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  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Acerbi, A; Snyder, W; Tennie, C;
    Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: EC | STONECULT (714658)

    The method of exclusion identifies patterns of distributions of behaviours and/or artefact forms among different groups, where these patterns are deemed unlikely to arise from purely genetic and/or ecological factors. The presence of such patterns is often used to establish whether a species is cultural or not—i.e. whether a species uses social learning or not. Researchers using or describing this method have often pointed out that the method cannot pinpoint which specific type(s) of social learning resulted in the observed patterns. However, the literature continues to contain such inferences. In a new attempt to warn against these logically unwarranted conclusions, we illustrate this error using a novel approach. We use an individual-based model, focused on wild ape cultural patterns—as these patterns are the best-known cases of animal culture and as they also contain the most frequent usage of the unwarranted inference for specific social learning mechanisms. We built a model that contained agents unable to copy specifics of behavioural or artefact forms beyond their individual reach (which we define as “copying”). We did so, as some of the previous inference claims related to social learning mechanisms revolve around copying defined in this way. The results of our model however show that non-copying social learning can already reproduce the defining—even iconic—features of observed ape cultural patterns detected by the method of exclusion. This shows, using a novel model approach, that copying processes are not necessary to produce the cultural patterns that are sometimes still used in an attempt to identify copying processes. Additionally, our model could fully control for both environmental and genetic factors (impossible in real life) and thus offers a new validity check for the method of exclusion as related to general cultural claims—a check that the method passed. Our model also led to new and additional findings, which we likewise discuss. European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (Grant Agreement No 714658; STONECULT project).

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Matthias Arnold; Duncan Paterson; Jia Xie;
    Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC
    Country: Germany
    Project: EC | READCHINA (757365)

    AbstractIt is tempting to assume that FAIR data principles effectively apply globally. In practice, digital research platforms play a central role in ensuring the applicability of these principles to research exchange, where General Data Protection Regulation (EU) and Multi Level Protection Scheme 2.0 (PRC) provide the overarching legal frameworks. For this article, we conduct a systematic review of research into Chinese Republican newspapers as it appears in Chinese academic journal databases. We experimentally compare the results of repeated search runs using different interfaces and with different points of origin. We then analyze our results regarding the practical and technical accessibility conditions. Concluding with an analysis of conceptual mismatches surrounding the classification of items as “full-text“, and of a case of total data loss that is nevertheless symptomatic of the limited degree of data re-usability. Our results show structural challenges preventing Findability, Accessibility, Interoperability, and Re-usability from being put into practice. Since these experiments draw upon our Digital Humanities (DH) research, we include a state-of-the-field overview of historical Periodicals and digitization research in the PRC. Our research on the one hand addresses DH practitioners interested in digital collections, and technical aspects of document processing with a focus on historical Chinese sources. On the other hand, our experience is helpful to researchers irrespective of the topic. Our article is accompanied by a data publication containing sources and results of our experiments, as well as an online bibliography of the research articles we collected.

  • Publication . Article . 2022 . Embargo End Date: 16 Nov 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Harm Brouwer; Matthew W. Crocker; Noortje J. Venhuizen; John Hoeks;
    Publisher: Universität des Saarlandes
    Project: EC | LANPERCEPT (316748)

    Abstract Ten years ago, researchers using event‐related brain potentials (ERPs) to study language comprehension were puzzled by what looked like a Semantic Illusion: Semantically anomalous, but structurally well‐formed sentences did not affect the N400 component—traditionally taken to reflect semantic integration—but instead produced a P600 effect, which is generally linked to syntactic processing. This finding led to a considerable amount of debate, and a number of complex processing models have been proposed as an explanation. What these models have in common is that they postulate two or more separate processing streams, in order to reconcile the Semantic Illusion and other semantically induced P600 effects with the traditional interpretations of the N400 and the P600. Recently, however, these multi‐stream models have been called into question, and a simpler single‐stream model has been proposed. According to this alternative model, the N400 component reflects the retrieval of word meaning from semantic memory, and the P600 component indexes the integration of this meaning into the unfolding utterance interpretation. In the present paper, we provide support for this “Retrieval–Integration (RI)” account by instantiating it as a neurocomputational model. This neurocomputational model is the first to successfully simulate the N400 and P600 amplitude in language comprehension, and simulations with this model provide a proof of concept of the single‐stream RI account of semantically induced patterns of N400 and P600 modulations.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Markel Gómez-Letona; Marta Sebastián; Isabel Baños; María Fernanda Montero; Clàudia Pérez Barrancos; Moritz Baumann; Ulf Riebesell; Javier Arístegui;
    Publisher: Frontiers
    Countries: Spain, Germany
    Project: EC | Ocean artUp (695094), EC | TRIATLAS (817578)

