Critics of multiple realizability have recently argued that we should concentrate solely on actual here-and-now realizations that are found in nature. The possibility of alternative, but unactualized, realizations is regarded as uninteresting because it is taken to be a question of pure logic or an unverifiable scenario of science fiction. However, in the biological context only a contingent set of realizations is actualized. Drawing on recent work on the theory of neutral biological spaces, the article shows that we can have ways of assessing the modal dimension of multiple realizability that do not have to rely on mere conceivability.
Abstract Nation and nationhood are among the most frequently studied concepts in the field of intellectual history. At the same time, the word ‘nation’ and its historical usage are very vague. The aim in this article was to develop a data-driven method using dependency parsing and neural word embeddings to clarify some of the vagueness in the evolution of this concept. To this end, we propose the following two-step method. First, using linguistic processing, we create a large set of words pertaining to the topic of nation. Second, we train diachronic word embeddings and use them to quantify the strength of the semantic similarity between these words and thereby create meaningful clusters, which are then aligned diachronically. To illustrate the robustness of the study across languages, time spans, as well as large datasets, we apply it to the entirety of five historical newspaper archives in Dutch, Swedish, Finnish, and English. To our knowledge, thus far there have been no large-scale comparative studies of this kind that purport to grasp long-term developments in as many as four different languages in a data-driven way. A particular strength of the method we describe in this article is that, by design, it is not limited to the study of nationhood, but rather expands beyond it to other research questions and is reusable in different contexts.
Digital Libraries (DLs), especially in the Cultural Heritage domain, are rich in narratives. Every digital object in a DL tells some kind of story, regardless of the medium, the genre, or the type of the object. However, DLs do not offer services about narratives, for example it is not possible to discover a narrative, to create one, or to compare two narratives. Certainly, DLs offer discovery functionalities over their contents, but these services merely address the objects that carry the narratives (e.g. books, images, audiovisual objects), without regard for the narratives themselves. The present work aims at introducing narratives as first-class citizens in DLs, by providing a formal expression of what a narrative is. In particular, this paper presents a conceptualisation of the domain of narratives, and its specification through the Narrative Ontology (NOnt for short), expressed in first-order logic. NOnt has been implemented as an extension of three standard vocabularies, i.e. the CIDOC CRM, FRBRoo, and OWL Time, and using the SWRL rule language to express the axioms. On the basis of NOnt, we have developed the Narrative Building and Visualising (NBVT) tool, and applied it in four case studies to validate the ontology. NOnt is also being validated in the context of the Mingei European project, in which it is applied to the representation of knowledge about Craft Heritage. Preprint
Ocean-going ships were key to rising maritime economies of the Early Modern period, and understanding how they were built is critical to grasp the challenges faced by shipwrights and merchant seafarers. Shipwreck timbers hold material evidence of the dynamic interplay of wood supplies, craftmanship, and evolving ship designs that helped shape the Early Modern world. Here we present the results of dendroarchaeological research carried out on Batavia���s wreck timbers, currently on display at the Western Australian Shipwrecks Museum in Fremantle. Built in Amsterdam in 1628 CE and wrecked on its maiden voyage in June 1629 CE in Western Australian waters, Batavia epitomises Dutch East India Company (Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie, or VOC) shipbuilding. In the 17th century, the VOC grew to become the first multinational trading enterprise, prompting the rise of the stock market and modern capitalism. Oak (Quercus sp.) was the preferred material for shipbuilding in northern and western Europe, and maritime nations struggled to ensure sufficient supplies to meet their needs and sustain their ever-growing mercantile fleets and networks. Our research illustrates the compatibility of dendrochronological studies with musealisation of shipwreck assemblages, and the results demonstrate that the VOC successfully coped with timber shortages in the early 17th century through diversification of timber sources (mainly Baltic region, L��beck hinterland in northern Germany, and Lower Saxony in northwest Germany), allocation of sourcing regions to specific timber products (hull planks from the Baltic and L��beck, framing elements from Lower Saxony), and skillful woodworking craftmanship (sapwood was removed from all timber elements). These strategies, combined with an innovative hull design and the use of wind-powered sawmills, allowed the Dutch to produce unprecedented numbers of ocean-going ships for long-distance voyaging and interregional trade in Asia, proving key to their success in 17th-century world trade. Funding: WvD LP130100137 Australian Research Council https://www.arc.gov.au/ No MD-D 607545 FP7 People Programme (Marie Curie Actions) https://ec.europa.eu/research/mariecurieactions/ 016.Veni.195.502 Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek https://www.nwo.nl/en AD 677152 European Research Council https://erc.europa.eu/
