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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Fenner, Juliane M;

    The taxonomy and stratigraphy of pelagic Paleocene diatoms from ODP Sites 698, 700, and 702 and DSDP Site 524 in the South Atlantic and DSDP Site 214 in the Indian Ocean are presented, as well as paleogeographic and paleoecologic implications. Eleven new species and one new variety are described and one new combination is proposed: Coscinodiscus cruxii sp. nov. Grunowiella palaeocaenica var. alternans var. nov. Hemiaulusl beatus sp. nov. Hemiaulusl ciesielskii sp. nov. Hemiaulusl conicus sp. nov. Hemiaulus kristoffersenii sp. nov. Hemiaulus nocchiae sp. nov. Hemiaulusl oonkii sp. nov. Hemiaulusl velatus sp. nov. Triceratium gombosii sp. nov. Trochosira gracillima comb. nov. Trochosira marginata sp. nov. Trochosira radiata sp. nov. Hole 700B provides one of the most continuous diatomaceous Paleocene profiles known. Stratigraphic ranges of diatom species from this and other Southern Hemisphere sites are calibrated against calcareous microfossil zones. The first-appearance datums of Triceratium gombosii, Hemiaulus incurvus, and Triceratium mirabile in Paleocene deep-sea sediments are useful for regional stratigraphic correlations. Quantitative analysis of the biosiliceous microfossil groups (diatoms, silicoflagellates, radiolarians, and archaeomonadaceae) shows that preservation of diatoms is confined primarily to the upper Paleocene (planktonic foraminifer Zones P3 and P4 and calcareous nannofossil Zones upper NP5 to lower NP9). In the lower Paleocene only short intervals in Hole 700B are diatomaceous. A correlation between the degree of silica diagenesis and the calcium carbonate content of the sediment is not obvious. Diatom species analysis reflects changes in the paleoenvironment between island-related upwelling conditions with highly diverse and well-preserved diatom assemblages and less productive periods resulting in less wellpreserved diatom assemblages with a higher content of robust neritic diatoms.

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    Authors: Latouche, Claude; Maillet, Noelle;

    Leg 67 sample sediments are mainly composed of biogenic carbonate and biogenic siliceous materials. Apart from calcite, crystallized minerals are scarce; however, they are better represented in sites near the continent and in all Quaternary sediments. These minerals are: quartz, feldspars, smectite, and, rarely, chlorite, dolomite, and zeolite.

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    Authors: Dubois-Dauphin, Quentin; Montagna, Paolo; Siani, Giuseppe; Douville, Eric; +9 Authors

    We present the neodymium isotopic composition (epsilon-Nd) of mixed planktonic foraminifera species from a sediment core collected at 622 m water depth in the Balearic Sea, as well as epsilon-Nd of scleractinian cold-water corals (CWC; Madrepora oculata, Lophelia pertusa) retrieved between 280 and 442 m water depth in the Alboran Sea and at 414 m depth in the southern Sardinian continental margin. The aim is to constrain hydrological variations at intermediate depths in the western Mediterranean Sea during the last 20 kyr. Planktonic (Globigerina bulloides) and benthic (Cibicidoides pachyderma) foraminifera from the Balearic Sea were also analyzed for stable oxygen (d18O) and carbon (d13C) isotopes. The foraminiferal and coral epsilon-Nd values from the Balearic and Alboran seas are comparable over the last ~13 kyr, with mean values of -8.94 ± 0.26 (1 Sigma; n = 24) and -8.91 ± 0.18 (1 Sigma; n = 25), respectively. Before 13 ka BP, the foraminiferal epsilon-Nd values are slightly lower (-9.28 ± 0.15) and tend to reflect higher mixing between intermediate and deep waters, which are characterized by more unradiogenic epsilon-Nd values. The slight epsilon-Nd increase after 13 ka BP is associated with a decoupling in the benthic foraminiferal d13C composition between intermediate and deeper depths, which started at ~16 ka BP. This suggests an earlier stratification of the water masses and a subsequent reduced contribution of unradiogenic epsilon-Nd from deep waters. The CWC from the Sardinia Channel show a much larger scatter of epsilon-Nd values, from -8.66 ± 0.30 to 5.99 ± 0.50, and a lower average (-7.31 ± 0.73; n = 19) compared to the CWC and foraminifera from the Alboran and Balearic seas, indicative of intermediate waters sourced from the Levantine basin. At the time of sapropel S1 deposition (10.2 to 6.4 ka), the epsilon-Nd values of the Sardinian CWC become more unradiogenic (-8.38 ± 0.47; n = 3 at ~8.7 ka BP), suggesting a significant contribution of intermediate waters originated from the western basin. We propose that western Mediterranean intermediate waters replaced the Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW), and thus there was a strong reduction of the LIW during the mid-sapropel (~8.7 ka BP). This observation supports a notable change of Mediterranean circulation pattern centered on sapropel S1 that needs further investigation to be confirmed.

