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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Harm Brouwer; Matthew W. Crocker; Noortje J. Venhuizen; John Hoeks;
    Publisher: John Wiley and Sons Inc.
    Project: EC | LANPERCEPT (316748)

    Abstract Ten years ago, researchers using event‐related brain potentials (ERPs) to study language comprehension were puzzled by what looked like a Semantic Illusion: Semantically anomalous, but structurally well‐formed sentences did not affect the N400 component—traditionally taken to reflect semantic integration—but instead produced a P600 effect, which is generally linked to syntactic processing. This finding led to a considerable amount of debate, and a number of complex processing models have been proposed as an explanation. What these models have in common is that they postulate two or more separate processing streams, in order to reconcile the Semantic Illusion and other semantically induced P600 effects with the traditional interpretations of the N400 and the P600. Recently, however, these multi‐stream models have been called into question, and a simpler single‐stream model has been proposed. According to this alternative model, the N400 component reflects the retrieval of word meaning from semantic memory, and the P600 component indexes the integration of this meaning into the unfolding utterance interpretation. In the present paper, we provide support for this “Retrieval–Integration (RI)” account by instantiating it as a neurocomputational model. This neurocomputational model is the first to successfully simulate the N400 and P600 amplitude in language comprehension, and simulations with this model provide a proof of concept of the single‐stream RI account of semantically induced patterns of N400 and P600 modulations.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Francesco Iacono; Elisabetta Borgna; Maurizio Cattani; Claudio Cavazzuti; Helen Dawson; Yannis Galanakis; Maja Gori; Cristiano Iaia; Nicola Ialongo; Thibault Lachenal; +7 more
    Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC
    Countries: Italy, Germany, France, United Kingdom, Spain
    Project: EC | WEIGHTANDVALUE (648055)

    AbstractThe Late Bronze Age (1700–900 BC) represents an extremely dynamic period for Mediterranean Europe. Here, we provide a comparative survey of the archaeological record of over half a millennium within the entire northern littoral of the Mediterranean, from Greece to Iberia, incorporating archaeological, archaeometric, and bioarchaeological evidence. The picture that emerges, while certainly fragmented and not displaying a unique trajectory, reveals a number of broad trends in aspects as different as social organization, trade, transcultural phenomena, and human mobility. The contribution of such trends to the processes that caused the end of the Bronze Age is also examined. Taken together, they illustrate how networks of interaction, ranging from the short to the long range, became a defining aspect of the “Middle Sea” during this time, influencing the lives of the communities that inhabited its northern shore. They also highlight the importance of research that crosses modern boundaries for gaining a better understanding of broad comparable dynamics. Funder: Alma Mater Studiorum - Università di Bologna

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Anna S. Antonova; Arvid van Dam;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Project: EC | ENHANCE (642935)

    Abstract While European integration has predominantly been addressed in terms of its common market and through questions of European identity, this article explores alternate perspectives of environment in peripheral landscapes as a practice through which European center-periphery relations are negotiated. Drawing on two case studies, namely the Bulgarian Black Sea coast and the arid regions of Almeria in southeast Spain, we highlight how these landscapes have been variously framed as explicitly European spaces through either developmental narratives or environmental activism and advocacy. We argue that European integration is realized and contested through the discursive and material transformation of landscapes. With this, we contribute to an understanding of environmentalism and the politics of the environment as instrumental in addressing broader and parallel political concerns. Combining southern and eastern European perspectives on the political geography of the environment, we show that the landscape functions as an intrinsically political arena that materializes and discursively frames the different meanings and interests of European integration at stake.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Sara Silvestrini; Matteo Romandini; Giulia Marciani; Simona Arrighi; Lisa Carrera; Andrea Fiorini; Juan Manuel López-García; Federico Lugli; Filomena Ranaldo; Viviane Slon; +10 more
    Country: Italy
    Project: EC | SUCCESS (724046)