    In the face of climate change there is a need to reduce atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Artificial upwelling of nutrient-rich deep waters has been proposed as a method to enhance the biological carbon pump in oligotrophic oceanic regions in order to increase carbon sequestration. Here we examine the effect of different artificial upwelling intensities and modes (single pulse versus recurring pulses) on the dynamics of the dissolved organic matter pool (DOM). We introduced nutrient-rich deep water to large scale mesocosms (~44 m3) in the oligotrophic subtropical North Atlantic and found that artificial upwelling strongly increased DOM concentrations and changed its characteristics. The magnitude of the observed changes was related to the upwelling intensity: more intense treatments led to higher accumulation of dissolved organic carbon (>70 μM of excess DOC over ambient waters for the most intense) and to comparatively stronger changes in DOM characteristics (increased proportions of chromophoric DOM (CDOM) and humic-like fluorescent DOM), suggesting a transformation of the DOM pool at the molecular level. Moreover, the single upwelling pulse resulted in higher CDOM quantities with higher molecular weight than the recurring upwelling mode. Together, our results indicate that under artificial upwelling, large DOM pools may accumulate in the surface ocean without being remineralized in the short-term. Possible reasons for this persistence could be a combination of the molecular diversification of DOM due to microbial reworking, nutrient limitation and reduced metabolic capabilities of the prokaryotic communities within the mesocosms. Our study demonstrates the importance of the DOC pool when assessing the carbon sequestration potential of artificial upwelling This study is a contribution to the Ocean Artificial Upwelling project (Ocean artUp), funded by an Advanced Grant of the European Research Council (No. 695094). Additional support was provided through projects TRIATLAS (AMD-817578-5) from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 and e-IMPACT (PID2019-109084RB-C21) funded by the Spanish National Science Plan. MG-L is supported by the Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovación y Universidades, Gobierno de España (FPU17-01435) during his PhD. MS is supported by the Project MIAU (RTI2018-101025-B-I00) and the ‘Severo Ochoa Centre of Excellence’ accreditation (CEX2019-000928-S). JA is supported by a Helmholtz International Fellow Award, 2015 (Helmholtz Association, Germany). JA is supported by the United States National Science Foundation grant OCE-1840868 to the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR, United States) WG 155 17 pages, 8 figures, 1 table, supplementary material https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2022.969714/full#supplementary-material.-- Data availability statement: The data presented in the study are deposited in the PANGAEA repository, DOI https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.946776 (Gómez-Letona et al., 2022) Peer reviewed

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Niels Meijer; Guillaume Dupont‐Nivet; Alexis Licht; Pierrick Roperch; Alexander Rohrmann; Aijun Sun; Shengcheng Lu; Amber Woutersen; Norbert Nowaczyk;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: Germany, France, France, France, France
    Project: EC | MAGIC (649081)