The H2020 project rurAllure, “Promotion of rural museums and heritage sites in the vicinity of European pilgrimage routes” (2021-2023) aims to enrich pilgrims’ experiences with the creation of meaningful cultural products focused on the lesser-known heritage sites of rural areas that are not found on pilgrimage routes, but in their surroundings. One of the project goals is to create contents and narratives to be offered to pilgrims over successive days with the integration of state-of-the-art technology. This way, hidden rural heritage will be discoverable and pilgrims will have the opportunity to actively engage with rural places nearby, their local communities, identity, and culture. The latter will no longer be passive witnesses, but active participants in transnational networks of shared history and living heritage. The rurAllure project aims to develop a new concept of mobile guide for pilgrims that will present rural heritage sites and activities of interest along with information of transportation and accommodation to help movement from and back to pilgrimage routes, as well as cohesive narratives to be consumed along the way, focused on four pilots: literary heritage on the ways to Santiago de Compostela, thermal heritage and others on the ways to Rome, ethnographic heritage on the ways to Trondheim, and natural heritage on the ways to Csíksomlyó. To facilitate the pilots’ brainstorming in the creation of multimedia contents, we developed a review of narrative models on cultural heritage storytelling. In this paper, we present the results, a collection of 22 case studies we analyzed with a common structure, from which six distinctive groups of narrative practices emerge: sound-walks, wearable guides, context-aware games, simulations, digital exhibitions, and cultural wayfinding. All cases studies disrupt traditional notions of storytelling consumption and foster new relationships between people and places of interest that may lead to advancements in the pilgrimage context.
The voyages of exploration and discovery during the period of European maritime expansion and the immense amount of information and artefacts they produced about our knowledge of the world have maintained a difficult, if not non-existent, relationship with the main historiographical lines of the history of early modern science. This article attempts to problematize this relationship based on a historical account that seeks to highlight the scientific and institutional mechanisms that made the Magellan-Elcano voyage, the first modern voyage, possible. The text argues that this voyage was the first modern voyage because it allowed the construction of a new scientific and cartographic image of the globe and contributed to our understanding of the world as a global world, altering the foundations on which modern European economic and geographic thought was based. In that sense, the voyage was something extraordinary, but not completely unexpected. It responded to a complex process of expansionary policy and technical development that dated back to the 15th century, which in 1519 was sufficiently articulated to carry out a great feat Construyendo una imagen global del mundo: ciencia, cosmografía y navegación en tiempos de la primera circunnavegación, 1492-1522.— Los viajes de exploración y de descubrimiento de la época de la expansión marítima europea y la enorme cantidad de información y artefactos que produjeron sobre nuestro conocimiento del mundo han mantenido una difícil relación, por no decir inexistente, con las principales líneas historiográficas de la historia de la ciencia moderna. Este artículo intenta problematizar dicha relación a partir de un relato histórico que pretende destacar los mecanismos científicos e institucionales que hicieron posible el viaje de Magallanes-Elcano, el primer viaje moderno. El texto sostiene que este viaje fue el primer viaje moderno no solo porque permitió la construcción de un mapa global del mundo, de una nueva imagen científica y cartográfica del globo, sino porque además contribuyó a nuestra comprensión del mundo como un mundo global, alterando los cimientos sobre los que se sustentaba el pensamiento económico y geográfico de la Europa moderna. En ese sentido, el viaje fue algo extraordinario, pero no completamente inesperado. Respondía a un complejo proceso de política expansionista y desarrollo técnico que se remontaba al siglo XV y que en 1519 estaba lo suficientemente articulado como para llevar a cabo una gran gesta
In the American West, wildfires and earthquakes are increasingly threatening the archaeological, historical, and tribal resources that define the collective identity and connection with the past for millions of Americans. The loss of said resources diminishes societal understanding of the role cultural heritage plays in shaping our present and future. This paper examines the viability of employing stationary and SLAM-based terrestrial laser scanning, close-range photogrammetry, automated surface change detection, GIS, and WebGL visualization techniques to enhance the preservation of cultural resources in California. Our datafication approach combines multi-temporal remote sensing monitoring of historic features with legacy data and collaborative visualization to document and evaluate how environmental threats affect built heritage. We tested our methodology in response to recent environmental threats from wildfire and earthquakes at Bodie, an iconic Gold Rush-era boom town located on the California and Nevada border. Our multi-scale results show that the proposed approach effectively integrates highly accurate 3D snapshots of Bodie’s historic buildings before/after disturbance, or post-restoration, with surface change detection and online collaborative visualization of 3D geospatial data to monitor and preserve important cultural resources at the site. This study concludes that the proposed workflow enhances the monitoring of at-risk California’s cultural heritage and makes a call to action to employ remote sensing as a pathway to advanced planning.
