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281 Research products, page 1 of 29

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  • Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO)

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  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . Preprint . 2016
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Plonka, A.I.; Blom, N.A.; Fichtner, A.; Seismology; NWO-VIDI: Full waveform inversion for upper-mantle density structure;
    Publisher: Copernicus Publications
    Countries: Switzerland, Netherlands
    Project: NWO | Full waveform inversion f... (2300172344)

    Density heterogeneities are the source of mass transport in the Earth. However, the 3-D density structure remains poorly constrained because travel times of seismic waves are only weakly sensitive to density. Inspired by recent developments in seismic waveform tomography, we investigate whether the visibility of 3-D density heterogeneities may be improved by inverting not only travel times of specific seismic phases but complete seismograms. As a first step in this direction, we perform numerical experiments to estimate the effect of 3-D crustal density heterogeneities on regional seismic wave propagation. While a finite number of numerical experiments may not capture the full range of possible scenarios, our results still indicate that realistic crustal density variations may lead to travel-time shifts of up to ∼ 1s and amplitude variations of several tens of percent over propagation distances of ∼ 1000km. Both amplitude and travel-time variations increase with increasing epicentral distance and increasing medium complexity, i.e. decreasing correlation length of the heterogeneities. They are practically negligible when the correlation length of the heterogeneities is much larger than the wavelength. However, when the correlation length approaches the wavelength, density-induced waveform perturbations become prominent. Recent regional-scale full-waveform inversions that resolve structure at the scale of a wavelength already reach this regime. Our numerical experiments suggest that waveform perturbations induced by realistic crustal density variations can be observed in high-quality regional seismic data. While density-induced travel-time differences will often be small, amplitude variations exceeding ±10% are comparable to those induced by 3-D velocity structure and attenuation. While these results certainly encourage more research on the development of 3-D density tomography, they also suggest that current full-waveform inversions that use amplitude information may be biased due to the neglect of 3-D variations in density. Solid Earth, 7 (6) ISSN:1869-9510 ISSN:1869-9529

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Nataliya M. Komarova; Olav Velthuis;
    Country: Netherlands
    Project: NWO | The Globalization of High... (2300162562)

    ABSTRACTThe paper studies how local contexts contribute to the emergence of markets. In particular, it explains how potential entrepreneurs are motivated to become active in establishing new markets. Empirically, the focus is on contemporary art markets in two emerging countries: India and Russia. The paper draws upon qualitative interviews with 65 contemporary art dealers conducted in New Delhi, Mumbai, Moscow and Saint Petersburg. We show how different socio-cultural contexts function as activation mechanisms: in India, family backgrounds predominantly structure the decision-making processes, among others through the economic, social and cultural capital which these families provide. In Russia, by contrast, such family background is non-existent. Instead, the socio-economic turmoil of 1990s and 2000s as well as the strong involvement of the state function as activation mechanisms. We suggest that these different activation mechanisms contribute to explaining the diverging market performance in both coun...

  • Publication . Article . 2009
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Galit W. Sassoon;
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Country: Netherlands
    Project: NWO | Modeling the role of vagu... (2300152423), NWO | Modeling the role of vagu... (2300152423)

    This paper presents a novel semantic analysis of unit names (like pound and meter) and gradable adjectives (like tall, short and happy), inspired by measurement theory (Krantz et al. In Foundations of measurement: Additive and Polynomial Representations, 1971). Based on measurement theory’s four-way typology of measures, I claim that different adjectives are associated with different types of measures whose special characteristics, together with features of the relations denoted by unit names, explain the puzzling limited distribution of measure phrases, as well as unit-based comparisons between predicates (as in the table is longer than it is wide). All considered, my analyses support the view that the grammar of natural languages is sensitive to features of measurement theory.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    P. Marcos Crichigno; Takuya Matsumoto; Kentaroh Yoshida;
    Publisher: IOP Publishing Ltd.
    Project: NWO | Geometrical aspects of su... (2300157346)

