144-03 (57.29° N, 48.37° W, 3432 m water depth). IRD from the fraction 63-150 µm shows particularly high concentrations during the intervals: ~1000-1100, ~ 1150-1250, ~1400-1450, ~1650-1700 and ~1750-1800 yr AD. The first two intervals occurred during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), whereas the others took place within the Little Ice Age (LIA). Mineralogical identification indicates that the main IRD source during the MCA was SE Greenland. In contrast, the concentration and relative abundance of hematite-stained grains reflects an increase in the contribution of Arctic ice during the LIA. The comparison of our Labrador Sea IRD records with other climate proxies from the subpolar North Atlantic allowed us to propose a sequence of processes that led to the cooling that occurred during the LIA, particularly in the Northern Hemisphere. This study reveals that the warm climate of the MCA may have enhanced iceberg calving along the SE Greenland coast and, as a result, freshened the subpolar gyre (SPG). Consequently, SPG circulation switched to a weaker mode and reduced convection in the Labrador Sea, decreasing its contribution to the North Atlantic deep water formation and, thus, reducing the amount of heat transported to high latitudes. This situation of weak SPG circulation may have made the North Atlantic climate more unstable, inducing a state in which external forcings (e.g. reduced solar irradiance and volcanic eruptions) could easily drive periods of severe cold conditions in Europe and the North Atlantic like the LIA. This analysis indicates that a freshening of the SPG may play a crucial role in the development of cold events during the Holocene, which may be of key importance for predictions about future climate.

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    Authors: Manish Motwani; Yuriy Brun;

    Swami is a tool to automatically extract test oracles and generate executable tests from structured natural language specifications. A research paper describing Swami, its underlying technique, and its evaluation, titled "Automatically Generating Precise Oracles from Structured Natural Language Specifications" has been published in The International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE) 2019. Paper: https://people.cs.umass.edu/~brun/pubs/pubs/Motwani19icse.pdf Conference: https://conf.researchr.org/home/icse-2019 Also supported by the National Science Foundation under grant no: 1763423: SHF: Medium: Fairness in Software Systems

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26 Research products
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    Authors: Bolun \\"Namir\\" Xia; Vipula D. Rawte; Aparna Gupta; Mohammed J. Zaki;

    These six zipped folders contain the saved weights of the best frozen model for FETILDA (w/BERT, w/FinBERT, and w/Longformer) obtained from experimenting on the US Bank dataset that we collected, which contains 10-K reports submitted by US banks from 2006 to 2016. Three of the six zipped folders contain weights obtained using historical scores as features in training FETILDA, and the other three contain weights obtained without doing so. They are clearly labeled in the names of the folders and files. The files are in the PyTorch .pt format.

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    Other ORP type . 2022
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    Authors: Lyle, Mitchell W; Drury, Anna Joy; Tian, Jun; Wilkens, Roy H; +1 Authors

