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1,785 Research products, page 1 of 179

  • Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage
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  • 2018-2022
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  • Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage

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  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Majid Aminzare; Mohammad Hashemi; Asma Afshari; Seyyed Mohammad Ali Noori; Mohammadreza Rezaeigolestani;
    Publisher: Briefland

    Background: The incorporation of dietary fibers in meat and processed meats has been introduced as an approach to amend the nutritional quality and technological properties of the products. Objectives: This study explores the effects of four dietary fibers, including orange fiber (OF), wheat fiber (WF), bamboo fiber (BF), and carrot fiber (CF), on shelf life of emulsion-type cooked sausages. Methods: Microbiological and sensory analyses were performed to evaluate the shelf life of the treated products during 60 days of storage under refrigeration condition (4°C). Results: The results showed that all tested fibers improved the shelf life of the samples. The microbiological examinations revealed that while all the fibers could hinder the growth of spoilage bacteria, OF sample with the mesophilic, psychrotrophic, and lactic acid bacteria counts of 5.95, 4.78, and 5.27 log10 colony-forming unit per gram (CFU/g), respectively showed the highest microbiological quality at the end of the storage. Taste, odor, and overall acceptability of the samples were not significantly affected by the fibers, and texture was the sole sensory attribute that improved in the dietary fiber incorporated products, especially in the OF sample. Conclusions: According to our results, among the various fibers, OF is recommended to the meat industry to extend the shelf life of cooked sausages.

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Marcin Wroński;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD

    In 1923 Poland introduced an extraordinary wealth tax. We use the internal statistics of the Ministry of the Treasury to estimate wealth inequality in interwar Poland. This data source has not been previously used by researchers. There are no estimates of wealth inequality in interwar Poland available in the literature. According to our estimates, the top 0.01% of the wealth distribution controlled 16.4% of total private wealth. The wealth share of the top 1% stood at 42.5%. The top decile owned 67.3% of total private wealth. Wealth inequality varied strongly across regions. A comparison of wealth inequality in Poland with wealth inequality in other European countries in the interwar period yields a diverse picture. The wealth share of the top 0.01% was the highest in Europe, the wealth share of the top 1% was in the middle of the European ranking, the wealth share of the top 10% was almost the lowest in Europe. The small elite of super-rich (0.01%) was very wealthy in comparison to the European peers, but the wealth share of the rest of the top decile was relatively low. The unequal development of former partitions may partially explain high very top wealth shares.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Léo Zabrocki; Marion Leroutier; Marie-Abèle Bind;
    Publisher: Center for Open Science
    Project: ANR | PGSE (ANR-17-EURE-0001)

    We propose a new approach to estimate the causal effects of maritime traffic when natural or policy experiments are not available. We apply this method to the case of Marseille, a large Mediterranean port city, where air pollution emitted by cruise vessels is a growing concern. Using a recent matching algorithm designed for time series data, we create hypothetical randomized experiments to estimate the change in local air pollution caused by a short-term increase in cruise traffic. We then rely on randomization inference to compute nonparametric 95% uncertainty intervals. We find that cruise vessels' arrivals have large impacts on city-level hourly concentrations of nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter, and sulfur dioxide. At the daily level, road traffic seems however to have a much larger impact than cruise traffic. Our procedure also helps assess in a transparent manner the identification challenges specific to this type of high-frequency time series data.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Tsai, Yung-Yu; Han, Hsing-Wen; Lo, Kuang-Ta; Yang, Tzu-Ting;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    This paper utilizes wealth shocks from winning lottery prizes to examine the effect of financial resources on fertility. Using administrative data on Taiwanese lottery winners and a difference-in-differences design, we compare the trend in fertility between households receiving lottery prizes of more than 1 million NT$ (33,000 US$) with those winning less than 10,000 NT$ (330 US$). The results show that the receipt of a big lottery prize significantly increases fertility, and effects are driven by households with less financial resources. Moreover, big lottery wins mainly trigger childless households to have children and induce people to get married earlier.