    International audience; The Cenozoic strata of the Xining Basin, NE Tibet, have provided crucial records for understanding the tectonic and paleo-environmental evolution of the region. Yet, the age for the lower part of the sedimentary stratigraphy and consequently the early tectonic evolution of the basin remain debated. Here, we present the litho- and magnetostratigraphy of various early Eocene sections throughout the Xining Basin and provide two possible age models independently constrained by the radiometric age of a carbonate bed. Our study extends the dated Eocene stratigraphy down to an unconformity at 53.0 Ma, which is coeval with increased uplift of the nearby Western Qinling Shan and the formation of flexural basins in northern Tibet related to the far-field effects of the India-Asia collision. However, the Paleogene Xining Basin lacks the characteristic features of these foreland basins such as high sedimentation rates and coarsening due to foredeep propagation, which appear only later during the Neogene. Instead, the strata show NW-SE extensional features during the Cretaceous. Here, we propose that this regime persisted until the Paleogene, coeval with Eocene grabens developing further east and related to the subduction of the Pacific Plate. Yet, the rotations and unconformities observed in the Xining Basin strata show that the basin was increasingly affected by the growing Tibetan Plateau throughout the Paleogene and Neogene while experiencing a transition from extension to transpression and/or transtension.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Linda Juel Ahrenfeldt; Lasse Lybecker Scheel-Hincke; Karen Andersen-Ranberg; Sören Möller; Tine Bovil; Christian Tolstrup Wester;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Project: EC | SSHOC (823782), EC | SHARE-COHESION (870628), EC | SERISS (654221), EC | SHARE-DEV3 (676536)
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Rubén López-Bueno; Lars Louis Andersen; Joaquín Calatayud; José Casaña; Lee Smith; Louis Jacob; Ai Koyanagi; José Francisco López-Gil; Borja del Pozo Cruz;
    Country: Spain
    Project: EC | SHARE-DEV3 (676536), EC | SSHOC (823782), EC | SHARE-COHESION (870628), EC | SERISS (654221)

    To date, there is no study addressing the time-varying confounding bias in the association of handgrip strength (HGS) with all-cause or cardiovascular mortality. Therefore, we conducted marginal structural models (MSM) to provide causal estimations on the associations of HGS with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in a representative sample of adults aged 50 years or older. Data from 29 countries including 121,116 participants (276,994 observations; mean age 63.7 years; 56.3 % women) free from prior heart attack or stroke were retrieved from consecutive waves of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). During a median of 7.7 years follow-up (interquartile range 3.8–11.8) and 1,009,862 person-years, 6407 participants (5.3 %) died due to all causes, and 2263 (1.9 %) died due to cardiovascular diseases. Using repeated measures of handheld dynamometry, we determined absolute and relative to body mass index HGS of each participant. We applied adjusted MSM to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) associated with changes over time in HGS addressing the time-varying confounding bias. An increase of 5 kg in HGS was associated with a reduced risk of all-cause [HR 0.86, 95 % confidence interval (CI), 0.86–0.90], overall cardiovascular (HR 0.86, 95 % CI 0.82–0.86), heart attack (HR 0.90, 95 % CI 0.86–0.95), and stroke (HR 0.86, 95 % CI 0.82–0.90) mortality. The associations of relative HGS were of stronger magnitude in all cases. Our findings provide critical evidence on the importance of increasing general muscle strength in older adults to reduce mortality risk, particularly concerning cardiovascular causes.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Joan Costa-Font; Cristina Vilaplana-Prieto;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Project: EC | SSHOC (823782), EC | SHARE-COHESION (870628), EC | SERISS (654221), EC | SHARE-DEV3 (676536)
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    R. Mey; J. Calatayud; J. Casaña; R. Torres-Castro; F. Cuenca-Martínez; L. Suso-Martí; L.L. Andersen; R. López-Bueno;
    Countries: Denmark, Spain
    Project: EC | SSHOC (823782), EC | SHARE-COHESION (870628), EC | DASISH (283646), EC | SHARE-DEV3 (676536), EC | SHARE_M4 (261982), EC | SHARE_LEAP (227822), EC | SHARE-PREP (211909), EC | SERISS (654221)