    Coherent variation of CaCO3 burial is a feature of the Cenozoic eastern equatorial Pacific. Nevertheless, there has been a long-standing ambiguity whether changes in CaCO3 dissolution or changes in equatorial primary production might cause the variability. Since productivity and dissolution leave distinctive regional signals, a regional synthesis of data using updated age models and high-resolution stratigraphic correlation is an important constraint to distinguish between dissolution and production as factors that cause low CaCO3. Furthermore the new chronostratigraphy is an important foundation for future paleoceanographic studies. The ability to distinguish between primary production and dissolution is also important to establish a regional carbonate compensation depth (CCD). We report late Miocene to recent time series of X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) derived bulk sediment composition and mass accumulation rates (MAR) from eastern equatorial Pacific Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Sites U1335, U1337, U1338 and Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 849, and also report bulk density derived CaCO3 MAR at ODP Sites 848, 850 and 851. We use physical properties, XRF bulk chemical scans, and images along with available chronostratrigraphy to inter-correlate records in depth space. We then apply a new equatorial Pacific age model to create correlated age records for the last 8 Myr with resolutions of 1-2 kyr. Large magnitude changes in CaCO3 and bio-SiO2 (biogenic opal) MAR occurred within that time period but clay deposition has remained relatively constant, indicating that changes in Fe deposition from dust is only a secondary feedback to equatorial productivity. Because clay deposition is relatively constant, ratios of CaCO3 % or biogenic SiO2 % to clay emulate changes of biogenic MAR. We define 5 major Plio-Pleistocene Low CaCO3 % (PPLC) intervals since 5.3 Ma. Two were caused primarily by high bio-SiO2 burial that diluted CaCO3 (PPLC-2—1685-2135 ka, and PPLC-5—4465-4737 ka), while 3 were caused by enhanced dissolution of CaCO3 (PPLC-1—51-402 ka, PPLC-3—2248-2684 ka, and PPLC-4—2915-4093 ka). Regional patterns of CaCO3 % minima can distinguish between low CaCO3 caused by high diatom bio-SiO2 dilution versus lows caused by high CaCO3 dissolution. CaCO3 dissolution can be confirmed through scanning XRF measurements of Ba. High diatom production causes lowest CaCO3 % within the equatorial high productivity zone, while higher dissolution causes lowest CaCO3 at higher latitudes where CaCO3 production is lower. The two diatom production intervals, PPLC-2 and PPLC-5, have different geographic footprints from each other because of regional changes in eastern Pacific nutrient storage after the closure of the Panama Seaway. Because of the regional variability in carbonate production and sedimentation, the carbonate compensation depth (CCD) approach is only useful to examine large changes in CaCO3 dissolution. Tables SM-1 to SM-7: splice tables used for the 7 ODP and IODP drill sites in this study Tables SM-8 to SM-13: Chronostratigraphic depth ties among the drill sites. Tables SM-14 to SM-17: Age models for each drill site and age-depth ties at each site. Tables SM-18 to SM-23: scanning XRF data for 4 drill sites, and opal calibration data for Site 849 Tables SM-24 to SM-27: CaCO3 % estimated from Gamma Ray measured density for ODP Sites 848, 849, 850, and 851 Tables SM-28 to SM-34: Mass Accumulation Rates (MAR) for the 7 drill sites Tables SM-35 to SM-37: calculations of CCD from CaCO3 MAR

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    Authors: Dupont, Lydie M;

    To obtain a continuous vegetation record of the ancient climate cycles, we studied pollen, spores and micro-charcoal of deep-sea sediments from IODP Site U1479 retrieved from SW of Cape Town. We compared our palynological results of the Pleistocene with previously published results of Pliocene material from the same site. We found that the vegetation of the Greater Cape Floristic Region, in particular Fynbos and Afrotemperate forest, respond to precessional forcing of climate, probably induced by the latitudinal insolation gradient. The micro-charcoal record confirms the importance of fires in the Fynbos vegetation. In addition, lowering of sea-level during the Pleistocene glacials enlarged the terrestrial environment substantially. The expansion of the Palaeo-Agulhas Plain extended the Ericaceae-rich and Asteraceae-rich types of Fynbos, at least on the western part of the plain.

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    Authors: Kim, Ji-Eun; Westerhold, Thomas; Griffith, Elizabeth M; Alegret, Laia; +2 Authors

    A bulk composite carbonate stable isotope, X-ray fluorescence (XRF) scanning (elemental barium), biogenic barium and benthic foraminiferal record in deep sea sediments from the tropical Pacific was produced from 71.5 to 66 million years ago to determine variations in carbon export in the Pacific during the Maastrichtian. The cores were drilled on Shatsky Rise in the tropical Pacific at Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 198 Sites 1209 and 1210 whose current locations are 32°39.1081′N, 158°30.3564′E (2387 m below sea level) and 32°13.420′N, 158°15.5623′E (2573 m below sea level), respectively (Bralower et al., 2002). Bulk carbonate δ18O and δ13C were measured in 1394 samples from both Sites 1209 (1096) and 1210 (298) about every 5 cm at MARUM, University Bremen. Bulk carbonate analyses were carried out on a Finnigan MAT 251 mass spectrometer equipped with automated carbonate preparation line (Kiel III) and reported relative to the Vienna Pee Dee Belemnite (VPDB) international standard, determined via adjustment to calibrated in-house standards and NBS-19. Non-destructive XRF data were collected every 2 cm down-core using XRF core scanner Avaatech serial no. 17 from the XRF core scanning facility at the IODP Gulf Coast Repository at Texas A&M University (College Station, USA). Data were collected over a 1.2 cm² area with a down-core slit size of 10 mm using generator settings of 50 kV and a current of 0.75 mA, ideally for detecting Ba, and a sampling time of 12 s in each run directly at the split core surface of the archive half. Discrete samples from 5 intervals that consist of 51 samples in total were processed to determine the marine barite content using a barite separation process modified from Paytan et al. (1996) and excess-Ba (bio-Ba) by measuring the digested bulk sample on a Perkin Elmer 3000DV ICP-OES and using equation from Dymond et al. (1992). Additional samples for benthic foraminifera were taken from over 2 of the 5 intervals that have barite data. Benthic foraminiferal quantitative analysis was carried out at University of Zaragoza based on representative splits of approximately 300 specimens larger than 63 µm.