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    Authors: Drury, Anna Joy; Westerhold, Thomas; Hodell, David A; Röhl, Ursula;

    Ocean Drilling Programme (ODP) Site 982 represents a key location for understanding the evolution of climate in the North Atlantic over the past 12 Ma. However, concerns exist about the validity and robustness of the underlying stratigraphy and astrochronology, which currently limits the adequacy of this site for high-resolution climate studies. To resolve this uncertainty, we verify and extend the early Pliocene to late Miocene shipboard composite splice at Site 982 using high-resolution XRF core scanning data and establish a robust high-resolution stable isotope stratigraphy and astrochronology between 4.5 and 8.0 Ma. Splice revisions and verifications resulted in ~11 m of gaps in the original Site 982 isotope stratigraphy. Our new stratigraphy reveals previously unseen benthic d18O excursions, particularly prior to 6.65 Ma. The benthic d18O record displays distinct, asymmetric cycles between 7.7 and 6.65 Ma, confirming that high-latitude climate is a prevalent forcing during this interval. An intensification of the 41-kyr beat in both the benthic d13C and d18O is also observed ~6.4 Ma, marking a strengthening in the cryosphere-carbon cycle coupling. A large ~0.7 per mil double excursion is revealed ~6.4-6.3 Ma, which also marks the onset an interval of average higher d18O and large precession and obliquity-dominated d18O excursions between 6.4-5.4 Ma, coincident with the culmination of the late Miocene cooling. The two largest benthic d18O excursions ~6.4-6.3 Ma and TG20/22 coincide with the coolest alkenone-derived SST estimates from Site 982, suggesting a strong connection between the late Miocene global cooling and deep-sea cooling and dynamic ice sheet expansion. The splice revisions and revised astrochronology resolve key stratigraphic issues that have hampered correlation between Site 982, the equatorial Atlantic and the Mediterranean. Comparisons of the revised Site 982 stratigraphy to high-resolution astronomically tuned benthic d18O stratigraphies from ODP Site 926 (equatorial Atlantic) and Ain el Beida (north western Morocco) show that prior inconsistencies in short-term excursions are now resolved. The identification of key new cycles at Site 982 further highlights the requirement for the current scheme for late Miocene marine isotope stages to be redefined. Our new integrated deep-sea benthic stable isotope stratigraphy and astrochronology from Site 982 will facilitate future high-resolution late Miocene to early Pliocene climate research.

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    Authors: Huybrechts, Philippe; Rybak, Oleg; Pattyn, Frank; Ruth, Urs; +1 Authors

    A nested ice flow model was developed for eastern Dronning Maud Land to assist with the dating and interpretation of the EDML deep ice core. The model consists of a high-resolution higher-order ice dynamic flow model that was nested into a comprehensive 3-D thermomechanical model of the whole Antarctic ice sheet. As the drill site is on a flank position the calculations specifically take into account the effects of horizontal advection as deeper ice in the core originated from higher inland. First the regional velocity field and ice sheet geometry is obtained from a forward experiment over the last 8 glacial cycles. The result is subsequently employed in a Lagrangian backtracing algorithm to provide particle paths back to their time and place of deposition. The procedure directly yields the depth-age distribution, surface conditions at particle origin, and a suite of relevant parameters such as initial annual layer thickness. This paper discusses the method and the main results of the experiment, including the ice core chronology, the non-climatic corrections needed to extract the climatic part of the signal, and the thinning function. The focus is on the upper 89% of the ice core (appr. 170 kyears) as the dating below that is increasingly less robust owing to the unknown value of the geothermal heat flux. It is found that the temperature biases resulting from variations of surface elevation are up to half of the magnitude of the climatic changes themselves.

