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208 Research products, page 1 of 21

  • Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage
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  • 0501 psychology and cognitive sciences
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  • Publication . Article . 2016
    English
    Authors: 
    Anna Marmodoro; Ben T. Page;
    Project: EC | K4U (667526)

    Thomas Aquinas sees a sharp metaphysical distinction between artifacts and substances, but does not offer any explicit account of it. We argue that for Aquinas the contribution that an artisan makes to the generation of an artifact compromises the causal responsibility of the form of that artifact for what the artifact is; hence it compromises the metaphysical unity of the artifact to that of an accidental unity. By contrast, the metaphysical unity of a substance is achieved by a process of generation whereby the substantial form is solely responsible for what each part and the whole of a substance are. This, we submit, is where the metaphysical difference between artifacts and substances lies for Aquinas. Here we offer on behalf of Aquinas a novel account of the causal process of generation of substances, in terms of descending forms, and we bring out its explanatory merits by contrasting it to other existing accounts in the literature.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Jose Manuel Gomez-Perez; Raul Ortega;
    Publisher: Association for Computational Linguistics
    Project: EC | ELG (825627)

    Textbook Question Answering is a complex task in the intersection of Machine Comprehension and Visual Question Answering that requires reasoning with multimodal information from text and diagrams. For the first time, this paper taps on the potential of transformer language models and bottom-up and top-down attention to tackle the language and visual understanding challenges this task entails. Rather than training a language-visual transformer from scratch we rely on pre-trained transformers, fine-tuning and ensembling. We add bottom-up and top-down attention to identify regions of interest corresponding to diagram constituents and their relationships, improving the selection of relevant visual information for each question and answer options. Our system ISAAQ reports unprecedented success in all TQA question types, with accuracies of 81.36%, 71.11% and 55.12% on true/false, text-only and diagram multiple choice questions. ISAAQ also demonstrates its broad applicability, obtaining state-of-the-art results in other demanding datasets. Comment: Accepted for publication as a long paper in EMNLP2020

  • Publication . Other literature type . Article . Preprint . 2019
    Open Access English

    Sound correspondence patterns play a crucial role for linguistic reconstruction. Linguists use them to prove language relationship, to reconstruct proto-forms, and for classical phylogenetic reconstruction based on shared innovations. Cognate words which fail to conform with expected patterns can further point to various kinds of exceptions in sound change, such as analogy or assimilation of frequent words. Here we present an automatic method for the inference of sound correspondence patterns across multiple languages based on a network approach. The core idea is to represent all columns in aligned cognate sets as nodes in a network with edges representing the degree of compatibility between the nodes. The task of inferring all compatible correspondence sets can then be handled as the well-known minimum clique cover problem in graph theory, which essentially seeks to split the graph into the smallest number of cliques in which each node is represented by exactly one clique. The resulting partitions represent all correspondence patterns which can be inferred for a given dataset. By excluding those patterns which occur in only a few cognate sets, the core of regularly recurring sound correspondences can be inferred. Based on this idea, the paper presents a method for automatic correspondence pattern recognition, which is implemented as part of a Python library which supplements the paper. To illustrate the usefulness of the method, we present how the inferred patterns can be used to predict words that have not been observed before.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jana Hasenäcker; Olga Solaja; Davide Crepaldi;
    Country: Italy
    Project: EC | STATLEARN (679010)