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    Authors: Ahn, Jinho; Yang, Ji-Woong;

    Below we present the early Holocene discrete CH4 dataset from Siple Dome (SDMA), Antarctica, measured at Oregon State University (OSU) and Seoul National University (SNU) by discrete wet extraction technique. Analytical method is described in Grachev et al. (2009, doi:10.1029/2008GB003330) and Mitchell et al. (2011, doi:10.1029/2010JG001441) for OSU data, and Yang et al. (2017) for SNU data. SDMA CH4 composite record was constructed by combining OSU data for 7.6 - 9.0 ka and SNU data for 9.0 - 11.6 ka to maximize temporal resolution. SDMA gas chronology was synchronized to Greenland Ice Core Chronology 2005 (GICC05) scale. For detailed description on synchronization and age uncertainty please refer to Yang et al. (2017).

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    Authors: Hodell, David A; Channell, James E T;

    We present a 3.2 Myr record of stable isotopes and physical properties at IODP Site U1308 (reoccupation of DSDP Site 609) located within the ice-rafted detritus (IRD) belt of the North Atlantic. We compare the isotope and lithological proxies at Site U1308 with other North Atlantic records (e.g., sites 982, 607/U1313, and U1304) to reconstruct the history of orbital and millennial-scale climate variability during the Quaternary. The Site U1308 record documents a progressive increase in the intensity of Northern Hemisphere glacial–interglacial cycles during the late Pliocene and Quaternary, with mode transitions at ~2.7, 1.5, 0.9, and 0.65 Ma. These transitions mark times of change in the growth and stability of Northern Hemisphere ice sheets. They also coincide with increases in vertical carbon isotope gradients between the intermediate and deep ocean, suggesting changes in deep carbon storage and atmospheric CO2. Orbital and millennial climate variability co-evolved during the Quaternary such that the trend towards larger and thicker ice sheets was accompanied by changes in the style, frequency, and intensity of millennial-scale variability. This co-evolution may be important for explaining the observed patterns of Quaternary climate change.

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    Authors: Terrén-Serrano, Guillermo; Martínez-Ramón, Manel;

    This repository contains the software necessary for extracting the features and selecting the Sun intersecting cloudy pixels using the functions contained in files posted in other repositories.See preprint article: https://arxiv.org/pdf/2110.05622.pdfSee preprint article: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=4064631See realated data: https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.zcrjdfn9mAdditional funding was provided by the King Felipe VI Endowed Chair of the University of New Mexico.

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    Authors: Westerhold, Thomas; Röhl, Ursula; Pälike, Heiko; Wilkens, Roy H; +2 Authors

    Deciphering the driving mechanisms of Earth system processes, including the climate dynamics expressed as paleoceanographic events, requires a complete, continuous, and high-resolution stratigraphy that is very accurately dated. In this study, we construct a robust astronomically calibrated age model for the middle Eocene to early Oligocene interval (31-43 Ma) in order to permit more detailed study of the exceptional climatic events that occurred during this time, including the Middle Eocene Climate Optimum and the Eocene/Oligocene transition. A goal of this effort is to accurately date the middle Eocene to early Oligocene composite section cored during the Pacific Equatorial Age Transect (PEAT, IODP Exp. 320/321). The stratigraphic framework for the new time scale is based on the identification of the stable long eccentricity cycle in published and new high-resolution records encompassing bulk and benthic stable isotope, calibrated XRF core scanning, and magnetostratigraphic data from ODP Sites 171B-1052, 189-1172, 199-1218, and 207-1260 as well as IODP Sites 320-U1333, and -U1334 spanning magnetic polarity Chrons C12n to C20n. Subsequently we applied orbital tuning of the records to the La2011 orbital solution. The resulting new time scale revises and refines the existing orbitally tuned age model and the Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale from 31 to 43 Ma. Our newly defined absolute age for the Eocene/Oligocene boundary validates the astronomical tuned age of 33.89 Ma identified at the Massignano (Italy) global stratotype section and point. Our compilation of geochemical records of climate-controlled variability in sedimentation through the middle-to-late Eocene and early Oligocene demonstrates strong power in the eccentricity band that is readily tuned to the latest astronomical solution. Obliquity driven cyclicity is only apparent during very long eccentricity cycle minima around 35.5 Ma, 38.3 Ma and 40.1 Ma.

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