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    Authors: Lindhorst, Sebastian;

    Sediment data from the Bahamian Santaren carbonate drift reveal the variability of trans-Atlantic Saharan dust transport back to about 100 ka BP (MIS 5.3) and demonstrate that carbonate drifts are a valuable pelagic archive of aeolian dust flux. Carbonate drift bodies are common around tropical carbonate platforms. They represent large-scale accumulations of ocean-current transported material, which originates from the adjacent shallow-water carbonate factory as well as from pelagic production, i.e. periplatform ooze. Subordinately, there is a clay- to silt-size non-carbonate fraction, which typically amounts to less than 10 % of the sediment volume and originates from aeolian and fluvial input. Sedimentation rates in the 5.42 m long core GeoHH-M95-524 recovered 25 km west of Great Bahama Bank in the Santaren Channel ranges from 1.5 to 24.5 cm ka-1 with lowest values during the last glacial lowstand and highest values following platform re-flooding around 8 ka BP. These sedimentation rates imply that carbonate drifts have not only the potential to resolve long-term environmental changes on orbital time scales, but also millennial to centennial fluctuations during interglacials. The sediment core has been investigated aiming on characterizing the lithogenic dust fraction. Laboratory analyses included XRF core scanning, determination of carbonate content, grain-size analyses (of bulk and terrigenous fraction), as well as visual inspections of the lithogenic residue; the age model is based on oxygen isotopes and radiocarbon ages. Data show that the input of aeolian dust in the periplatform ooze as indicated by Ti/Al and Fe/Al element ratios abruptly increases at 57 ka BP, stays elevated during glacial times, and reaches a Holocene minimum around 6.5 ka BP, contemporary to the African Humid Period. Subsequently, there is a gradual increase in dust flux which almost reaches glacial levels during the last centuries. Grain-size data show that the majority of dust particles fall into the fine silt range (below 10 µm); however, there is a pronounced coarse dust fraction in the size range up to 63 µm and individual 'giant' dust particles are up to 515 µm large. Total dust flux and the relative amounts of fine and coarse dust are decoupled. The time-variable composition of the grain-size spectrum is interpreted to reflect different dust transport mechanisms: fine dust particles are delivered by the trade winds and the geostrophic winds of the Saharan Air Layer, whereas coarse dust particles travel with convective storm systems. This mode of transport ensures continuous re-suspension of large particles and results in a prolonged transport. In this context, grain-size data from the terrigenous fraction of carbonate drifts provide a measure for past coarse dust transport, and consequently for the frequency of convective storm systems over the dust source areas and the tropical Atlantic.

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    Authors: Drury, Anna Joy; Liebrand, Diederik; Westerhold, Thomas; Beddow, Helen M; +8 Authors

    These are the supplementary datasets for the manuscript: Drury, A.J., Liebrand, D., Westerhold, T., Beddow, H., Hodell, D., Rohlfs, N., Wilkens, R.H., Lourens, L., 'History of South Atlantic carbonate deposition since the Oligocene (30-0 Ma)', in final preparation for submission Climate of the Past

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    https://doi.org/10.1594/pangae...
    Collection . 2020
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Sygma
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      https://doi.org/10.1594/pangae...
      Collection . 2020
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    Authors: Nowaczyk, Norbert R; Knies, Jochen;

    A new high-resolution magnetostratigraphic record from the eastern Arctic Ocean has yielded further evidence for the existence of the Laschamp excursion (37–35 ka), the Mono Lake excursion (27–25.5 ka) and possibly another very short excursion (22 ka) inferred from steep negative inclinations. Ages are based on nine AMS (accelerator mass spectrometry) 14C dates, oxygen isotope stratigraphy and correlation with ODP site 983. Estimates of relative palaeointensity variations for the time interval from 80 to 10 ka have revealed that the documented geomagnetic excursions are linked to large fluctuations of the relative palaeointensity. The lowest values were obtained for the two excursions and the normal–reversed (N–R) and reversed–normal (R–N) transitions of the Laschamp polarity excursion, which itself is characterized by a slight increase of relative palaeointensity during its reversed state. The results are in general agreement with palaeointensity studies from other regions, indicating that these fluctuations could be global phenomena and that the geomagnetic field of the Brunhes Chron was very variable in amplitude as well as in geometry. The new result is one of the rare records comprising large directional as well as large relative palaeointensity variations.

