Jayde Hirniak; Eugene I. Smith; Racheal Johnsen; Minghua Ren; Jamie Hodgkins; Caley M. Orr; Fabio Negrino; Julien Riel-Salvatore; Shelby Fitch; Christopher E. Miller; +8 more
Jayde Hirniak; Eugene I. Smith; Racheal Johnsen; Minghua Ren; Jamie Hodgkins; Caley M. Orr; Fabio Negrino; Julien Riel-Salvatore; Shelby Fitch; Christopher E. Miller; Andrea Zerboni; Guido S. Mariani; Jacob A. Harris; Claudine Gravel-Miguel; David S. Strait; Marco Peresani; Stefano Benazzi; Curtis W. Marean;
Chemical characterization of cryptotephra is critical for temporally linking archaeological sites. Here, we describe cryptotephra investigations of two Middle–Upper Paleolithic sites from north‐west Italy, Arma Veirana and Riparo Bombrini. Cryptotephra are present as small (<100 µm) rhyolitic glass shards at both sites, with geochemical signatures rare for volcanoes in the Mediterranean region. Two chemically distinct shard populations are present at Arma Veirana (P1 and P2). P1 is a high silica rhyolite (>75 wt.%) with low FeO (<1 wt.%) and a K2O/ Na2O > 1 and P2 is also a high silica rhyolite (>75 wt.%) but with higher FeO (2.33–2.65 wt.%). Shards at Riparo Bombrini (P3) are of the same composition as P1 shards at Arma Veirana, providing a distinct link between deposits at both sites. Geochemical characteristics suggest three possible sources for P1 and P3: eruptions from Lipari Island (56–37.7 ka) in Italy, the Acigöl volcanic field (200–20 ka) in Turkey and the Miocene Kirka‐Phrigian caldera (18 Ma) in Turkey. Eruptions from Lipari Island are the most likely source for P1,3 cryptotephra. This study highlights how cryptotephra can benefit archaeology, by providing a direct link between Arma Veirana and Riparo Bombrini as well as other deposits throughout the Mediterranean.
Abstract Professional archaeology in Lesotho was initiated 50 years ago when Pat Carter, working with Patricia Vinnicombe, excavated the site of Moshebi's Shelter in the Sehlabathebe Basin. His excavations there identified a sequence of both Middle and Later Stone Age (LSA) industries, the latter falling within the last 2200 years. However, the site was never fully published and Carter's use of 10-cm-thick spits to excavate its deposits raises questions about the precise stratigraphic provenance of the finds made. As part of renewed investigations into hunter-gatherer/farmer interactions in highland Lesotho, Moshebi's LSA deposits were re-excavated in 2009. This paper summarizes the results of the archaeological sequence recovered, their dating using both radiocarbon and OSL techniques, and their implications for past human use of the site and the wider Maloti-Drakensberg landscape.
Hybridization is thought to have played an important role in human evolution, with hybridizing groups having significant differences in soft tissue trait variation. Ectodermal trait variation is of interest because primate hybrids show increased atypical non-metric dental and cranial trait variation thought to be the result of interactions between parental genomes which have diverged for ectodermal trait development (including hair and tooth development). There were also differences between hybridizing hominin groups for limb measurements which have changed significantly throughout human evolution. Here a mouse model is used to look at the effect of hybridization on coat morphology and long bone length. Using standardized photographs, the differences in mean RGB values for the dorsal and ventral coat were used to determine whether the hybrids were different from their parents for pelage colour of different regions of the body, dorsal ventral colour contrast, and levels of variation in coat colour. The sample is composed of parents from one specific and three sub-specific crosses, as well as F1, F2 and first generation backcrossed (B1) hybrids. Long bone measurements of the forelimbs and hind-limbs were collected from micro-CT scans of the sub-specific F1 hybrids and their parents. Previous data have shown that hybridization can have variable morphological outcomes: hybrids can look like one of the parents, they can be intermediate, or they can have extreme traits outside of the range of variation of the parents. Our results indicate that morphological outcomes for coat colour in F1 hybrids depends on factors such as genetic distance. However, the genetic background of one of the strains used for this experiment might contribute the transgressive phenotype of some of the F1 hybrids. Hybrid morphology also changes in subsequent generations (F2 and B1) as new recombinants formed, with transgressive coat colour phenotypes sometimes appearing even if they are not present in the F1 hybrid groups. Phenotypes produced in F1 hybrids are also seen in subsequent generations of hybrids. All sub-specific F1 hybrids were transgressive for long bone length. Compared to parental groups hybrids have a different relationship between the long bones of the forelimb (ratio of humerus to ulna). This is in line with previous data from primate hybrids, that shows that changes in the relationships between different regions of the body occurs in hybrids producing novel phenotypes. The inter-membral indexes are not significantly different from one of the parents for two of the crosses. This data shows that hybridization can produce novel pelage phenotypes over multiple generations. There were many transitions in hair/skin morphology during human evolution and these tissue groups were and are under a great deal of selective pressure due to their direct interaction with the environment. Thus, understanding how these traits are impacted by hybridization will be important for disentangling how hybridization affected our evolutionary trajectory and ability to occupy new regions of the world. Post cranial data, indicates that F1 hominin hybrids might have longer limbs in relation to parental populations, more work needs to be done on the post cranial remains of posited hominin hybrids as well as pedigreed mammalian hybrids to determine if this is a pattern which can be used to identify hybrids in the fossil record.