    Yang-Baxter sigma models, proposed by Klimcik and Delduc-Magro-Vicedo, have been recognized as a powerful framework for studying integrable deformations of two-dimensional non-linear sigma models. In this short article, as an important generalization, we review a non-integrable sigma model in the Yang-Baxter sigma model approach based on [arXiv:1406.2249]. In particular, we discuss a family of deformations of the 5D Sasaki-Einstein manifold $T^{1,1}$, instead of the standard deformations of the $5$-sphere S$^5$. For this purpose, we first describe a novel construction of $T^{1,1}$ as a supercoset, and provide a physical interpretation of this construction from viewpoint of the dual Klebanov-Witten field theory. Secondly, we consider a $3$-parameter deformation of $T^{1,1}$ by using classical $r$-matrices satisfying the classical Yang--Baxter equation (CYBE). The resulting metric and NS-NS two-form completely agree with the ones previously obtained via TsT (T-dual -- shift -- T-dual) transformations, and contain the Lunin-Maldacena background as a special case. Our result indicates that what we refer to as the gravity/CYBE(Classical Yang-Baxter Equation) correspondence can be extended beyond integrable cosets. Comment: This article is a brief review of the original paper [arXiv:1406.2249] prepared for a proceeding of a talk given by T.M. at "The XXIIIth International Conference on Integrable Systems and Quantum symmetries (ISQS-23)" held in Prague, Czech Republic, from June 23 till June 27, 2015, v2: references added

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    D.L. Noorlander;
    Publisher: openjournals.nl
    Project: NWO | Novel strategies to impro... (2300147147)

    Michiel van Groesen (ed.), The Legacy of Dutch Brazil (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014, x + 363 pp., isbn 978 11 07 06117 0).

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Beddow, Helen M.; Liebrand, Diederik; Wilson, Douglas S.; Hilgen, Frits J.; Sluijs, Appy; Wade, Bridget S.; Lourens, Lucas J.; Stratigraphy and paleontology; Marine palynology and palaeoceanography; Stratigraphy & paleontology;
    Country: Netherlands
    Project: NWO | Evolution of astronomical... (2300157723), EC | ERAS (293741), EC | EARTHSEQUENCING (617462)

    Astronomical tuning of sediment sequences requires both unambiguous cycle pattern recognition in climate proxy records and astronomical solutions, as well as independent information about the phase relationship between these two. Here we present two different astronomically tuned age models for the Oligocene–Miocene transition (OMT) from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Site U1334 (equatorial Pacific Ocean) to assess the effect tuning has on astronomically calibrated ages and the geologic timescale. These alternative age models (roughly from ∼ 22 to ∼ 24 Ma) are based on different tunings between proxy records and eccentricity: the first age model is based on an aligning CaCO3 weight (wt%) to Earth's orbital eccentricity, and the second age model is based on a direct age calibration of benthic foraminiferal stable carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) to eccentricity. To independently test which tuned age model and associated tuning assumptions are in best agreement with independent ages based on tectonic plate-pair spreading rates, we assign the tuned ages to magnetostratigraphic reversals identified in deep-marine magnetic anomaly profiles. Subsequently, we compute tectonic plate-pair spreading rates based on the tuned ages. The resultant alternative spreading-rate histories indicate that the CaCO3 tuned age model is most consistent with a conservative assumption of constant, or linearly changing, spreading rates. The CaCO3 tuned age model thus provides robust ages and durations for polarity chrons C6Bn.1n–C7n.1r, which are not based on astronomical tuning in the latest iteration of the geologic timescale. Furthermore, it provides independent evidence that the relatively large (several 10 000 years) time lags documented in the benthic foraminiferal isotope records relative to orbital eccentricity constitute a real feature of the Oligocene–Miocene climate system and carbon cycle. The age constraints from Site U1334 thus indicate that the delayed responses of the Oligocene–Miocene climate–cryosphere system and (marine) carbon cycle resulted from highly non-linear feedbacks to astronomical forcing.

  • Restricted English
    Authors: 
    B.S.H. Schneider; Klaudia F. Kuiper; Onno Postma; Jan R. Wijbrans;
    Country: Netherlands
    Project: NWO | Introduction of an astron... (1900120477), NWO | Calibrating Earth history (2300137234)

