Publisher: Institut Agama Islam Negeri Sultan Amai Gorontalo
Astrolabe is a classical instrument in astronomy that is often used to determine the position of celestial bodies without calculating. The notables who played role in the formulation of the astrolabe concept and work system were Hipparchus, Claudius Ptolemy and Theon. Muslim astronomers also had an important role in the development of the astrolabe. The application of astrolabe in reckoning the beginning of prayer time is very easy. But before it can be applied in reckoning prayer time, the astrolabe needs to be equipped with the Sun's altitude lines at the beginning of the prayer time for one year at a location. So the astrolabe can easily be applied to reckon the beginning of prayer times without the need to do calculations. But the Sun's data on the astrolabe are constant as well as the attitude of the Sun at the beginning of prayer time. Those are what reduce the accuracy of the beginning of prayer times reckoning result with the astrolabe.
Modern architecture in its golden age has given a lot of influences to many architectures around the world. The spread of modern architecture at that time could not be stopped and became a style that is widely used throughout the world including IndonesiaThe influence of modern architecture emerged in Indonesia during the Dutch colonial occupation. European architects at that time introduced classical European architecture and modern architecture to Indonesian society. During the Colonial occupation and at the beginning of Indonesian independence, European architects designed public buildings such as government buildings, places of worship( like mosques and churches) and commercial buildings as well as several residences using classical European architectural and modern architecture.As the example that we can still see now is the Istiqlal Mosque in Jakarta, Indonesia, which was designed by architect Friedrich Silaban who self-taught modern architecture. The design of the Istiqlal mosque at a glance looks very much influenced by modern architecture, although domes and tower as a characteristic of Middle East architecture is still been used.The mosque as a whole is designed to look monumental which emphasized the used of a mixture of modern architecture styles.