    BACKGROUND: While the association between handgrip strength and all-cause mortality is more deeply explored, no previous studies have been specifically focused on handgrip strength and respiratory disease mortality. The purpose of the study was to investigate the association between handgrip strength and respiratory disease mortality in a large representative sample.METHODS: Individuals aged 50 or over from 27 European countries and Israel participated in this longitudinal study. Data on handgrip strength and all-cause and respiratory disease mortality were retrieved from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) waves 1, 2, 4, 5, 6 and 7. We estimated the sub hazard ratios (SHRs) for respiratory disease mortality using a Fine-Gray sub-distribution method with both time-varying exposure and covariates and mortality due to other causes as competing risk. Furthermore, we assessed dose-response associations of handgrip strength (modelled as a continuous exposure) with respiratory disease mortality using restricted cubic splines and estimated hazard ratios (HRs).RESULTS: We included 60,883 men and 74,904 women with a mean age of 63.6 (SD 9.7) years at study entry. During a median (interquartile range) of 7.4 years of follow-up 565 (0.4%) participants died due to respiratory diseases. The increase of 1 single kg of handgrip strength showed a 6% incidence reduction on respiratory disease mortality (SHR, 0.94; 95%CI, 0.92-0.96) after adjusting for potential confounders. Furthermore, each kg increase of handgrip strength reduced respiratory disease mortality risk in a dose-response fashion and a significant threshold for values of 41 kg (HR, 0.49; 95%CI, 0.26-0.92) and higher was identified.CONCLUSIONS: Higher handgrip strength is associated with lower mortality due to respiratory disease. Intervention studies are needed to determine whether strength training in respiratory disease patients can prevent premature mortality.

  • Publication . Article . Conference object . Preprint . 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Valentin Hofmann; Janet B. Pierrehumbert; Hinrich Schütze;
    Publisher: Association for Computational Linguistics
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: EC | NonSequeToR (740516)

    Static word embeddings that represent words by a single vector cannot capture the variability of word meaning in different linguistic and extralinguistic contexts. Building on prior work on contextualized and dynamic word embeddings, we introduce dynamic contextualized word embeddings that represent words as a function of both linguistic and extralinguistic context. Based on a pretrained language model (PLM), dynamic contextualized word embeddings model time and social space jointly, which makes them attractive for a range of NLP tasks involving semantic variability. We highlight potential application scenarios by means of qualitative and quantitative analyses on four English datasets. ACL 2021

Advanced search in Research products
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
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Include:
The following results are related to Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
1,039 Research products, page 1 of 104
  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Acerbi, A; Snyder, W; Tennie, C;
    Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: EC | STONECULT (714658)

    The method of exclusion identifies patterns of distributions of behaviours and/or artefact forms among different groups, where these patterns are deemed unlikely to arise from purely genetic and/or ecological factors. The presence of such patterns is often used to establish whether a species is cultural or not—i.e. whether a species uses social learning or not. Researchers using or describing this method have often pointed out that the method cannot pinpoint which specific type(s) of social learning resulted in the observed patterns. However, the literature continues to contain such inferences. In a new attempt to warn against these logically unwarranted conclusions, we illustrate this error using a novel approach. We use an individual-based model, focused on wild ape cultural patterns—as these patterns are the best-known cases of animal culture and as they also contain the most frequent usage of the unwarranted inference for specific social learning mechanisms. We built a model that contained agents unable to copy specifics of behavioural or artefact forms beyond their individual reach (which we define as “copying”). We did so, as some of the previous inference claims related to social learning mechanisms revolve around copying defined in this way. The results of our model however show that non-copying social learning can already reproduce the defining—even iconic—features of observed ape cultural patterns detected by the method of exclusion. This shows, using a novel model approach, that copying processes are not necessary to produce the cultural patterns that are sometimes still used in an attempt to identify copying processes. Additionally, our model could fully control for both environmental and genetic factors (impossible in real life) and thus offers a new validity check for the method of exclusion as related to general cultural claims—a check that the method passed. Our model also led to new and additional findings, which we likewise discuss. European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (Grant Agreement No 714658; STONECULT project).