  • Publication . Article . Preprint . 2019
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Burnap, Alex; Hauser, John R.; Timoshenko, Artem;

    Aesthetics are critically important to market acceptance. In the automotive industry, an improved aesthetic design can boost sales by 30% or more. Firms invest heavily in designing and testing aesthetics. A single automotive "theme clinic" can cost over $100,000, and hundreds are conducted annually. We propose a model to augment the commonly-used aesthetic design process by predicting aesthetic scores and automatically generating innovative and appealing product designs. The model combines a probabilistic variational autoencoder (VAE) with adversarial components from generative adversarial networks (GAN) and a supervised learning component. We train and evaluate the model with data from an automotive partner-images of 203 SUVs evaluated by targeted consumers and 180,000 high-quality unrated images. Our model predicts well the appeal of new aesthetic designs-43.5% improvement relative to a uniform baseline and substantial improvement over conventional machine learning models and pretrained deep neural networks. New automotive designs are generated in a controllable manner for use by design teams. We empirically verify that automatically generated designs are (1) appealing to consumers and (2) resemble designs which were introduced to the market five years after our data were collected. We provide an additional proof-of-concept application using opensource images of dining room chairs.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Syukri Rizki;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    Besides serving as a means of entertainment, a hikayat in Aceh plays a salient role when it comes to inculcating the Islamic values to perform jihad. An epic Hikayat Prang Sabi – which is written in Acehnese Jawi – is evident to spur the Acehnese people to struggle against the Dutch invaders during the Aceh War. Numerous studies have been conducted on this hikayat to scrutinize the striking motivation it harbors. Noticeably, the hikayat is proof that Acehnese Jawi became an effective medium in successfully transmitting the da’wa to defend land and soul. However, the orthography, unlike Malay Jawi, now suffers from the lack of attention in terms of its writing system. Therefore, it is imperative to study how the orthography is employed so that it had such sheer readability in communicating the divine message. For this reason, this study attempts to unravel the Jawi writing system employed by the author in writing the hikayat. Content analysis is conducted on the script of the hikayat which is the subject of this study. It is found that the hikayat is written in various Acehnese dialects, which then affect the Jawi spelling. The Acehnese Jawi in the hikayat does share the same spelling in some words with Malay Jawi even though pronounced differently. A plethora of Arabic loanwords maintains their original spellings in Acehnese Jawi while some others are customized to suit the progressive change of local pronunciation and due to the attachment of prefixes and suffixes.

  • Publication . Article . 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Mark Schankerman; Florian Schuett;
    Countries: Netherlands, Belgium

    Abstract Critics claim that patent screening is ineffective, granting low-quality patents that impose unnecessary social costs. We develop an integrated framework, involving patent office examination, fees, and endogenous validity challenges in the courts, to study patent screening both theoretically and quantitatively. In our model, some inventions require the patent incentive while others do not, and asymmetric information creates a need for screening. We show that the endogeneity of challenges implies that courts, even if perfect, cannot solve the screening problem. Simulations of the model, calibrated on U.S. data, indicate that screening is highly imperfect, with almost half of all patents issued on inventions that do not require the patent incentive. While we find that the current patent system generates positive social value, intensifying examination would yield large welfare gains. The social value of the patent system would also be larger if complemented by antitrust limits on licensing.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Carolyn L. Hsu; Jessica C. Teets; Reza Hasmath; Jennifer Y.J. Hsu; Timothy Hildebrandt;
    Publisher: Informa UK Limited

    Citizenship education has been an explicit part of the universal education system in contemporary China. Using data from an original nationwide survey conducted in 2018, we test the hypothesis that the longer the intensity of exposure to citizenship education, the more citizens are influenced by a state-led conception of citizenship characterized by obedience and loyalty to the state. We find mixed results in that citizenship education is effective at lower educational levels, but at higher levels it is not only ineffective, but fosters (or at minimum, does not deter) a more active conception and performance of citizenship.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Lucio Laureti; Alberto Costantiello; Leogrande Angelo;
    Publisher: Preprints