    Abstract Magnetic sector mass spectrometers dominate the field of 40 Ar/ 39 Ar geochronology. Recent advances in quadrupole mass spectrometer technology, especially improvements in resolution, have increased the performance of these instruments to the extent that they can be used for isotopic determinations. We describe a triple filter quadrupole mass spectrometer (Hiden HAL 3F Series Pulse Ion Counting Triple Filter QMS) linked to an automated furnace extraction and cleaning system dedicated to 40 Ar/ 39 Ar incremental heating experiments. The instrument produces peaks with broad flat tops and a width of 0.9 amu at 10 cps height and 0.84 amu at 500,000 cps height on a 1 million cps high peak (peak width at 0.01‰ and 50% peak height respectively). This allows measurement of ratios of the main Ar peaks in the 1‰ range. Measurements of 1.6 × 10 −12 mole of air reference gas over two years yields 40 Ar/ 36 Ar = 257.9 ± 1.3 (1σ, n = 34). The ability of the instrument to produce 40 Ar/ 39 Ar ages from rocks/minerals of a wide age range, reaching into the late Quaternary, are demonstrated by a series of tests and comparison with geochronological data from other studies and an in-house MAP 215-50 magnetic sector mass spectrometer. We demonstrate that high-end quadrupole systems can be used for routine 40 Ar/ 39 Ar dating purposes.

  • Restricted English
    Authors: 
    Henk de Haas; Furu Mienis; Norbert Frank; T. O. Richter; Reinhold Steinacher; Henko de Stigter; Cees van der Land; Tjeerd C.E. van Weering;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: France, Netherlands, France
    Project: NWO | Forcing of Carbonate Moun... (1800114387)

    Cold-water coral mounds on both margins of the Rockall Trough (NE Atlantic Ocean) have a strongly different morphology. Single, isolated mounds occur on the SE margin and are mainly found on the upper slope between 900 and 650 m water depth, while large mound clusters are found on the SW margin in water depths between 600 and 1,000 m, in a narrow zone almost parallel to the slope. Sedimentation rates on the mounds are higher than on the surrounding seabed as a result of baffling of biogenic carbonate debris and siliciclastic particles by the coral framework covering the mounds. This is confirmed by 210Pb measurements. The individual coral growth rate can be three times higher then the vertical growth rate of the coral cover (±10 mm year−1) which in turn is more than an order of magnitude higher then the present-day overall mound growth rate (±0.25 mm year−1). The presence of extensive hardgrounds and firmgrounds and the three-dimensional coral framework are considered to be responsible for the stability of the relatively steep slopes of the mounds. High current velocities in the intramound areas result in local non-sedimentation and erosion, as is shown by the presence of IRD (ice-rafted debris) lag deposits on the seabed and moats around some of the mounds. The morphology and sedimentology of cold-water coral-covered (mainly Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata) mounds on the southern Rockall Trough margins (NE Atlantic Ocean) is discussed and a model describing the development of these mounds is presented.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Eric Bouwers; Martin Bravenboer; Eelco Visser;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Project: NWO | TraCE: Capturing Timeline... (1800113975)

    AbstractA wide range of parser generators are used to generate parsers for programming languages. The grammar formalisms that come with parser generators provide different approaches for defining operator precedence. Some generators (e.g. YACC) support precedence declarations, others require the grammar to be unambiguous, thus encoding the precedence rules. Even if the grammar formalism provides precedence rules, a particular grammar might not use it. The result is grammar variants implementing the same language. For the C language, the GNU Compiler uses YACC with precedence rules, the C-Transformers uses SDF without priorities, while the SDF library does use priorities. For PHP, Zend uses YACC with precedence rules, whereas PHP-front uses SDF with priority and associativity declarations.The variance between grammars raises the question if the precedence rules of one grammar are compatible with those of another. This is usually not obvious, since some languages have complex precedence rules. Also, for some parser generators the semantics of precedence rules is defined operationally, which makes it hard to reason about their effect on the defined language. We present a method and tool for comparing the precedence rules of different grammars and parser generators. Although it is undecidable whether two grammars define the same language, this tool provides support for comparing and recovering precedence rules, which is especially useful for reliable migration of a grammar from one grammar formalism to another. We evaluate our method by the application to non-trivial mainstream programming languages, such as PHP and C.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Marco Spruit;
    Publisher: Oxford University Press (OUP)
    Project: NWO | The Determinants of Diale... (1700115902)

    This research applies dialectometric methods to purely syntactic dialect data. It will be shown that there is geographic cohesion in syntactic variation when viewed in the aggregate. The amount of syntactic variation which can be accounted for by geography will be determined. Dialectometric techniques will be used to develop an additive measure of syntactic differences. Multidimensional scaling will be applied to visualise the geographic distribution of the Dutch dialects with respect to syntactic variation in the aggregate. The Dutch dialect map based on a syntactic measure will be compared with a dialect map based on subjective judgements and a dialect map based on pronunciation differences to put the syntactic measurement results into perspective. An alternative way to measure syntactic distance will be presented and will provide indications for future research to more accurately quantify syntactic variation.