    In visual word identification, readers automatically access word internal information: they recognize orthographically embedded words (e.g., HAT in THAT) and are sensitive to morphological structure (DEAL-ER, BASKET-BALL). The exact mechanisms that govern these processes, however, are not well established yet - how is this information used? What is the role of affixes in this process? To address these questions, we tested the activation of meaning of embedded word stems in the presence or absence of a morphological structure using two semantic categorization tasks in Italian. Participants made category decisions on words (e.g., is CARROT a type of food?). Some no-answers (is CORNER a type of food?) contained category-congruent embedded word stems (i.e., CORN-). Moreover, the embedded stems could be accompanied by a pseudo-suffix (-er in CORNER) or a non-morphological ending (-ce in PEACE) - this allowed gauging the role of pseudo-suffixes in stem activation. The analyses of accuracy and response times revealed that words were harder to reject as members of a category when they contained an embedded word stem that was indeed category-congruent. Critically, this was the case regardless of the presence or absence of a pseudo-suffix. These findings provide evidence that the lexical identification system activates the meaning of embedded word stems when the task requires semantic information. This study brings together research on orthographic neighbors and morphological processing, yielding results that have important implications for models of visual word processing.

  • Publication . Other literature type . Article . 2017
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Hilary S.Z. Wynne; Linda Wheeldon; Aditi Lahiri;
    Countries: Norway, Norway, United Kingdom
    Project: EC | MOR-PHON (695481), EC | MOR-PHON (695481)

    Abstract Four language production experiments examine how English speakers plan compound words during phonological encoding. The experiments tested production latencies in both delayed and online tasks for English noun-noun compounds (e.g., daytime), adjective-noun phrases (e.g., dark time), and monomorphemic words (e.g., denim). In delayed production, speech onset latencies reflect the total number of prosodic units in the target sentence. In online production, speech latencies reflect the size of the first prosodic unit. Compounds are metrically similar to adjective-noun phrases as they contain two lexical and two prosodic words. However, in Experiments 1 and 2, native English speakers treated the compounds as single prosodic units, indistinguishable from simple words, with RT data statistically different than that of the adjective-noun phrases. Experiments 3 and 4 demonstrate that compounds are also treated as single prosodic units in utterances containing clitics (e.g., dishcloths are clean) as they incorporate the verb into a single phonological word (i.e. dishcloths-are). Taken together, these results suggest that English compounds are planned as single recursive prosodic units. Our data require an adaptation of the classic model of phonological encoding to incorporate a distinction between lexical and postlexical prosodic processes, such that lexical boundaries have consequences for post-lexical phonological encoding.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Cai Wingfield; Li Su; Xunying Liu; Chao Zhang; Philip C. Woodland; Andrew Thwaites; Elisabeth Fonteneau; William D. Marslen-Wilson;
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: EC | LANGDYN (669820), EC | NEUROLEX (230570), EC | LANGDYN (669820), EC | NEUROLEX (230570)

    There is widespread interest in the relationship between the neurobiological systems supporting human cognition and emerging computational systems capable of emulating these capacities. Human speech comprehension, poorly understood as a neurobiological process, is an important case in point. Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) systems with near-human levels of performance are now available, which provide a computationally explicit solution for the recognition of words in continuous speech. This research aims to bridge the gap between speech recognition processes in humans and machines, using novel multivariate techniques to compare incremental ‘machine states’, generated as the ASR analysis progresses over time, to the incremen- tal ‘brain states’, measured using combined electro- and magneto-encephalography (EMEG), generated as the same inputs are heard by human listeners. This direct comparison of dynamic human and machine internal states, as they respond to the same incrementally delivered sensory input, revealed a significant correspondence between neural response patterns in human superior temporal cortex and the structural properties of ASR-derived phonetic models. Spatially coherent patches in human temporal cortex responded selectively to individual phonetic features defined on the basis of machine-extracted regularities in the speech to lexicon mapping process. These results demonstrate the feasibility of relating human and ASR solutions to the problem of speech recognition, and suggest the potential for further studies relating complex neural computations in human speech comprehension to the rapidly evolving ASR systems that address the same problem domain. This research was supported financially by an Advanced Investigator grant to WMW from the European Research Council (AdG 230570 NEUROLEX), by MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit (CBSU) funding to WMW (U.1055.04.002.00001.01), and by a European Research Council Advanced Investigator grant under the European Community’s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme (2014-2020 ERC Grant agreement no 669820) to Lorraine K. Tyler. LS was partly supported by the NIHR Biomedical Research Centre and Biomedical Unit in Dementia based at Cambridge University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust.