    The Middle to Upper Palaeolithic transition, between 50 000 and 40 000 years ago, is a period of important ecological and cultural changes. In this framework, the Rock Shelter of Uluzzo C (Apulia, southern Italy) represents an important site due to Late Mousterian and Uluzzian evidence preserved in its stratigraphic sequence. Here, we present the results of a multidisciplinary analysis performed on the materials collected between 2016 and 2018 from the Uluzzian stratigraphic units (SUs) 3, 15 and 17. The analysis involved lithic technology, use-wear, zooarchaeology, ancient DNA of sediments and palaeoproteomics, completed by quartz single-grain optically stimulated luminescence dating of the cave sediments. The lithic assemblage is characterized by a volumetric production and a debitage with no or little management of the convexities (by using the bipolar technique), with the objective to produce bladelets and flakelets. The zooarchaeological study found evidence of butchery activity and of the possible exploitation of marine resources, while drawing a picture of a patchy landscape, composed of open forests and dry open environments surrounding the shelter. Ancient mitochondrial DNA from two mammalian taxa were recovered from the sediments. Preliminary zooarchaeology by mass spectrometry results are consistent with ancient DNA and zooarchaeological taxonomic information, while further palaeoproteomics investigations are ongoing. Our new data from the re-discovery of the Uluzzo C Rock Shelter represent an important contribution to better understand the meaning of the Uluzzian in the context of the Middle/Upper Palaeolithic transition in south-eastern Italy.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Alyson A. van Raalte;
    Project: EC | LIFEINEQ (716323)

    In this paper, I examine progress in the field of mortality over the past 25 years. I argue that we have been most successful in taking advantage of an increasingly data-rich environment to improve aggregate mortality models and test pre-existing theories. Less progress has been made in relating our estimates of mortality risk at the individual level to broader mortality patterns at the population level while appropriately accounting for contextual differences and compositional change. Overall, I find that the field of mortality continues to be highly visible in demographic journals, including

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Yoolim Kim; Sandra Kotzor; Aditi Lahiri;
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: EC | MOR-PHON (695481)

    Korean can be transcribed in two different scripts, one alphabetic (Hangul) and one logographic (Hanja). How does the mental lexicon represent the contributions of multiple scripts? Hangul’s highly transparent one-to-one relationship between spellings and sounds creates homophones in spoken Korean that are also homographs in Hangul, which can only be disambiguated through Hanja. We thus tested whether native speakers encoded the semantic contributions of the different Hanja characters sharing the same homographic form in Hangul in their mental representation of Sino-Korean. Is processing modulated by the number of available meanings, that is, the size of the semantic cohort? In two cross-modal lexical decision tasks with semantic priming,participants were presented with auditory primes that were either syllables (Experiment 1) or full Sino-Korean words (Experiment 2), followed by visual Sino-Korean full word targets. In Experiment 1, reaction times were not significantly modulated by the size of the semantic cohort. However, in Experiment 2, we observed significantly faster reaction times for targets preceded by primes with larger semantic cohorts. We discuss these findings in relation to the structure of the mental lexicon for bi-scriptal languages and the representation of semantic cohorts across different scripts. 1. Introduction 2. Hanja and Hangul during processing 3. Experiment 1: Cross-modal fragment priming 3.1. Method 3.1.1. Participants 3.1.2. Materials and design 3.1.3. Procedure 3.2. Results 3.3. Discussion 4. Experiment 2: Cross-modal full word priming 4.1. Method 4.1.1. Participants 4.1.2. Materials and design 4.1.3. Procedure 4.2. Results 4.3. Discussion 5. General discussion 6. Conclusions

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Marian Trnka; Sakhia Darjaa; Marian Ritomský; Róbert Sabo; Milan Rusko; Meilin Schaper; Tim H. Stelkens-Kobsch;
    Publisher: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
    Country: Germany
    Project: EC | SATIE (832969)

