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11 Research products, page 1 of 2

  • Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage
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  • 2012-2021
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  • Publication . Contribution for newspaper or weekly magazine . Conference object . 2020
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Jeff Mitchell; Jeffrey S. Bowers;
    Publisher: International Committee on Computational Linguistics
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: EC | M and M (741134)

    Recently, domain-general recurrent neural networks, without explicit linguistic inductive biases, have been shown to successfully reproduce a range of human language behaviours, such as accurately predicting number agreement between nouns and verbs. We show that such networks will also learn number agreement within unnatural sentence structures, i.e. structures that are not found within any natural languages and which humans struggle to process. These results suggest that the models are learning from their input in a manner that is substantially different from human language acquisition, and we undertake an analysis of how the learned knowledge is stored in the weights of the network. We find that while the model has an effective understanding of singular versus plural for individual sentences, there is a lack of a unified concept of number agreement connecting these processes across the full range of inputs. Moreover, the weights handling natural and unnatural structures overlap substantially, in a way that underlines the non-human-like nature of the knowledge learned by the network.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Kylie Thomas;
    Country: Netherlands
    Project: EC | FEM-RESIST (838864), EC | FEM-RESIST (838864)

    In his book about his Irish-South African family and his childhood under apartheid, White Boy Running, Christopher Hope writes of the ‘bitter emotion’ that infuses the politics of both Ireland and South Africa. This article considers how the histories of political struggle in both places are intertwined through readings of photographs taken in Ireland and South Africa in the 1970s and 1980s. I draw on these photographs to develop an argument about how affective archives of music, images, and poetry travel across time and space and serve as a conduit for raising awareness about injustice and for forging transnational solidarity. At the same time these photographs provoke a consideration about how Irish identification with the struggle of black South Africans is complicated by the longer history of British colonialism and racism and how solidarity requires both remembering and forgetting. This article also begins to trace the presence and work of South African activists in Ireland who campaigned against apartheid while they were in exile.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Yichi Zhang;
    Publisher: Informa UK Limited
    Project: EC | BROKEX (802070)

    This article examines a largely unexplored component of China’s classical garden system – the gardens of salt merchants in Tianjin during the Qing Dynasty (1636-1911). Beyond existing works, which tend to focus on imperial and scholar gardens – gardens of the ruling elites – this examination of merchant gardens contributes to garden history by revealing that merchants created gardens to improve their low social status. It further reveals shifts in the functions, architectural design and flora of the gardens which reflects both individual aesthetics and the changing fortunes of Tianjin’s salt merchants in general. Salt merchant gardens in Tianjin initially presented idyllic scenery to create literary-based, self-immersed spaces. Then beginning in the 1720s, they evolved into a showcase of rising merchant power displaying affluence, thereby enabling merchants to improve their social rank. Finally, from the 1840s, salt merchant gardens gradually became extravagant enclosures as the collapse of the established social structure unfolded.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Mercklé, Pierre; Zalc, Claire;
    Publisher: Cambridge University Press (CUP)
    Project: EC | LUBARTWORLD (818843)

    RésumésL’objectif de cet article est de proposer un examen détaillé des apports et des limites de la modélisation en histoire à partir du cas de la Shoah. Il s’appuie sur une enquête qui a permis de reconstituer les « trajectoires de persécution » des 992 Juifs de Lens pendant la Seconde Guerre mondiale, dont 527 seulement ont survécu. 491 ont été arrêtés, 468 ont été déportés et 449 ont été exterminés. Les données prosopographiques sont utilisées ici pour répondre à une question simple : est-il possible de modéliser la persécution ? En d’autres termes, est-il possible de construire une représentation simplifiée mais heuristique des processus causaux complexes qui ont déterminé les chances de survie face à la persécution nazie à partir de données standardisées sur un nombre relativement important d’individus ? L’article discute les apports et les limites d’une succession de méthodes quantifiées : celles qui s’inscrivent dans ce qu’Andrew Abbott appelle le « programme standard » des sciences sociales, ainsi que l’analyse des réseaux et l’analyse séquentielle. Pour chacune d’entre elles, sont plus particulièrement discutées les manières de rendre compte des interactions entre les individus, de l’historicité des comportements et des processus déterminant ces chances de survie. Les tentatives de modélisation à partir de données historiennes apportent ainsi de véritables renouvellements de connaissances, notamment lorsqu’elles sont menées de manière cumulative sur une même enquête. En passant d’une logique de propriétés individuelles à une logique de trajectoires interconnectées, ces approches permettent de mieux comprendre les interactions sociales et locales, et offrent ainsi des perspectives stimulantes pour la microhistoire de l’Holocauste.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Albert Kohn;
    Publisher: MDPI AG
    Project: EC | BeyondtheElite (681507)