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Matthias Arnold; Duncan Paterson; Jia Xie;
    Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC
    Country: Germany
    Project: EC | READCHINA (757365)

    AbstractIt is tempting to assume that FAIR data principles effectively apply globally. In practice, digital research platforms play a central role in ensuring the applicability of these principles to research exchange, where General Data Protection Regulation (EU) and Multi Level Protection Scheme 2.0 (PRC) provide the overarching legal frameworks. For this article, we conduct a systematic review of research into Chinese Republican newspapers as it appears in Chinese academic journal databases. We experimentally compare the results of repeated search runs using different interfaces and with different points of origin. We then analyze our results regarding the practical and technical accessibility conditions. Concluding with an analysis of conceptual mismatches surrounding the classification of items as “full-text“, and of a case of total data loss that is nevertheless symptomatic of the limited degree of data re-usability. Our results show structural challenges preventing Findability, Accessibility, Interoperability, and Re-usability from being put into practice. Since these experiments draw upon our Digital Humanities (DH) research, we include a state-of-the-field overview of historical Periodicals and digitization research in the PRC. Our research on the one hand addresses DH practitioners interested in digital collections, and technical aspects of document processing with a focus on historical Chinese sources. On the other hand, our experience is helpful to researchers irrespective of the topic. Our article is accompanied by a data publication containing sources and results of our experiments, as well as an online bibliography of the research articles we collected.

  • Publication . Article . 2022 . Embargo End Date: 16 Nov 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Harm Brouwer; Matthew W. Crocker; Noortje J. Venhuizen; John Hoeks;
    Publisher: Universität des Saarlandes
    Project: EC | LANPERCEPT (316748)

    Abstract Ten years ago, researchers using event‐related brain potentials (ERPs) to study language comprehension were puzzled by what looked like a Semantic Illusion: Semantically anomalous, but structurally well‐formed sentences did not affect the N400 component—traditionally taken to reflect semantic integration—but instead produced a P600 effect, which is generally linked to syntactic processing. This finding led to a considerable amount of debate, and a number of complex processing models have been proposed as an explanation. What these models have in common is that they postulate two or more separate processing streams, in order to reconcile the Semantic Illusion and other semantically induced P600 effects with the traditional interpretations of the N400 and the P600. Recently, however, these multi‐stream models have been called into question, and a simpler single‐stream model has been proposed. According to this alternative model, the N400 component reflects the retrieval of word meaning from semantic memory, and the P600 component indexes the integration of this meaning into the unfolding utterance interpretation. In the present paper, we provide support for this “Retrieval–Integration (RI)” account by instantiating it as a neurocomputational model. This neurocomputational model is the first to successfully simulate the N400 and P600 amplitude in language comprehension, and simulations with this model provide a proof of concept of the single‐stream RI account of semantically induced patterns of N400 and P600 modulations.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Markel Gómez-Letona; Marta Sebastián; Isabel Baños; María Fernanda Montero; Clàudia Pérez Barrancos; Moritz Baumann; Ulf Riebesell; Javier Arístegui;
    Publisher: Frontiers
    Countries: Spain, Germany
    Project: EC | Ocean artUp (695094), EC | TRIATLAS (817578)

    In the face of climate change there is a need to reduce atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Artificial upwelling of nutrient-rich deep waters has been proposed as a method to enhance the biological carbon pump in oligotrophic oceanic regions in order to increase carbon sequestration. Here we examine the effect of different artificial upwelling intensities and modes (single pulse versus recurring pulses) on the dynamics of the dissolved organic matter pool (DOM). We introduced nutrient-rich deep water to large scale mesocosms (~44 m3) in the oligotrophic subtropical North Atlantic and found that artificial upwelling strongly increased DOM concentrations and changed its characteristics. The magnitude of the observed changes was related to the upwelling intensity: more intense treatments led to higher accumulation of dissolved organic carbon (>70 μM of excess DOC over ambient waters for the most intense) and to comparatively stronger changes in DOM characteristics (increased proportions of chromophoric DOM (CDOM) and humic-like fluorescent DOM), suggesting a transformation of the DOM pool at the molecular level. Moreover, the single upwelling pulse resulted in higher CDOM quantities with higher molecular weight than the recurring upwelling mode. Together, our results indicate that under artificial upwelling, large DOM pools may accumulate in the surface ocean without being remineralized in the short-term. Possible reasons for this persistence could be a combination of the molecular diversification of DOM due to microbial reworking, nutrient limitation and reduced metabolic capabilities of the prokaryotic communities within the mesocosms. Our study demonstrates the importance of the DOC pool when assessing the carbon sequestration potential of artificial upwelling This study is a contribution to the Ocean Artificial Upwelling project (Ocean artUp), funded by an Advanced Grant of the European Research Council (No. 695094). Additional support was provided through projects TRIATLAS (AMD-817578-5) from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 and e-IMPACT (PID2019-109084RB-C21) funded by the Spanish National Science Plan. MG-L is supported by the Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovación y Universidades, Gobierno de España (FPU17-01435) during his PhD. MS is supported by the Project MIAU (RTI2018-101025-B-I00) and the ‘Severo Ochoa Centre of Excellence’ accreditation (CEX2019-000928-S). JA is supported by a Helmholtz International Fellow Award, 2015 (Helmholtz Association, Germany). JA is supported by the United States National Science Foundation grant OCE-1840868 to the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR, United States) WG 155 17 pages, 8 figures, 1 table, supplementary material https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2022.969714/full#supplementary-material.-- Data availability statement: The data presented in the study are deposited in the PANGAEA repository, DOI https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.946776 (Gómez-Letona et al., 2022) Peer reviewed