    A frequently used procedure to examine the relationship between categorical and dimensional descriptions of emotions is to ask subjects to place verbal expressions representing emotions in a continuous multidimensional emotional space. This work chooses a different approach. It aims at creating a system predicting the values of Activation and Valence (AV) directly from the sound of emotional speech utterances without the use of its semantic content or any other additional information. The system uses X-vectors to represent sound characteristics of the utterance and Support Vector Regressor for the estimation the AV values. The system is trained on a pool of three publicly available databases with dimensional annotation of emotions. The quality of regression is evaluated on the test sets of the same databases. Mapping of categorical emotions to the dimensional space is tested on another pool of eight categorically annotated databases. The aim of the work was to test whether in each unseen database the predicted values of Valence and Activation will place emotion-tagged utterances in the AV space in accordance with expectations based on Russell’s circumplex model of affective space. Due to the great variability of speech data, clusters of emotions create overlapping clouds. Their average location can be represented by centroids. A hypothesis on the position of these centroids is formulated and evaluated. The system’s ability to separate the emotions is evaluated by measuring the distance of the centroids. It can be concluded that the system works as expected and the positions of the clusters follow the hypothesized rules. Although the variance in individual measurements is still very high and the overlap of emotion clusters is large, it can be stated that the AV coordinates predicted by the system lead to an observable separation of the emotions in accordance with the hypothesis. Knowledge from training databases can therefore be used to predict AV coordinates of unseen data of various origins. This could be used to detect high levels of stress or depression. With the appearance of more dimensionally annotated training data, the systems predicting emotional dimensions from speech sound will become more robust and usable in practical applications in call-centers, avatars, robots, information-providing systems, security applications, and the like.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ivan Sablin;
    Project: EC | ENTPAR (755504)

    AbstractThe article offers a detailed analysis of the debates at the All-Russian Democratic Conference and in the Provisional Council of the Russian Republic (the Pre-Parliament), which followed the proclamation of the republic on September 1, 1917, and predated the Bolshevik-led insurgency on October 25. The two assemblies were supposed to help resolve the multilayered political, economic, and military crises of the First World War and the Revolution by consolidating a Russian postimperial political community and establishing a solid government. The debates demonstrated that grievances and antagonism, which were articulated in terms of class and nationality, made the idea of a broad nationalist coalition unpopular, since it would halt agrarian and other reforms and continue the negligence of non-Russian groups. Furthermore, those who still called for all-Russian national or civic unity split on the issue of community-building. The top-down, homogenizing and bottom-up, composite approaches proved irreconcilable and precluded a compromise between non-socialist and moderate socialist groups. The two assemblies hence failed to ensure a peaceful continuation of the postimperial transformation and did not lead to a broad coalition against right and left radicalism. The divisions, which were articulated in the two assemblies, translated into the main rifts of the Russian Civil War.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Andrew E. Clark; Conchita D'Ambrosio; Ilke Onur; Rong Zhu;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Countries: France, Australia
    Project: EC | SERISS (654221), EC | SHARE-COHESION (870628), EC | SSHOC (823782), EC | SHARE-DEV3 (676536)

    This paper examines the empirical relationship between individuals’ cognitive and non-cognitive abilities and COVID-19 compliance behaviors using cross-country data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). We find that both cognitive and non-cognitive skills predict responsible health behaviors during the COVID-19 crisis. Episodic memory is the most important cognitive skill, while conscientiousness and neuroticism are the most significant personality traits. There is also some evidence of a role for an internal locus of control in compliance. usc Refereed/Peer-reviewed

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Basira Mir-Makhamad; Sirojidin Mirzaakhmedov; Husniddin Rahmonov; Sören Stark; Andrey Omel’chenko; Robert N. Spengler;
    Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC
    Project: EC | FEDD (851102)

    The urban center of Paykend was an exchange node just off the main corridor of the Silk Road in the Bukhara Oasis on the edge of the hyperarid Kyzyl–Kum Desert. The city was occupied from the end of 4 century B.C.E. to the mid–12 century C.E.; our study focuses on the Qarakhanid period (C.E. 999 – 1211), the last imperial phase of urban occupation at Paykend before its abandonment. In this study, we present the results of an analysis of archaeobotanical remains recovered from a multifunction rabat, which appears to have comprised a domicile, military structure, center of commerce, and/or a caravanserai, a roadside inn for travelers. We shed light on how people adapted a productive economy to the local ecological constraints. By adding these data to the limited Qarakhanid archaeobotany from across Central Asia, we provide the first glimpses into cultivation, commerce, and consumption at a Silk Road trading town along the King’s Road, the central artery of ancient Eurasia. Introduction Paykend and Its Environment Materials and Methods Results - Radiocarbon Dating - Archaeobotany - Domesticated Crops - Fruits and Nuts - Wild Herbaceous Plants Discussion - Taphonomy - Agriculture in the Hyper–Arid Desert -- Ecological Constraints - Arboriculture and Cash Crops at Paykend Conclusion