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    Authors: Marino, Maria; Flores, José-Abel;

    During ODP Leg 177, a Miocene to Pliocene calcareous nannofossil record was recovered at Sites 1088 and 1090. Site 1088, located at 41°8'S, shows a continuous middle-upper Miocene to Pliocene carbonate sequence that was deposited at relatively high sedimentation rates (Shipboard Scientific Party, 1999a, doi:10.2973/odp.proc.ir.177.103.1999). Moreover, Site 1088 proved suitable for calcareous nannofossil analysis as a means to improve the biostratigraphy at this southern latitude. Site 1090 was drilled at 42°54'S; a tephra layer marks a significant disconformity at the Miocene/Pliocene boundary of this sequence (Shipboard Scientific Party, 1999b, doi:10.2973/odp.proc.ir.177.105.1999). Although nannofossil assemblages are poorly preserved at this site (Shipboard Scientific Party, 1999b), they may help in determining the age of the disconformity and its paleoceanographic significance.

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    Authors: Höpker, Sebastian N; Wu, Henry C; Müller, Peter; Barusseau, Jean-Paul; +4 Authors

    Modern and archaeological catfish otoliths (Carlarius spp.) and bivalve shells (Senilia senilis) from a large paleo-estuary east of the Banc d'Arguin, Mauritania, NW Africa, were assessed to obtain information on paleoenvironmental conditions and the NW African hydroclimate during the mid- to late Holocene (ca. 3.0 - 5.3 ka BP). High-resolution (sub-seasonally resolved) ontogenetic stable oxygen isotope (δ18O) records and bulk 87Sr/86Sr analyses indicate monsoonal discharge to the Banc d'Arguin between 5.0 to 5.3 ka BP. Carbonate clumped isotope thermometry was used to test archaeological samples for potential pre-depositional alteration due to prehistoric cooking treatments.

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    Authors: Fenner, Juliane M;

    The taxonomy and stratigraphy of pelagic Paleocene diatoms from ODP Sites 698, 700, and 702 and DSDP Site 524 in the South Atlantic and DSDP Site 214 in the Indian Ocean are presented, as well as paleogeographic and paleoecologic implications. Eleven new species and one new variety are described and one new combination is proposed: Coscinodiscus cruxii sp. nov. Grunowiella palaeocaenica var. alternans var. nov. Hemiaulusl beatus sp. nov. Hemiaulusl ciesielskii sp. nov. Hemiaulusl conicus sp. nov. Hemiaulus kristoffersenii sp. nov. Hemiaulus nocchiae sp. nov. Hemiaulusl oonkii sp. nov. Hemiaulusl velatus sp. nov. Triceratium gombosii sp. nov. Trochosira gracillima comb. nov. Trochosira marginata sp. nov. Trochosira radiata sp. nov. Hole 700B provides one of the most continuous diatomaceous Paleocene profiles known. Stratigraphic ranges of diatom species from this and other Southern Hemisphere sites are calibrated against calcareous microfossil zones. The first-appearance datums of Triceratium gombosii, Hemiaulus incurvus, and Triceratium mirabile in Paleocene deep-sea sediments are useful for regional stratigraphic correlations. Quantitative analysis of the biosiliceous microfossil groups (diatoms, silicoflagellates, radiolarians, and archaeomonadaceae) shows that preservation of diatoms is confined primarily to the upper Paleocene (planktonic foraminifer Zones P3 and P4 and calcareous nannofossil Zones upper NP5 to lower NP9). In the lower Paleocene only short intervals in Hole 700B are diatomaceous. A correlation between the degree of silica diagenesis and the calcium carbonate content of the sediment is not obvious. Diatom species analysis reflects changes in the paleoenvironment between island-related upwelling conditions with highly diverse and well-preserved diatom assemblages and less productive periods resulting in less wellpreserved diatom assemblages with a higher content of robust neritic diatoms.