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Niels Meijer; Guillaume Dupont‐Nivet; Alexis Licht; Pierrick Roperch; Alexander Rohrmann; Aijun Sun; Shengcheng Lu; Amber Woutersen; Norbert Nowaczyk;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: Germany, France, France, France, France
    Project: EC | MAGIC (649081)

    International audience; The Cenozoic strata of the Xining Basin, NE Tibet, have provided crucial records for understanding the tectonic and paleo-environmental evolution of the region. Yet, the age for the lower part of the sedimentary stratigraphy and consequently the early tectonic evolution of the basin remain debated. Here, we present the litho- and magnetostratigraphy of various early Eocene sections throughout the Xining Basin and provide two possible age models independently constrained by the radiometric age of a carbonate bed. Our study extends the dated Eocene stratigraphy down to an unconformity at 53.0 Ma, which is coeval with increased uplift of the nearby Western Qinling Shan and the formation of flexural basins in northern Tibet related to the far-field effects of the India-Asia collision. However, the Paleogene Xining Basin lacks the characteristic features of these foreland basins such as high sedimentation rates and coarsening due to foredeep propagation, which appear only later during the Neogene. Instead, the strata show NW-SE extensional features during the Cretaceous. Here, we propose that this regime persisted until the Paleogene, coeval with Eocene grabens developing further east and related to the subduction of the Pacific Plate. Yet, the rotations and unconformities observed in the Xining Basin strata show that the basin was increasingly affected by the growing Tibetan Plateau throughout the Paleogene and Neogene while experiencing a transition from extension to transpression and/or transtension.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Linda Juel Ahrenfeldt; Lasse Lybecker Scheel-Hincke; Karen Andersen-Ranberg; Sören Möller; Tine Bovil; Christian Tolstrup Wester;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Project: EC | SSHOC (823782), EC | SHARE-COHESION (870628), EC | SERISS (654221), EC | SHARE-DEV3 (676536)
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Rubén López-Bueno; Lars Louis Andersen; Joaquín Calatayud; José Casaña; Lee Smith; Louis Jacob; Ai Koyanagi; José Francisco López-Gil; Borja del Pozo Cruz;
    Country: Spain
    Project: EC | SHARE-DEV3 (676536), EC | SSHOC (823782), EC | SHARE-COHESION (870628), EC | SERISS (654221)

