Nonwords are often used to clarify how lexical processing takes place in the absence of semantics. This study shows that nonwords are not semantically vacuous. We used Linear Discriminative Learning (Baayen et al., 2019) to estimate the meanings of nonwords in the MALD database (Tucker et al., 2018) from the speech signal. We show that measures gauging nonword semantics significantly improve model fit for both acoustic durations and RTs. Although nonwords do not evoke meanings that afford conscious reflexion, they do make contact with the semantic space, and the angles and distances of nonwords with respect to actual words co-determine articulation and lexicality decisions.
In order to remain alive and relevant, cultural heritage sites have to react and adapt to changing context in a coherent manner, i.e., in a way that is in line with the memory and identity of the place. The incoherent changes, i.e., the transformations that according to the local community do not agree with a character of a place, can be destructive for the long-term vitality of urban cultural heritage. In this study, we test which factors influence social acceptance of different alternations within the context of urban historical gardens that might, in turn, ensure the resilience of the place. Our study focuses on the intangible qualities of the place measured by intrinsic value, perceived essentialism and anti-essentialism as important predictors shaping the response to change. The correlational study was conducted using an online questionnaire designed to empirically grasp intangible qualities of cultural heritage sites. Five hundred twenty-nine responses were included in the analysis. The study shows that perceived historic value, inherent value (uniqueness and importance of the place) and (anti-)essentialist character of a place capture the differences between parks well and enables the finding of interventions that are coherent with a site’s genius loci. Measuring intangible qualities of urban gardens can help to design changes that find higher approval among local community members and users of the site. We discuss how the analysis of an intrinsic value and essentialism allows for planning better spatial interventions that align with the human-centered approach to urban development.
Project: UKRI | From Data Types to Sessio... (EP/K034413/1), EC | BEHAPI (778233), UKRI | From Data Types to Sessio... (EP/K034413/1), EC | BEHAPI (778233)
Part 4: Communications: Types and Implementations; International audience; There are two approaches to defining subtyping relations: the syntactic and the semantic approach. In semantic subtyping, one defines a model of the language and an interpretation of types as subsets of this model. Subtyping is defined as inclusion of subsets denoting types.An orthogonal subtyping question, typical of object-oriented languages, is the nominal versus the structural subtyping. Dardha et al. [11, 12] defined boolean types and semantic subtyping for Featherweight Java (FJ) and integrated both nominal and structural subtyping, thus exploiting the benefits of both approaches. However, these benefits were illustrated only at a theoretical level, but not exploited practically.We present SFJ—Semantic Featherweight Java, an implementation of FJ which features boolean types, semantic subtyping and integrates nominal as well as structural subtyping. The benefits of SFJ, illustrated in the paper and the accompanying video (with audio/subtitles) , show how static type-checking of boolean types and semantic subtyping gives higher guarantees of program correctness, more flexibility and compactness of program writing.
Studies have documented that traditional motor skills (i.e. motor habits) are part of the cultural way of life that characterises each society. Yet, it is still unclear to what extent motor skills are inherited through culture. Drawing on ethnology and motor behaviour, we addressed this issue through a detailed description of traditional pottery skills. Our goal was to quantify the influence of three kinds of constraints: the transcultural constraints of wheelthrowing, the cultural constraints induced via cultural transmission, and the potters’ individual constraints. Five expert Nepalese potters were invited to produce three familiar pottery types, each in five specimens. A total of 31 different fashioning hand positions were identified. Most of them (14) were cross-cultural, ten positions were cultural, five positions were individual, and two positions were unique. Statistical tests indicated that the subset of positions used by the participants in this study were distinct from those of other cultural groups. Behaviours described in terms of fashioning duration, number of gestures, and hand position repertoires size highlighted both individual and cross-cultural traits. We also analysed the time series of the successive hand positions used throughout the fashioning of each vessel. Results showed, for each pottery type, strong reproducible sequences at the individual level and a clearly higher level of variability between potters. Overall, our findings confirm the existence of a cultural transmission in craft skills but also demonstrated that the skill is not fully determined by a cultural marking. We conclude that the influence of culture on craft skills should not be overstated, even if its role is significant given the fact that it reflects the socially transmitted part of the skill. Such research offers insights into archaeological problems in providing a representative view of how cultural constraints influence the motor skills implied in artefact manufacturing.