  • Publication . Article . 2020
    English
    Authors: 
    Yunfan Lai; Xun Gong; Jesse P. Gates; Guillaume Jacques;
    Country: France
    Project: EC | CALC (715618)

    Abstract This paper proposes that Tangut should be classified as a West Gyalrongic language in the Sino-Tibetan/Trans-Himalayan family. We examine lexical commonalities, case marking, partial reduplication, and verbal morphology in Tangut and in modern West Gyalrongic languages, and point out nontrivial shared innovations between Tangut and modern West Gyalrongic languages. The analysis suggests a closer genetic relationship between Tangut and Modern West Gyalrongic than between Tangut and Modern East Gyalrongic. This paper is the first study that tackles the exact linguistic affiliation of the Tangut language based on the comparative method.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Michelangelo Naim; Mikhail Katkov; Stefano Recanatesi; Misha Tsodyks;
    Project: EC | M-GATE (765549), NIH | Associative Processes in ... (2R01MH055687-21), EC | HBP SGA1 (720270), EC | HBP SGA2 (785907)

    Structured information is easier to remember and recall than random one. In real life, information exhibits multi-level hierarchical organization, such as clauses, sentences, episodes and narratives in language. Here we show that multi-level grouping emerges even when participants perform memory recall experiments with random sets of words. To quantitatively probe brain mechanisms involved in memory structuring, we consider an experimental protocol where participants perform ‘final free recall’ (FFR) of several random lists of words each of which was first presented and recalled individually. We observe a hierarchy of grouping organizations of FFR, most notably many participants sequentially recalled relatively long chunks of words from each list before recalling words from another list. More-over, participants who exhibited strongest organization during FFR achieved highest levels of performance. Based on these results, we develop a hierarchical model of memory recall that is broadly compatible with our findings. Our study shows how highly controlled memory experiments with random and meaningless material, when combined with simple models, can be used to quantitatively probe the way meaningful information can efficiently be organized and processed in the brain, so to be easily retrieved.Significance StatementInformation that people communicate to each other is highly structured. For example, a story contains meaningful elements of various degrees of complexity (clauses, sentences, episodes etc). Recalling a story, we are chiefly concerned with these meaningful elements and not its exact wording. Here we show that people introduce structure even when recalling random lists of words, by grouping the words into ‘chunks’ of various sizes. Doing so improves their performance. The so formed chunks closely correspond in size to story elements described above. This suggests that our memory is trained to create a structure that resembles the one it typically deals with in real life, and that using random material like word lists can be used to quantitatively probe these memory mechanisms.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Johann-Mattis List; George Starostin; Lai Yunfan;
    Publisher: Gorgias Press LLC
    Country: Germany
    Project: EC | CALC (715618)
  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Kun Sun; Rong Wang;
    Publisher: MDPI AG
    Country: Germany
    Project: EC | WIDE (742545)

    This study applies relative entropy in naturalistic large-scale corpus to calculate the difference among L2 (second language) learners at different levels. We chose lemma, token, POStrigram, conjunction to represent lexicon and grammar to detect the patterns of language proficiency development among different L2 groups using relative entropy. The results show that information distribution discrimination regarding lexical and grammatical differences continues to increase from L2 learners at a lower level to those at a higher level. This result is consistent with the assumption that in the course of second language acquisition, L2 learners develop towards a more complex and diverse use of language. Meanwhile, this study uses the statistics method of time series to process the data on L2 differences yielded by traditional frequency-based methods processing the same L2 corpus to compare with the results of relative entropy. However, the results from the traditional methods rarely show regularity. As compared to the algorithms in traditional approaches, relative entropy performs much better in detecting L2 proficiency development. In this sense, we have developed an effective and practical algorithm for stably detecting and predicting the developments in L2 learners’ language proficiency. H2020 European Research Council