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    Authors: Latouche, Claude; Maillet, Noelle;

    Leg 67 sample sediments are mainly composed of biogenic carbonate and biogenic siliceous materials. Apart from calcite, crystallized minerals are scarce; however, they are better represented in sites near the continent and in all Quaternary sediments. These minerals are: quartz, feldspars, smectite, and, rarely, chlorite, dolomite, and zeolite.

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    Authors: Dubois-Dauphin, Quentin; Montagna, Paolo; Siani, Giuseppe; Douville, Eric; +9 Authors

    We present the neodymium isotopic composition (epsilon-Nd) of mixed planktonic foraminifera species from a sediment core collected at 622 m water depth in the Balearic Sea, as well as epsilon-Nd of scleractinian cold-water corals (CWC; Madrepora oculata, Lophelia pertusa) retrieved between 280 and 442 m water depth in the Alboran Sea and at 414 m depth in the southern Sardinian continental margin. The aim is to constrain hydrological variations at intermediate depths in the western Mediterranean Sea during the last 20 kyr. Planktonic (Globigerina bulloides) and benthic (Cibicidoides pachyderma) foraminifera from the Balearic Sea were also analyzed for stable oxygen (d18O) and carbon (d13C) isotopes. The foraminiferal and coral epsilon-Nd values from the Balearic and Alboran seas are comparable over the last ~13 kyr, with mean values of -8.94 ± 0.26 (1 Sigma; n = 24) and -8.91 ± 0.18 (1 Sigma; n = 25), respectively. Before 13 ka BP, the foraminiferal epsilon-Nd values are slightly lower (-9.28 ± 0.15) and tend to reflect higher mixing between intermediate and deep waters, which are characterized by more unradiogenic epsilon-Nd values. The slight epsilon-Nd increase after 13 ka BP is associated with a decoupling in the benthic foraminiferal d13C composition between intermediate and deeper depths, which started at ~16 ka BP. This suggests an earlier stratification of the water masses and a subsequent reduced contribution of unradiogenic epsilon-Nd from deep waters. The CWC from the Sardinia Channel show a much larger scatter of epsilon-Nd values, from -8.66 ± 0.30 to 5.99 ± 0.50, and a lower average (-7.31 ± 0.73; n = 19) compared to the CWC and foraminifera from the Alboran and Balearic seas, indicative of intermediate waters sourced from the Levantine basin. At the time of sapropel S1 deposition (10.2 to 6.4 ka), the epsilon-Nd values of the Sardinian CWC become more unradiogenic (-8.38 ± 0.47; n = 3 at ~8.7 ka BP), suggesting a significant contribution of intermediate waters originated from the western basin. We propose that western Mediterranean intermediate waters replaced the Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW), and thus there was a strong reduction of the LIW during the mid-sapropel (~8.7 ka BP). This observation supports a notable change of Mediterranean circulation pattern centered on sapropel S1 that needs further investigation to be confirmed.

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    Authors: Drury, Anna Joy; Westerhold, Thomas; Hodell, David A; Röhl, Ursula;

    Ocean Drilling Programme (ODP) Site 982 represents a key location for understanding the evolution of climate in the North Atlantic over the past 12 Ma. However, concerns exist about the validity and robustness of the underlying stratigraphy and astrochronology, which currently limits the adequacy of this site for high-resolution climate studies. To resolve this uncertainty, we verify and extend the early Pliocene to late Miocene shipboard composite splice at Site 982 using high-resolution XRF core scanning data and establish a robust high-resolution stable isotope stratigraphy and astrochronology between 4.5 and 8.0 Ma. Splice revisions and verifications resulted in ~11 m of gaps in the original Site 982 isotope stratigraphy. Our new stratigraphy reveals previously unseen benthic d18O excursions, particularly prior to 6.65 Ma. The benthic d18O record displays distinct, asymmetric cycles between 7.7 and 6.65 Ma, confirming that high-latitude climate is a prevalent forcing during this interval. An intensification of the 41-kyr beat in both the benthic d13C and d18O is also observed ~6.4 Ma, marking a strengthening in the cryosphere-carbon cycle coupling. A large ~0.7 per mil double excursion is revealed ~6.4-6.3 Ma, which also marks the onset an interval of average higher d18O and large precession and obliquity-dominated d18O excursions between 6.4-5.4 Ma, coincident with the culmination of the late Miocene cooling. The two largest benthic d18O excursions ~6.4-6.3 Ma and TG20/22 coincide with the coolest alkenone-derived SST estimates from Site 982, suggesting a strong connection between the late Miocene global cooling and deep-sea cooling and dynamic ice sheet expansion. The splice revisions and revised astrochronology resolve key stratigraphic issues that have hampered correlation between Site 982, the equatorial Atlantic and the Mediterranean. Comparisons of the revised Site 982 stratigraphy to high-resolution astronomically tuned benthic d18O stratigraphies from ODP Site 926 (equatorial Atlantic) and Ain el Beida (north western Morocco) show that prior inconsistencies in short-term excursions are now resolved. The identification of key new cycles at Site 982 further highlights the requirement for the current scheme for late Miocene marine isotope stages to be redefined. Our new integrated deep-sea benthic stable isotope stratigraphy and astrochronology from Site 982 will facilitate future high-resolution late Miocene to early Pliocene climate research.