    To date, there is no study addressing the time-varying confounding bias in the association of handgrip strength (HGS) with all-cause or cardiovascular mortality. Therefore, we conducted marginal structural models (MSM) to provide causal estimations on the associations of HGS with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in a representative sample of adults aged 50 years or older. Data from 29 countries including 121,116 participants (276,994 observations; mean age 63.7 years; 56.3 % women) free from prior heart attack or stroke were retrieved from consecutive waves of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). During a median of 7.7 years follow-up (interquartile range 3.8–11.8) and 1,009,862 person-years, 6407 participants (5.3 %) died due to all causes, and 2263 (1.9 %) died due to cardiovascular diseases. Using repeated measures of handheld dynamometry, we determined absolute and relative to body mass index HGS of each participant. We applied adjusted MSM to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) associated with changes over time in HGS addressing the time-varying confounding bias. An increase of 5 kg in HGS was associated with a reduced risk of all-cause [HR 0.86, 95 % confidence interval (CI), 0.86–0.90], overall cardiovascular (HR 0.86, 95 % CI 0.82–0.86), heart attack (HR 0.90, 95 % CI 0.86–0.95), and stroke (HR 0.86, 95 % CI 0.82–0.90) mortality. The associations of relative HGS were of stronger magnitude in all cases. Our findings provide critical evidence on the importance of increasing general muscle strength in older adults to reduce mortality risk, particularly concerning cardiovascular causes.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Joan Costa-Font; Cristina Vilaplana-Prieto;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Project: EC | SSHOC (823782), EC | SHARE-COHESION (870628), EC | SERISS (654221), EC | SHARE-DEV3 (676536)
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    R. Mey; J. Calatayud; J. Casaña; R. Torres-Castro; F. Cuenca-Martínez; L. Suso-Martí; L.L. Andersen; R. López-Bueno;
    Countries: Denmark, Spain
    Project: EC | SSHOC (823782), EC | SHARE-COHESION (870628), EC | DASISH (283646), EC | SHARE-DEV3 (676536), EC | SHARE_M4 (261982), EC | SHARE_LEAP (227822), EC | SHARE-PREP (211909), EC | SERISS (654221)

    BACKGROUND: While the association between handgrip strength and all-cause mortality is more deeply explored, no previous studies have been specifically focused on handgrip strength and respiratory disease mortality. The purpose of the study was to investigate the association between handgrip strength and respiratory disease mortality in a large representative sample.METHODS: Individuals aged 50 or over from 27 European countries and Israel participated in this longitudinal study. Data on handgrip strength and all-cause and respiratory disease mortality were retrieved from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) waves 1, 2, 4, 5, 6 and 7. We estimated the sub hazard ratios (SHRs) for respiratory disease mortality using a Fine-Gray sub-distribution method with both time-varying exposure and covariates and mortality due to other causes as competing risk. Furthermore, we assessed dose-response associations of handgrip strength (modelled as a continuous exposure) with respiratory disease mortality using restricted cubic splines and estimated hazard ratios (HRs).RESULTS: We included 60,883 men and 74,904 women with a mean age of 63.6 (SD 9.7) years at study entry. During a median (interquartile range) of 7.4 years of follow-up 565 (0.4%) participants died due to respiratory diseases. The increase of 1 single kg of handgrip strength showed a 6% incidence reduction on respiratory disease mortality (SHR, 0.94; 95%CI, 0.92-0.96) after adjusting for potential confounders. Furthermore, each kg increase of handgrip strength reduced respiratory disease mortality risk in a dose-response fashion and a significant threshold for values of 41 kg (HR, 0.49; 95%CI, 0.26-0.92) and higher was identified.CONCLUSIONS: Higher handgrip strength is associated with lower mortality due to respiratory disease. Intervention studies are needed to determine whether strength training in respiratory disease patients can prevent premature mortality.

  • Publication . Article . Conference object . Preprint . 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Valentin Hofmann; Janet B. Pierrehumbert; Hinrich Schütze;
    Publisher: Association for Computational Linguistics
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: EC | NonSequeToR (740516)

    Static word embeddings that represent words by a single vector cannot capture the variability of word meaning in different linguistic and extralinguistic contexts. Building on prior work on contextualized and dynamic word embeddings, we introduce dynamic contextualized word embeddings that represent words as a function of both linguistic and extralinguistic context. Based on a pretrained language model (PLM), dynamic contextualized word embeddings model time and social space jointly, which makes them attractive for a range of NLP tasks involving semantic variability. We highlight potential application scenarios by means of qualitative and quantitative analyses on four English datasets. ACL 2021