    Abstract In this article we investigate the impact of “Renewable Electricity Output” on green economy in the context of circular economy for 193 countries in the period 2011-2020. We use data from World Bank ESG framework. We perform Panel Data with Fixed Effects, Panel Data with Random Effects, WLS, and Pooled OLS. Our results show that Renewable Electricity Output is positively associated, among others, to “Adjusted Savings-Net Forest Depletion” and “Renewable Energy Consumption” and negatively associated, among others, to “CO2 Emission” and “Cooling Degree Days”. Furthermore, we perform a cluster analysis implementing the k-Means algorithm optimized with the Elbow Method and we find the presence of 4 clusters. Finally, we confront seven different machine learning algorithms to predict the future level of “Renewable Electricity Output”. Our results show that Linear Regression is the best algorithm and that the future value of renewable electricity output is predicted to growth on average at a rate of 0.83% for the selected countries.

  • Publication . Report . Other literature type . Article . 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Stefania Albanesi; Claudia Olivetti; Barbara Petrongolo;
    Publisher: University of Oxford
    Country: United Kingdom

    Using comparable data for 24 countries since the 1970s, we document gender convergence in schooling, employment and earnings, marriage delay and the accompanying decline in fertility, and the large remaining gaps in labor market outcomes, especially among parents. A model of time allocation illustrates how the specialization of spouses in home or market production responds to preferences, comparative advantages and public policies. We draw lessons from existing evidence on the impacts of family policies on women’s careers and children’s wellbeing. There is to date little or no evidence of beneficial effects of longer parental leave (or fathers’ quotas) on maternal participation and earnings. In most cases longer leave de lays mothers’ return to work, without long-lasting consequences on their careers. More generous childcare funding instead encourages female participation whenever subsidized childcare replaces maternal childcare. Impacts on child development de pend on counterfactual childcare arrangements and tend to be more beneficial for disadvantaged households. In-work benefits targeted to low-earners have clear positive impacts on lone mothers’ employment and negligible impacts on other groups. While most of this literature takes policy as exogenous, political economy aspects of policy adoption help understand the interplay between societal changes, family policies and gender equality.

Advanced search in Research products
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
The following results are related to Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
1,785 Research products, page 1 of 179
  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Majid Aminzare; Mohammad Hashemi; Asma Afshari; Seyyed Mohammad Ali Noori; Mohammadreza Rezaeigolestani;
    Publisher: Briefland

    Background: The incorporation of dietary fibers in meat and processed meats has been introduced as an approach to amend the nutritional quality and technological properties of the products. Objectives: This study explores the effects of four dietary fibers, including orange fiber (OF), wheat fiber (WF), bamboo fiber (BF), and carrot fiber (CF), on shelf life of emulsion-type cooked sausages. Methods: Microbiological and sensory analyses were performed to evaluate the shelf life of the treated products during 60 days of storage under refrigeration condition (4°C). Results: The results showed that all tested fibers improved the shelf life of the samples. The microbiological examinations revealed that while all the fibers could hinder the growth of spoilage bacteria, OF sample with the mesophilic, psychrotrophic, and lactic acid bacteria counts of 5.95, 4.78, and 5.27 log10 colony-forming unit per gram (CFU/g), respectively showed the highest microbiological quality at the end of the storage. Taste, odor, and overall acceptability of the samples were not significantly affected by the fibers, and texture was the sole sensory attribute that improved in the dietary fiber incorporated products, especially in the OF sample. Conclusions: According to our results, among the various fibers, OF is recommended to the meat industry to extend the shelf life of cooked sausages.