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    Authors: Huybrechts, Philippe; Rybak, Oleg; Pattyn, Frank; Ruth, Urs; +1 Authors

    A nested ice flow model was developed for eastern Dronning Maud Land to assist with the dating and interpretation of the EDML deep ice core. The model consists of a high-resolution higher-order ice dynamic flow model that was nested into a comprehensive 3-D thermomechanical model of the whole Antarctic ice sheet. As the drill site is on a flank position the calculations specifically take into account the effects of horizontal advection as deeper ice in the core originated from higher inland. First the regional velocity field and ice sheet geometry is obtained from a forward experiment over the last 8 glacial cycles. The result is subsequently employed in a Lagrangian backtracing algorithm to provide particle paths back to their time and place of deposition. The procedure directly yields the depth-age distribution, surface conditions at particle origin, and a suite of relevant parameters such as initial annual layer thickness. This paper discusses the method and the main results of the experiment, including the ice core chronology, the non-climatic corrections needed to extract the climatic part of the signal, and the thinning function. The focus is on the upper 89% of the ice core (appr. 170 kyears) as the dating below that is increasingly less robust owing to the unknown value of the geothermal heat flux. It is found that the temperature biases resulting from variations of surface elevation are up to half of the magnitude of the climatic changes themselves.

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    Authors: Lindhorst, Sebastian;

    Sediment data from the Bahamian Santaren carbonate drift reveal the variability of trans-Atlantic Saharan dust transport back to about 100 ka BP (MIS 5.3) and demonstrate that carbonate drifts are a valuable pelagic archive of aeolian dust flux. Carbonate drift bodies are common around tropical carbonate platforms. They represent large-scale accumulations of ocean-current transported material, which originates from the adjacent shallow-water carbonate factory as well as from pelagic production, i.e. periplatform ooze. Subordinately, there is a clay- to silt-size non-carbonate fraction, which typically amounts to less than 10 % of the sediment volume and originates from aeolian and fluvial input. Sedimentation rates in the 5.42 m long core GeoHH-M95-524 recovered 25 km west of Great Bahama Bank in the Santaren Channel ranges from 1.5 to 24.5 cm ka-1 with lowest values during the last glacial lowstand and highest values following platform re-flooding around 8 ka BP. These sedimentation rates imply that carbonate drifts have not only the potential to resolve long-term environmental changes on orbital time scales, but also millennial to centennial fluctuations during interglacials. The sediment core has been investigated aiming on characterizing the lithogenic dust fraction. Laboratory analyses included XRF core scanning, determination of carbonate content, grain-size analyses (of bulk and terrigenous fraction), as well as visual inspections of the lithogenic residue; the age model is based on oxygen isotopes and radiocarbon ages. Data show that the input of aeolian dust in the periplatform ooze as indicated by Ti/Al and Fe/Al element ratios abruptly increases at 57 ka BP, stays elevated during glacial times, and reaches a Holocene minimum around 6.5 ka BP, contemporary to the African Humid Period. Subsequently, there is a gradual increase in dust flux which almost reaches glacial levels during the last centuries. Grain-size data show that the majority of dust particles fall into the fine silt range (below 10 µm); however, there is a pronounced coarse dust fraction in the size range up to 63 µm and individual 'giant' dust particles are up to 515 µm large. Total dust flux and the relative amounts of fine and coarse dust are decoupled. The time-variable composition of the grain-size spectrum is interpreted to reflect different dust transport mechanisms: fine dust particles are delivered by the trade winds and the geostrophic winds of the Saharan Air Layer, whereas coarse dust particles travel with convective storm systems. This mode of transport ensures continuous re-suspension of large particles and results in a prolonged transport. In this context, grain-size data from the terrigenous fraction of carbonate drifts provide a measure for past coarse dust transport, and consequently for the frequency of convective storm systems over the dust source areas and the tropical Atlantic.