Advanced search in Research products
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
The following results are related to Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
320 Research products, page 1 of 32
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Harm Brouwer; Matthew W. Crocker; Noortje J. Venhuizen; John Hoeks;
    Publisher: John Wiley and Sons Inc.
    Project: EC | LANPERCEPT (316748)

    Abstract Ten years ago, researchers using event‐related brain potentials (ERPs) to study language comprehension were puzzled by what looked like a Semantic Illusion: Semantically anomalous, but structurally well‐formed sentences did not affect the N400 component—traditionally taken to reflect semantic integration—but instead produced a P600 effect, which is generally linked to syntactic processing. This finding led to a considerable amount of debate, and a number of complex processing models have been proposed as an explanation. What these models have in common is that they postulate two or more separate processing streams, in order to reconcile the Semantic Illusion and other semantically induced P600 effects with the traditional interpretations of the N400 and the P600. Recently, however, these multi‐stream models have been called into question, and a simpler single‐stream model has been proposed. According to this alternative model, the N400 component reflects the retrieval of word meaning from semantic memory, and the P600 component indexes the integration of this meaning into the unfolding utterance interpretation. In the present paper, we provide support for this “Retrieval–Integration (RI)” account by instantiating it as a neurocomputational model. This neurocomputational model is the first to successfully simulate the N400 and P600 amplitude in language comprehension, and simulations with this model provide a proof of concept of the single‐stream RI account of semantically induced patterns of N400 and P600 modulations.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Francesco Iacono; Elisabetta Borgna; Maurizio Cattani; Claudio Cavazzuti; Helen Dawson; Yannis Galanakis; Maja Gori; Cristiano Iaia; Nicola Ialongo; Thibault Lachenal; +7 more
    Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC
    Countries: Italy, Germany, France, United Kingdom, Spain
    Project: EC | WEIGHTANDVALUE (648055)

    AbstractThe Late Bronze Age (1700–900 BC) represents an extremely dynamic period for Mediterranean Europe. Here, we provide a comparative survey of the archaeological record of over half a millennium within the entire northern littoral of the Mediterranean, from Greece to Iberia, incorporating archaeological, archaeometric, and bioarchaeological evidence. The picture that emerges, while certainly fragmented and not displaying a unique trajectory, reveals a number of broad trends in aspects as different as social organization, trade, transcultural phenomena, and human mobility. The contribution of such trends to the processes that caused the end of the Bronze Age is also examined. Taken together, they illustrate how networks of interaction, ranging from the short to the long range, became a defining aspect of the “Middle Sea” during this time, influencing the lives of the communities that inhabited its northern shore. They also highlight the importance of research that crosses modern boundaries for gaining a better understanding of broad comparable dynamics. Funder: Alma Mater Studiorum - Università di Bologna

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Anna S. Antonova; Arvid van Dam;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Project: EC | ENHANCE (642935)

    Abstract While European integration has predominantly been addressed in terms of its common market and through questions of European identity, this article explores alternate perspectives of environment in peripheral landscapes as a practice through which European center-periphery relations are negotiated. Drawing on two case studies, namely the Bulgarian Black Sea coast and the arid regions of Almeria in southeast Spain, we highlight how these landscapes have been variously framed as explicitly European spaces through either developmental narratives or environmental activism and advocacy. We argue that European integration is realized and contested through the discursive and material transformation of landscapes. With this, we contribute to an understanding of environmentalism and the politics of the environment as instrumental in addressing broader and parallel political concerns. Combining southern and eastern European perspectives on the political geography of the environment, we show that the landscape functions as an intrinsically political arena that materializes and discursively frames the different meanings and interests of European integration at stake.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Sara Silvestrini; Matteo Romandini; Giulia Marciani; Simona Arrighi; Lisa Carrera; Andrea Fiorini; Juan Manuel López-García; Federico Lugli; Filomena Ranaldo; Viviane Slon; +10 more
    Country: Italy
    Project: EC | SUCCESS (724046)