Memes are efficient tools for far-right activism. They also offer a window into the reactionary values expressed by far-right constituents in digital spheres. In this paper, we conceptualize memes as a meeting place between the values of the far-right and the values characterizing memetic communication on social media. We examined this process through the lens of Schwartz’s theory of basic human values and a case study from Italy. Specifically, we focus on a photo-based meme genre that we named “alternative calendar commemorations.” These memes memorialize events or figures that are key to the imaginary of the far-right. As expected, we found strong appeals to collectivistic values such as patriotism and tradition. However, we also found a partial re-negotiation of the collectivistic values of the far-right through some of the individualistic values intrinsic to memes. In conclusion, we discuss the implications of this new amalgamation between context-specific far-right values and those embedded in the globalizing format of digital memes.
The European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) is a world-wide leading organisation in the field of particle physics and operation of high-class particle accelerators. Since 2013, CERN has undertaken feasibility investigations for a particle accelerator, named Future Circular Collider (FCC) to be installed within a 90–100 km subsurface infrastructure likely to enter construction phase after 2030. An important aspect of its construction and environmental impact assessment is the management of approximately 9.1 million m3 of excavated rock and soil. The aim of this paper is to thoroughly review the applications of excavated material across European subsurface construction projects from a technical point of view and set them into context with studies currently ongoing for FCC. We propose a conceptual flow model for rock characterisation with respect to both applicability of excavated material and tunnelling excavation techniques for future international subsurface construction projects. The review has revealed a vast and encouraging potential across different European construction sites efficiently using excavated rock and soil over the past decade ranging from concrete production, geopolymer production, embankment and landfilling. Examples of reviewed subsurface tunnelling projects are likely to be applied for FCC including concrete production, clay-sealing for embankments, geopolymer face stabilization, recultivation or agricultural usage as mixed soil material or sustainable waste disposal.
AbstractThe COVID-19 pandemic has led to a current global health crisis with dreadful repercussions all over the world. A global economic recession is anticipated, with strong impacts in all economic and social sectors, including the cultural sector. Although all sub sectors will be impacted (heritage sites, theatres, museums, operas, art galleries), the cultural built heritage is particularly at stake, as it relies on multiple stakeholders through a wide range of heritage-related activities (tourism, recreation, housing, real estate, construction, craftsmanship, etc.). Sites management and heritage conservation have not only been vulnerable to strong economic and social disruptions, like most of other cultural fields, but have been greatly challenged because heritage values and the paradigm of conservation (50 years after adoption of the UNESCO convention) are being themselves revisited in the perspective of the Sustainable Development Goals. The paper aims also to consider cultural heritage as part of the Cultural and Creative Sectors (CCS) and how creativity and innovation contribute to post-COVID recoveries through Schumpeter-related creative destruction process. The current crisis might be perceived in a perspective of long wave theory of innovations and economic growth. The economic history is filled with many examples of such transition period when inventions, innovations, and growth reactivate the economic development in an upward long-term trend. In such framework, crisis can trigger innovation and creativity and can be understood as opportunity to increase the CCS resilience and sustainability, as well as harness the universality and the power of creativity. Finally, the paper aims to describe implications of such situation by providing to the CCS ways to learn and experience cultural entrepreneurship, resilient strategies, new sustainable and circular business models applied to the cultural heritage sector and its conservation.