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    Authors: Drury, Anna Joy; Liebrand, Diederik; Westerhold, Thomas; Beddow, Helen M; +8 Authors

    These are the supplementary datasets for the manuscript: Drury, A.J., Liebrand, D., Westerhold, T., Beddow, H., Hodell, D., Rohlfs, N., Wilkens, R.H., Lourens, L., 'History of South Atlantic carbonate deposition since the Oligocene (30-0 Ma)', in final preparation for submission Climate of the Past

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    https://doi.org/10.1594/pangae...
    Collection . 2020
    License: CC BY
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      https://doi.org/10.1594/pangae...
      Collection . 2020
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    Authors: Nowaczyk, Norbert R; Knies, Jochen;

    A new high-resolution magnetostratigraphic record from the eastern Arctic Ocean has yielded further evidence for the existence of the Laschamp excursion (37–35 ka), the Mono Lake excursion (27–25.5 ka) and possibly another very short excursion (22 ka) inferred from steep negative inclinations. Ages are based on nine AMS (accelerator mass spectrometry) 14C dates, oxygen isotope stratigraphy and correlation with ODP site 983. Estimates of relative palaeointensity variations for the time interval from 80 to 10 ka have revealed that the documented geomagnetic excursions are linked to large fluctuations of the relative palaeointensity. The lowest values were obtained for the two excursions and the normal–reversed (N–R) and reversed–normal (R–N) transitions of the Laschamp polarity excursion, which itself is characterized by a slight increase of relative palaeointensity during its reversed state. The results are in general agreement with palaeointensity studies from other regions, indicating that these fluctuations could be global phenomena and that the geomagnetic field of the Brunhes Chron was very variable in amplitude as well as in geometry. The new result is one of the rare records comprising large directional as well as large relative palaeointensity variations.

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    Authors: Marino, Maria; Flores, José-Abel;

    During ODP Leg 177, a Miocene to Pliocene calcareous nannofossil record was recovered at Sites 1088 and 1090. Site 1088, located at 41°8'S, shows a continuous middle-upper Miocene to Pliocene carbonate sequence that was deposited at relatively high sedimentation rates (Shipboard Scientific Party, 1999a, doi:10.2973/odp.proc.ir.177.103.1999). Moreover, Site 1088 proved suitable for calcareous nannofossil analysis as a means to improve the biostratigraphy at this southern latitude. Site 1090 was drilled at 42°54'S; a tephra layer marks a significant disconformity at the Miocene/Pliocene boundary of this sequence (Shipboard Scientific Party, 1999b, doi:10.2973/odp.proc.ir.177.105.1999). Although nannofossil assemblages are poorly preserved at this site (Shipboard Scientific Party, 1999b), they may help in determining the age of the disconformity and its paleoceanographic significance.

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    Authors: Höpker, Sebastian N; Wu, Henry C; Müller, Peter; Barusseau, Jean-Paul; +4 Authors

    Modern and archaeological catfish otoliths (Carlarius spp.) and bivalve shells (Senilia senilis) from a large paleo-estuary east of the Banc d'Arguin, Mauritania, NW Africa, were assessed to obtain information on paleoenvironmental conditions and the NW African hydroclimate during the mid- to late Holocene (ca. 3.0 - 5.3 ka BP). High-resolution (sub-seasonally resolved) ontogenetic stable oxygen isotope (δ18O) records and bulk 87Sr/86Sr analyses indicate monsoonal discharge to the Banc d'Arguin between 5.0 to 5.3 ka BP. Carbonate clumped isotope thermometry was used to test archaeological samples for potential pre-depositional alteration due to prehistoric cooking treatments.

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