    In recent years, pre-modern beds have generated extensive scholarly interest. Their social, religious, and economic importance has been rightfully highlighted in the study of domestic piety. Yet, concern has primarily focused on beds in late medieval English homes. This essay uses Hebrew texts from thirteenth-century Southern Germany, primarily Sefer Hasidim, to further this analysis of the role of the bed in shaping medieval domestic devotion. Jewish notions about the social, moral, and sexual significance of the bed reflect those identified in late medieval Christian culture. These ideas inspired numerous rituals practiced in Jewish homes. Yet, the bed and the remnants of sex assumed to be found in it also frustrated Jewish attempts to perform domestic devotion. These findings highlight the complicated nature of the home and how medieval people had to navigate both its opportunities and challenges in order to foster a rich culture of domestic devotion.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    James Mallinson;
    Project: EC | HYP (647963)

    In recent decades the relationship between tantric traditions of Buddhism and Śaivism has been the subject of sustained scholarly enquiry. This article looks at a specific aspect of this relationship, that between Buddhist and Śaiva traditions of practitioners of physical yoga, which came to be categorised in Sanskrit texts as haṭhayoga. Taking as its starting point the recent identification as Buddhist of the c.11th-century Amṛtasiddhi, which is the earliest text to teach any of the methods of haṭhayoga and whose teachings are found in many subsequent non-Buddhist works, the article draws on a range of textual and material sources to identify the Konkan site of Kadri as a key location for the transition from Buddhist to Nāth Śaiva haṭhayoga traditions, and proposes that this transition may provide a model for how Buddhist teachings survived elsewhere in India after Buddhism’s demise there as a formal religion.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Camil Demetrescu; Andrea Ribichini; Marco Schaerf;
    Publisher: Springer Verlag
    Country: Italy
    Project: EC | SecondHands (643950)

    We investigate the accuracy of how author names are reported in bibliographic records excerpted from four prominent sources: WoS, Scopus, PubMed, and CrossRef. We take as a case study 44,549 publications stored in the internal database of Sapienza University of Rome, one of the largest universities in Europe. While our results indicate generally good accuracy for all bibliographic data sources considered, we highlight a number of issues that undermine the accuracy for certain classes of author names, including compound names and names with diacritics, which are common features to Italian and other Western languages.

  • Publication . Article . Conference object . Preprint . 2018 . Embargo End Date: 01 Apr 2020
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Hardy Hardy; Andreas Vlachos;
    Publisher: Apollo - University of Cambridge Repository
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: EC | SUMMA (688139), EC | SUMMA (688139)

    Recent work on abstractive summarization has made progress with neural encoder-decoder architectures. However, such models are often challenged due to their lack of explicit semantic modeling of the source document and its summary. In this paper, we extend previous work on abstractive summarization using Abstract Meaning Representation (AMR) with a neural language generation stage which we guide using the source document. We demonstrate that this guidance improves summarization results by 7.4 and 10.5 points in ROUGE-2 using gold standard AMR parses and parses obtained from an off-the-shelf parser respectively. We also find that the summarization performance using the latter is 2 ROUGE-2 points higher than that of a well-established neural encoder-decoder approach trained on a larger dataset. Code is available at \url{https://github.com/sheffieldnlp/AMR2Text-summ} Comment: Accepted in EMNLP 2018

  • Publication . Article . 2017
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    David Lunn; Julia Byl;
    Publisher: Informa UK Limited
    Project: EC | MUSTECIO (263643)

    This is the first treatment of a hitherto unknown text, a hybrid lithograph-manuscript from 1864 called the Syair Tabut, or ‘Poem of the tomb effigies’, by Encik Ali. The only known copy of the Sya...

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Lotta Vikström; Helena Haage; Erling Häggström Lundevaller;
    Publisher: International Instititute of Social History
    Country: Sweden
    Project: EC | DISLIFE (647125), EC | DISLIFE (647125)

    Historically, little is known about whether and to what extent disabled people found work and formed families. To fill this gap, this study analyses the life course trajectories of both disabled and non-disabled individuals, between the ages of 15 and 33, from the Sundsvall region in Sweden during the nineteenth century. Having access to micro-data that report disabilities in a population of 8,874 individuals from the parish registers digitised by the Demographic Data Base, Umeå University, we employ sequence analysis on a series of events that are expected to occur in life of young adults: getting a job, marrying and becoming a parent, while also taking into account out-migration and death. Through this method we obtain a holistic picture of the life course of disabled people. Main findings show that their trajectories did not include work or family to the same extent as those of non-disabled people. Secondary findings concerning migration and mortality indicate that the disabled rarely out-migrated from the region, and they suffered from premature deaths. To our knowledge this is the first study to employ sequence analysis on a substantially large number of cases to provide demographic evidence of how disability shaped human trajectories in the past during an extended period of life. Accordingly, we detail our motivation for this method, describe our analytical approach, and discuss the advantages and disadvantages associated with sequence analysis for our case study.