Chaotic strings are a class of non-hyperbolic coupled map lattices, exhibiting a rich structure of complex dynamical phenomena with a surprising correspondence to physical contents. In this paper we introduce different types and models for chaotic strings, where 2B-strings with finite length are considered in detail. We demonstrate possibilities to extract renormalized quantities, which are expected to describe essential properties of the string.
Of all the Greek city-states, Sparta offers certainly the most abundant and partly also the best literary evidence about the development of the constitution of an early polis (prior to the 6th century BC). This is true at least in respect of what may be called early documentary evidence. In the first place we have the so-called Great Rhetra, allegedly a Delphic prescription to the Spartan lawgiver Lykourgos, quoted by Plutarch in the biography of Lykourgos as his main constitutional enactment. By all probability the Rhetra with its commentary derives from Aristotle’s lost “Lakedaimonion politeia”. Leaving here aside all the disputes about the exact meaning of particular clauses of the Rhetra, we can summarise its essence as follows. First, it prescribed the establishment of a new cult (Syllanian Zeus and Athena), the arrangement of the members of the community into structural units (phylai and obai), the establishment of the gerousia of 30 members, including the kings, and the regular holding of assemblies. And second, it prescribed the correct procedure to be followed in the assemblies, leaving the right of the final decision to the people. According to Aristotle, the kings Polydoros and Theopompos added later the so-called Rider to the Rhetra. It gave the gerontes and the kings the right to dissolve the assembly if the people would speak crookedly.
In their article "Intermediality as Cultural Literacy and Teaching the Graphic Novel" Geert Vandermeersche and Ronald Soetaert argue for the inclusion of the graphic novel for the teaching of cultural literacy and literature. As the printed book is no longer the sole carrier of cultural literacy, Vandermeersche and Soetaert postulate that literary culture must be repositioned in intermedial culture and practices. In order to do so, Vandermeersche and Soetaert apply Werner Wolf's typology of intermediality, aspects of narratology, and scholarship about comics. Following a theoretical discussion they analyze the graphic novel series The Unwritten, a text that thematizes the intermedial nature of (Western) culture today and mediates the function of literature and cultural literacy. Consequently, as Vandermeersche's and Soetaert's analysis suggests, narration incorporates references to and the thematization of other media and literary texts, which, in turn, creates embedded stories that try to link the entire fabric of literary culture together. As such, it changes the way we look at the transfer of cultural literacy to readers and students of literature and culture.
AbstractIn this paper, the authors analyse the ambiguous political decision to ban the major Russian web resources from access to the Ukrainian market, in spite of heavy criticisms from local and foreign experts. While the supporters of the new internet policy claimed the new strategy to be coherent with cybersecurity priorities of the country, the opponents pointed out a set of legal and political limitations. Drawing on the setting and results of taking a new approach to information policy, we describe the fragility of Euromaidan democratic heritage and drawbacks of the current political regime. The logical method of legal interpretation has been applied to analyse the controversies of the current legislation on Russian internet resources restriction. The article concludes that Ukrainian post-Euromaidan governance model needs to consolidate the efforts in order to prove the commitment to freedom of speech as a core European value and replace spontaneous actions with an evidence-based approach to political decision-making.
This article surveys the official narrative on representation of Estonian identity and Estonianness through the tourism strategy implemented by Estonia from 2007 to 2015. Gathering material from brochures and documents targeting foreigners produced by the Estonian Institute and “Enterprise Estonia” (EAS) and analyzing the logic behind the interior design of Tallinn Airport, we engage with current debates on identity construction in post-Soviet spaces. In particular, we suggest that along with an established body of literature looking at the role of state actors in the construction of identity, studies should consider the role of nontraditional or non-state actors in identifying and promoting identity markers.
Laurence Loewe; Katherine S. Scheuer; Seth A. Keel; Vaibhav Vyas; Ben Liblit; Bret Hanlon; Michael C. Ferris; John Yin; Inês Dutra; Anthony Pietsch; +25 more
Laurence Loewe; Katherine S. Scheuer; Seth A. Keel; Vaibhav Vyas; Ben Liblit; Bret Hanlon; Michael C. Ferris; John Yin; Inês Dutra; Anthony Pietsch; Christine G. Javid; Cecilia L. Moog; Jocelyn R Meyer; Jerdon W Dresel; Brian McLoone; Sonya Loberger; Arezoo Movaghar; Morgaine Gilchrist-Scott; Yazeed Sabri; Dave Sescleifer; Ivan Pereda-Zorrilla; Andrew Zietlow; Rodrigo Smith; Samantha Pietenpol; Jacob Goldfinger; Sarah L. Atzen; Erika Freiberg; Noah P. Waters; Claire Nusbaum; Erik D Nolan; Alyssa Hotz; Richard M. Kliman; Ayalew Mentewab; Nathan Fregien; Martha Loewe;
Project: NIH | PREDOCTORAL TRAINING PROG... (5T32GM007133-12), NIH | Fine-scale recombination,... (5R01GM086445-02), NSF | CAREER: Modeling made eas... (1149123), NIH | Institutional Training Gr... (5T32HG002760-12)
Names in programming are vital for understanding the meaning of code and big data. We define code2brain (C2B) interfaces as maps in compilers and brains between meaning and naming syntax, which help to understand executable code. While working toward an Evolvix syntax for general‐purpose programming that makes accurate modeling easy for biologists, we observed how names affect C2B quality. To protect learning and coding investments, C2B interfaces require long‐term backward compatibility and semantic reproducibility (accurate reproduction of computational meaning from coder‐brains to reader‐brains by code alone). Semantic reproducibility is often assumed until confusing synonyms degrade modeling in biology to deciphering exercises. We highlight empirical naming priorities from diverse individuals and roles of names in different modes of computing to show how naming easily becomes impossibly difficult. We present the Evolvix BEST (Brief, Explicit, Summarizing, Technical) Names concept for reducing naming priority conflicts, test it on a real challenge by naming subfolders for the Project Organization Stabilizing Tool system, and provide naming questionnaires designed to facilitate C2B debugging by improving names used as keywords in a stabilizing programming language. Our experiences inspired us to develop Evolvix using a flipped programming language design approach with some unexpected features and BEST Names at its core.