Publisher: INSIGHT Centre for Data Analytics, NUI Galway, Ireland
Project: EC | SSIX (645425), EC | SSIX (645425)
Social Sentiment Indices powered by X-Scores (SSIX) seeks to address the challenge of extracting relevant and valuable economic signals in a cross-lingual fashion from the vast variety of and increasingly influential social media services, such as Twitter, Google+, Facebook, StockTwits and LinkedIn, and in conjunction with the most reliable and authoritative newswires, online newspapers, financial news networks, trade publications and blogs. A statistical framework of qualitative and quantitative parameters called X-Scores will power SSIX. This framework will interpret economically significant sentiment signals that are disseminated in the social ecosystem. Using X-Scores, SSIX will create commercially viable and exploitable social sentiment indices, regardless of language, locale and data format. SSIX and X-Scores will support research and investment decision making for European SMEs, enabling end users to analyse and leverage real-time social media sentiment data in their domain, creating innovative products and services to support revenue growth with focus on increased alpha generation for investment portfolios. European Union’s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme ICT 2014 - Information and Communications Technologies under grant agreement No. 645425. peer-reviewed
Although lexical borrowing is an important aspect of language evolution, there have been few attempts to automate the identification of borrowings in lexical datasets. Moreover, none of the solutions which have been proposed so far identify borrowings across multiple languages. This study proposes a new method for the task and tests it on a newly compiled large comparative dataset of 48 South-East Asian languages from Southern China. The method yields very promising results, while it is conceptually straightforward and easy to apply. This makes the approach a perfect candidate for computer-assisted exploratory studies on lexical borrowing in contact areas.
International audience; Contrary to many application domains, recommending items within a museum is not only a question of preferences. Of course, the visitors expect suggestions that are likely to interest or please them. However, additional factors should be taken into account. Recent works use the visiting styles or the shortest distance between items to adapt the list of recommendations. But, as far as we know, no model of the literature aims at inferring in real time a holistic user model which includes variables such as the crowd tolerance, the distance tolerance, the expected user control, the fatigue, the congestion points, etc. As a work-in-progress, we propose a new representation model which includes psychological, physical and social variables so as to increase user satisfaction and enjoyment. We show how we can infer these characteristics from the user observations (geolocalization over time, moving speed,. . .) and we discuss how we can use them jointly for a sequence recommendation purpose. This work is still in an early stage of development and remains more theoretical than experimental.
Abstract Hyphenated compounds have largely been neglected in the studies of compounding, which have seldom analysed compounds in context. In this study, we argue that the hyphen use in compounds is strongly motivated. Hyphenation is used when words form a unit, which reduces the possibility of parsing them into separate units or other forms. The current study adopts a new perspective on contextual factors, namely, which part of speech (PoS) the compound as a whole belongs to and how people correctly parse a compound into a unit. This process can be observed and analysed by considering examples. This study therefore holds that hyphenation might have gradually become a compounding technique that differs from general compounding principles. To better understand hyphenated compounds and the motivation for using hyphenation, we conduct a quantitative investigation into their distribution frequency to explore how English hyphenated compounds have been used in over the last 200 years. Diachronic change in the frequency of the distribution for compounds has seldom been considered. This question is explored by using frequency data obtained from the three databases that contain hyphenated compounds. Diachronic analysis shows that the frequencies of tokens and types in hyphenated compounds have been increasing, and changes in both frequencies follow the S-curve model. Historical evidence shows that hyphenation in compounds, as an orthographic form, does not seem to disappear easily. Familiarity and economy, as suggested in the cognitive studies of compounding, cannot adequately explain this phenomenon. The three databases that we used provide cross-verification that suggests that hyphenation has evolved into a compounding technique. Language users probably unconsciously take advantage of the discriminative learning model to remind themselves that these combinations should be parsed differently. Thus the hyphenation compounding technique facilitates communication efficiency. Overall, this study significantly enhances our understanding of the nature of compounding, the motivations for using hyphenation, and its cognitive processing.
The potential for rituals in non-human great apes (apes) is an understudied topic. We derive a minimal definition of ritual and then examine the currently available evidence for it in untrained and non-enculturated apes. First, we examine whether such apes show evidence for the two main components of our minimal definition of ritual: symbolism and copying. Second, we examine if there are actual cases already identifiable today that may fit all aspects of our minimal definition of ritual—or whether there are at least cases that fit some aspects (proto-ritual). We find that apes are not likely to spontaneously practise minimal ritual, but we claim that the highest expected likelihood of occurrence is in the results-copying domain. Yet, we did not find actual cases of minimal ritual in apes—including those involving environmental results. We did, however, find some cases that may match at least part of our minimal ritual definition—which we termed proto-ritual. At least two out of three potential cases of such proto-rituals that we identified (rain dance, object-in-ear and surplus nest-making procedures) do revolve around results. Overall, apes do not show much, or very clear, evidence for even minimal ritual, but may sometimes show proto-ritual. However, dedicated ape ritual studies are currently lacking, and future work may identify ape ritual (or clearer cases of proto-ritual). We discuss the implications of our preliminary finding for inferences of ritual in the last common ancestor of humans and apes. This article is part of the theme issue ‘Ritual renaissance: new insights into the most human of behaviours’.
Large pretrained masked language models have become state-of-the-art solutions for many NLP problems. The research has been mostly focused on English language, though. While massively multilingual models exist, studies have shown that monolingual models produce much better results. We train two trilingual BERT-like models, one for Finnish, Estonian, and English, the other for Croatian, Slovenian, and English. We evaluate their performance on several downstream tasks, NER, POS-tagging, and dependency parsing, using the multilingual BERT and XLM-R as baselines. The newly created FinEst BERT and CroSloEngual BERT improve the results on all tasks in most monolingual and cross-lingual situations 10 pages, accepted at TSD 2020 conference