    The Middle to Upper Palaeolithic transition, between 50 000 and 40 000 years ago, is a period of important ecological and cultural changes. In this framework, the Rock Shelter of Uluzzo C (Apulia, southern Italy) represents an important site due to Late Mousterian and Uluzzian evidence preserved in its stratigraphic sequence. Here, we present the results of a multidisciplinary analysis performed on the materials collected between 2016 and 2018 from the Uluzzian stratigraphic units (SUs) 3, 15 and 17. The analysis involved lithic technology, use-wear, zooarchaeology, ancient DNA of sediments and palaeoproteomics, completed by quartz single-grain optically stimulated luminescence dating of the cave sediments. The lithic assemblage is characterized by a volumetric production and a debitage with no or little management of the convexities (by using the bipolar technique), with the objective to produce bladelets and flakelets. The zooarchaeological study found evidence of butchery activity and of the possible exploitation of marine resources, while drawing a picture of a patchy landscape, composed of open forests and dry open environments surrounding the shelter. Ancient mitochondrial DNA from two mammalian taxa were recovered from the sediments. Preliminary zooarchaeology by mass spectrometry results are consistent with ancient DNA and zooarchaeological taxonomic information, while further palaeoproteomics investigations are ongoing. Our new data from the re-discovery of the Uluzzo C Rock Shelter represent an important contribution to better understand the meaning of the Uluzzian in the context of the Middle/Upper Palaeolithic transition in south-eastern Italy.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Alyson A. van Raalte;
    Project: EC | LIFEINEQ (716323)

    In this paper, I examine progress in the field of mortality over the past 25 years. I argue that we have been most successful in taking advantage of an increasingly data-rich environment to improve aggregate mortality models and test pre-existing theories. Less progress has been made in relating our estimates of mortality risk at the individual level to broader mortality patterns at the population level while appropriately accounting for contextual differences and compositional change. Overall, I find that the field of mortality continues to be highly visible in demographic journals, including

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Yoolim Kim; Sandra Kotzor; Aditi Lahiri;
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: EC | MOR-PHON (695481)

    Korean can be transcribed in two different scripts, one alphabetic (Hangul) and one logographic (Hanja). How does the mental lexicon represent the contributions of multiple scripts? Hangul’s highly transparent one-to-one relationship between spellings and sounds creates homophones in spoken Korean that are also homographs in Hangul, which can only be disambiguated through Hanja. We thus tested whether native speakers encoded the semantic contributions of the different Hanja characters sharing the same homographic form in Hangul in their mental representation of Sino-Korean. Is processing modulated by the number of available meanings, that is, the size of the semantic cohort? In two cross-modal lexical decision tasks with semantic priming,participants were presented with auditory primes that were either syllables (Experiment 1) or full Sino-Korean words (Experiment 2), followed by visual Sino-Korean full word targets. In Experiment 1, reaction times were not significantly modulated by the size of the semantic cohort. However, in Experiment 2, we observed significantly faster reaction times for targets preceded by primes with larger semantic cohorts. We discuss these findings in relation to the structure of the mental lexicon for bi-scriptal languages and the representation of semantic cohorts across different scripts. 1. Introduction 2. Hanja and Hangul during processing 3. Experiment 1: Cross-modal fragment priming 3.1. Method 3.1.1. Participants 3.1.2. Materials and design 3.1.3. Procedure 3.2. Results 3.3. Discussion 4. Experiment 2: Cross-modal full word priming 4.1. Method 4.1.1. Participants 4.1.2. Materials and design 4.1.3. Procedure 4.2. Results 4.3. Discussion 5. General discussion 6. Conclusions

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Marian Trnka; Sakhia Darjaa; Marian Ritomský; Róbert Sabo; Milan Rusko; Meilin Schaper; Tim H. Stelkens-Kobsch;
    Publisher: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
    Country: Germany
    Project: EC | SATIE (832969)