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Marcin Wroński;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD

    In 1923 Poland introduced an extraordinary wealth tax. We use the internal statistics of the Ministry of the Treasury to estimate wealth inequality in interwar Poland. This data source has not been previously used by researchers. There are no estimates of wealth inequality in interwar Poland available in the literature. According to our estimates, the top 0.01% of the wealth distribution controlled 16.4% of total private wealth. The wealth share of the top 1% stood at 42.5%. The top decile owned 67.3% of total private wealth. Wealth inequality varied strongly across regions. A comparison of wealth inequality in Poland with wealth inequality in other European countries in the interwar period yields a diverse picture. The wealth share of the top 0.01% was the highest in Europe, the wealth share of the top 1% was in the middle of the European ranking, the wealth share of the top 10% was almost the lowest in Europe. The small elite of super-rich (0.01%) was very wealthy in comparison to the European peers, but the wealth share of the rest of the top decile was relatively low. The unequal development of former partitions may partially explain high very top wealth shares.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Léo Zabrocki; Marion Leroutier; Marie-Abèle Bind;
    Publisher: Center for Open Science
    Project: ANR | PGSE (ANR-17-EURE-0001)

    We propose a new approach to estimate the causal effects of maritime traffic when natural or policy experiments are not available. We apply this method to the case of Marseille, a large Mediterranean port city, where air pollution emitted by cruise vessels is a growing concern. Using a recent matching algorithm designed for time series data, we create hypothetical randomized experiments to estimate the change in local air pollution caused by a short-term increase in cruise traffic. We then rely on randomization inference to compute nonparametric 95% uncertainty intervals. We find that cruise vessels' arrivals have large impacts on city-level hourly concentrations of nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter, and sulfur dioxide. At the daily level, road traffic seems however to have a much larger impact than cruise traffic. Our procedure also helps assess in a transparent manner the identification challenges specific to this type of high-frequency time series data.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Tsai, Yung-Yu; Han, Hsing-Wen; Lo, Kuang-Ta; Yang, Tzu-Ting;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    This paper utilizes wealth shocks from winning lottery prizes to examine the effect of financial resources on fertility. Using administrative data on Taiwanese lottery winners and a difference-in-differences design, we compare the trend in fertility between households receiving lottery prizes of more than 1 million NT$ (33,000 US$) with those winning less than 10,000 NT$ (330 US$). The results show that the receipt of a big lottery prize significantly increases fertility, and effects are driven by households with less financial resources. Moreover, big lottery wins mainly trigger childless households to have children and induce people to get married earlier.

  • Publication . Article . Preprint . 2019
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Burnap, Alex; Hauser, John R.; Timoshenko, Artem;

    Aesthetics are critically important to market acceptance. In the automotive industry, an improved aesthetic design can boost sales by 30% or more. Firms invest heavily in designing and testing aesthetics. A single automotive "theme clinic" can cost over $100,000, and hundreds are conducted annually. We propose a model to augment the commonly-used aesthetic design process by predicting aesthetic scores and automatically generating innovative and appealing product designs. The model combines a probabilistic variational autoencoder (VAE) with adversarial components from generative adversarial networks (GAN) and a supervised learning component. We train and evaluate the model with data from an automotive partner-images of 203 SUVs evaluated by targeted consumers and 180,000 high-quality unrated images. Our model predicts well the appeal of new aesthetic designs-43.5% improvement relative to a uniform baseline and substantial improvement over conventional machine learning models and pretrained deep neural networks. New automotive designs are generated in a controllable manner for use by design teams. We empirically verify that automatically generated designs are (1) appealing to consumers and (2) resemble designs which were introduced to the market five years after our data were collected. We provide an additional proof-of-concept application using opensource images of dining room chairs.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Syukri Rizki;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    Besides serving as a means of entertainment, a hikayat in Aceh plays a salient role when it comes to inculcating the Islamic values to perform jihad. An epic Hikayat Prang Sabi – which is written in Acehnese Jawi – is evident to spur the Acehnese people to struggle against the Dutch invaders during the Aceh War. Numerous studies have been conducted on this hikayat to scrutinize the striking motivation it harbors. Noticeably, the hikayat is proof that Acehnese Jawi became an effective medium in successfully transmitting the da’wa to defend land and soul. However, the orthography, unlike Malay Jawi, now suffers from the lack of attention in terms of its writing system. Therefore, it is imperative to study how the orthography is employed so that it had such sheer readability in communicating the divine message. For this reason, this study attempts to unravel the Jawi writing system employed by the author in writing the hikayat. Content analysis is conducted on the script of the hikayat which is the subject of this study. It is found that the hikayat is written in various Acehnese dialects, which then affect the Jawi spelling. The Acehnese Jawi in the hikayat does share the same spelling in some words with Malay Jawi even though pronounced differently. A plethora of Arabic loanwords maintains their original spellings in Acehnese Jawi while some others are customized to suit the progressive change of local pronunciation and due to the attachment of prefixes and suffixes.