The Reformation and scientific revolution are characterised by an overlap in time, location and a special locus of events that dramatically impacted world history. Precursors for both movements abound, yet the historiographic development characteristics of the era are prominent and distinguishable. The historical context and the developments leading to the Reformation and scientific revolution, specifically the influence of the precursors of both the Reformation and scientific revolution, the prevailing Zeitgeist , the influence of the institutionalised church and ecclesiastical authority, pervasive beyond the realm of the church, the philosophical and theological paradigms of the time and the influence of the press, are appraised to determine the mutual influence of the Reformation and the scientific revolution. The basis for a causal relationship between the Reformation and the scientific revolution is presented, and explanations premised on mere coincidence and other factors are refuted. The continued mutual influence between ideas of the Reformation and science throughout the Enlightenment and modern era is discussed in relation to the interaction between science and faith. It is argued that a mutually supportive model of interaction in a reconciliation model best resonates with the ideas of the Reformation as well as finding authenticity in and concordance between science and views of scripture.
In southern Africa, the indigenous Bushmen (San) have for long been positioned as an inferior group. First, in pre-colonial paternalist relationships that included slavery and several types of serfdom. Next, they had an inferior position under colonial paternalism (‘baasskap’) originating at white settler farms and last, they experience inferiority again in relation to the contemporary, mostly black, elites, including state officials. This paper addresses this historical pattern: through ethnographic results and examples from the literature it relates this process to contemporary post-colonial paternalist relations of various groups of Bushmen, particularly in tourism and development programmes. I argue that, despite dominant discourses about bottom-up approaches by the tourism industry, NGOs and the state, tourism and development also provide for a continuation of paternalist relations, in which articulations of inferiority come from ‘above’ and ‘below’, thereby often perpetuating Bushmen’s inferiority. Moreover, I suggest that this perpetuation is not confined to tourism and development only; an important discourse that underscores inferiority to a degree is the hegemonic global articulation of ‘indigeneity’, which subtly emphasises indigenous peoples’ inferiority.
The divides within South African society remain stark, also for youth born after apartheid officially ended in 1994. At the same time, adherence to a faith tradition is statistically high among South Africans, and faith-based organisations (FBOs), an umbrella term including but not limited to churches, also have high levels of youth participation. Scholars have identified positive connotations between FBOs, civil society, social welfare and social care. Within this broader context, and based on qualitative interviews and focus group data, this article explores how young people in two South African communities experience isolation and separation in their everyday life and how they perceive the role of churches, in particular, in strengthening or weakening this sense of marginalisation. On a theoretical level, the article reflects on how two dimensions of social cohesion relate to one another in young people’s everyday life. The first dimension comprises of aspects such as participation, diversity and trust, whereas the second relates to justice and equity. Special attention is given to the relationship between the two dimensions of social cohesion in the context of local churches. We argue that the experiences and perceptions of the interviewed young people support the view promoted by some scholars that, for social cohesion to actualise in society, issues related to social justice must be addressed. Furthermore, churches could play a more central role in doing so – at least more so than what appears to currently be the case.
“Colloquialization,” and anti-colloquial effects such as “densification,” have been shown to shape register change in English, with Australian English showing stronger effects of colloquiality than British English. Parliamentary Hansard records are at the intersection of writing and speech and are subject to various influencing factors possibly leading to change in this register, which we represent in a conceptual model. We apply Biber’s (1988) method of multidimensional analysis to examine the co-occurrence of linguistic features in the British and Australian Hansard over five consecutive time periods. The data provide evidence of shared as well as differentiated effects of colloquialization and densification across the two varieties. The evidence also points to a new type of anti-colloquial trend observed in the parliamentary register, whereby presentation of information appears to be taking the place of a more interactive and interpersonally oriented style, a trend we term “monologization.”
This article focuses on the rhetorical interplay between drought, thirst, and the water of life in a time of drought. The negotiation of meaning that occurs in the interaction between Jesus and the Samaritan woman (John 4) reflects the struggle for meaning that occurs when water is rhetorically ambiguous in a time of water scarcity. This paper argues that the theological rhetoric of water is embedded in soteriological imagination, which requires remembering - through the sacrament of baptism - the significance of the giving God who wills human and ecological flourishing.2 Moreover, it is argued that the good news of salvation brings rhetoric and ethics, doctrine and life, into a dynamic communicative process, so that water, as that which is freely given by God, has nothing less than abundant life or ecological and human flourishing as its apparent intended focus.
This article speaks to existential challenges facing Black people, predominantly of Caribbean descent, to live in what continues to be a White dominated and White entitled society. Working against the backdrop of the ‘Black Lives Matter’ movement that originated in the United States, this article analyses the socio-political and cultural frameworks that affirm Whiteness whilst concomitantly, denigrating Blackness. The author, a well-known Black liberation theologian, who is a child of the Windrush Generation, argues that Western Mission Christianity has always exemplified a deep-seated form of anti-Blackness that has helped to shape the agency of Black bodies, essentially marking them as ‘less than’. This theological base has created the frameworks that have dictated the sematic belief that Black bodies do not really matter and if they do, then they are invariably second-class ones when compared to White bodies. In the final part of the article, the author outlines the ways in which Black theology in Britain, drawing on postcolonial theological and biblical optics, has sought to critique the ethnocentrism of White Christianity in Britain in order to assert that ‘Black Lives Do Matter’.