    A frequently used procedure to examine the relationship between categorical and dimensional descriptions of emotions is to ask subjects to place verbal expressions representing emotions in a continuous multidimensional emotional space. This work chooses a different approach. It aims at creating a system predicting the values of Activation and Valence (AV) directly from the sound of emotional speech utterances without the use of its semantic content or any other additional information. The system uses X-vectors to represent sound characteristics of the utterance and Support Vector Regressor for the estimation the AV values. The system is trained on a pool of three publicly available databases with dimensional annotation of emotions. The quality of regression is evaluated on the test sets of the same databases. Mapping of categorical emotions to the dimensional space is tested on another pool of eight categorically annotated databases. The aim of the work was to test whether in each unseen database the predicted values of Valence and Activation will place emotion-tagged utterances in the AV space in accordance with expectations based on Russell’s circumplex model of affective space. Due to the great variability of speech data, clusters of emotions create overlapping clouds. Their average location can be represented by centroids. A hypothesis on the position of these centroids is formulated and evaluated. The system’s ability to separate the emotions is evaluated by measuring the distance of the centroids. It can be concluded that the system works as expected and the positions of the clusters follow the hypothesized rules. Although the variance in individual measurements is still very high and the overlap of emotion clusters is large, it can be stated that the AV coordinates predicted by the system lead to an observable separation of the emotions in accordance with the hypothesis. Knowledge from training databases can therefore be used to predict AV coordinates of unseen data of various origins. This could be used to detect high levels of stress or depression. With the appearance of more dimensionally annotated training data, the systems predicting emotional dimensions from speech sound will become more robust and usable in practical applications in call-centers, avatars, robots, information-providing systems, security applications, and the like.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ivan Sablin;
    Project: EC | ENTPAR (755504)

    AbstractThe article offers a detailed analysis of the debates at the All-Russian Democratic Conference and in the Provisional Council of the Russian Republic (the Pre-Parliament), which followed the proclamation of the republic on September 1, 1917, and predated the Bolshevik-led insurgency on October 25. The two assemblies were supposed to help resolve the multilayered political, economic, and military crises of the First World War and the Revolution by consolidating a Russian postimperial political community and establishing a solid government. The debates demonstrated that grievances and antagonism, which were articulated in terms of class and nationality, made the idea of a broad nationalist coalition unpopular, since it would halt agrarian and other reforms and continue the negligence of non-Russian groups. Furthermore, those who still called for all-Russian national or civic unity split on the issue of community-building. The top-down, homogenizing and bottom-up, composite approaches proved irreconcilable and precluded a compromise between non-socialist and moderate socialist groups. The two assemblies hence failed to ensure a peaceful continuation of the postimperial transformation and did not lead to a broad coalition against right and left radicalism. The divisions, which were articulated in the two assemblies, translated into the main rifts of the Russian Civil War.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Andrew E. Clark; Conchita D'Ambrosio; Ilke Onur; Rong Zhu;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Countries: France, Australia
    Project: EC | SERISS (654221), EC | SHARE-COHESION (870628), EC | SSHOC (823782), EC | SHARE-DEV3 (676536)

    This paper examines the empirical relationship between individuals’ cognitive and non-cognitive abilities and COVID-19 compliance behaviors using cross-country data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). We find that both cognitive and non-cognitive skills predict responsible health behaviors during the COVID-19 crisis. Episodic memory is the most important cognitive skill, while conscientiousness and neuroticism are the most significant personality traits. There is also some evidence of a role for an internal locus of control in compliance. usc Refereed/Peer-reviewed

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Basira Mir-Makhamad; Sirojidin Mirzaakhmedov; Husniddin Rahmonov; Sören Stark; Andrey Omel’chenko; Robert N. Spengler;
    Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC
    Project: EC | FEDD (851102)

    The urban center of Paykend was an exchange node just off the main corridor of the Silk Road in the Bukhara Oasis on the edge of the hyperarid Kyzyl–Kum Desert. The city was occupied from the end of 4 century B.C.E. to the mid–12 century C.E.; our study focuses on the Qarakhanid period (C.E. 999 – 1211), the last imperial phase of urban occupation at Paykend before its abandonment. In this study, we present the results of an analysis of archaeobotanical remains recovered from a multifunction rabat, which appears to have comprised a domicile, military structure, center of commerce, and/or a caravanserai, a roadside inn for travelers. We shed light on how people adapted a productive economy to the local ecological constraints. By adding these data to the limited Qarakhanid archaeobotany from across Central Asia, we provide the first glimpses into cultivation, commerce, and consumption at a Silk Road trading town along the King’s Road, the central artery of ancient Eurasia. Introduction Paykend and Its Environment Materials and Methods Results - Radiocarbon Dating - Archaeobotany - Domesticated Crops - Fruits and Nuts - Wild Herbaceous Plants Discussion - Taphonomy - Agriculture in the Hyper–Arid Desert -- Ecological Constraints - Arboriculture and Cash Crops at Paykend Conclusion