  • Publication . Article . 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Mark Schankerman; Florian Schuett;
    Countries: Netherlands, Belgium

    Abstract Critics claim that patent screening is ineffective, granting low-quality patents that impose unnecessary social costs. We develop an integrated framework, involving patent office examination, fees, and endogenous validity challenges in the courts, to study patent screening both theoretically and quantitatively. In our model, some inventions require the patent incentive while others do not, and asymmetric information creates a need for screening. We show that the endogeneity of challenges implies that courts, even if perfect, cannot solve the screening problem. Simulations of the model, calibrated on U.S. data, indicate that screening is highly imperfect, with almost half of all patents issued on inventions that do not require the patent incentive. While we find that the current patent system generates positive social value, intensifying examination would yield large welfare gains. The social value of the patent system would also be larger if complemented by antitrust limits on licensing.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Carolyn L. Hsu; Jessica C. Teets; Reza Hasmath; Jennifer Y.J. Hsu; Timothy Hildebrandt;
    Publisher: Informa UK Limited

    Citizenship education has been an explicit part of the universal education system in contemporary China. Using data from an original nationwide survey conducted in 2018, we test the hypothesis that the longer the intensity of exposure to citizenship education, the more citizens are influenced by a state-led conception of citizenship characterized by obedience and loyalty to the state. We find mixed results in that citizenship education is effective at lower educational levels, but at higher levels it is not only ineffective, but fosters (or at minimum, does not deter) a more active conception and performance of citizenship.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Lucio Laureti; Alberto Costantiello; Leogrande Angelo;
    Publisher: Preprints

    Abstract In this article we investigate the impact of “Renewable Electricity Output” on green economy in the context of circular economy for 193 countries in the period 2011-2020. We use data from World Bank ESG framework. We perform Panel Data with Fixed Effects, Panel Data with Random Effects, WLS, and Pooled OLS. Our results show that Renewable Electricity Output is positively associated, among others, to “Adjusted Savings-Net Forest Depletion” and “Renewable Energy Consumption” and negatively associated, among others, to “CO2 Emission” and “Cooling Degree Days”. Furthermore, we perform a cluster analysis implementing the k-Means algorithm optimized with the Elbow Method and we find the presence of 4 clusters. Finally, we confront seven different machine learning algorithms to predict the future level of “Renewable Electricity Output”. Our results show that Linear Regression is the best algorithm and that the future value of renewable electricity output is predicted to growth on average at a rate of 0.83% for the selected countries.

  • Publication . Report . Other literature type . Article . 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Stefania Albanesi; Claudia Olivetti; Barbara Petrongolo;
    Publisher: University of Oxford
    Country: United Kingdom

    Using comparable data for 24 countries since the 1970s, we document gender convergence in schooling, employment and earnings, marriage delay and the accompanying decline in fertility, and the large remaining gaps in labor market outcomes, especially among parents. A model of time allocation illustrates how the specialization of spouses in home or market production responds to preferences, comparative advantages and public policies. We draw lessons from existing evidence on the impacts of family policies on women’s careers and children’s wellbeing. There is to date little or no evidence of beneficial effects of longer parental leave (or fathers’ quotas) on maternal participation and earnings. In most cases longer leave de lays mothers’ return to work, without long-lasting consequences on their careers. More generous childcare funding instead encourages female participation whenever subsidized childcare replaces maternal childcare. Impacts on child development de pend on counterfactual childcare arrangements and tend to be more beneficial for disadvantaged households. In-work benefits targeted to low-earners have clear positive impacts on lone mothers’ employment and negligible impacts on other groups. While most of this literature takes policy as exogenous, political economy aspects of policy adoption help understand the interplay between societal changes, family policies and gender equality.