Advanced search in Research products
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
The following results are related to Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
1,017 Research products, page 1 of 102

  • Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage
  • Other research products
  • eScholarship - University of California

10
arrow_drop_down
Relevance
arrow_drop_down
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Li, Peiting Carrie;
    Publisher: eScholarship, University of California
    Country: United States

    This project investigates not the inexplicable cures that healed the sick in early 20th-century China, but the transformations in the hierarchies of knowledge on which Western medical authority was based. I look at simultaneously existing paradigms of authority surrounding doctors of Western medicine, scientific medical knowledge, and Chinese herbal medicine in the print media of 1920s Shanghai. The historical confluence of challenges to Chinese medicine and the rise of Western medicine are the backdrop of this story. The fall of the last dynasty in 1911 prompted Chinese reformers to question their guiding paradigms in all areas of life, including language and politics, science and medicine. Intellectuals like Liang Qichao condemned traditional Chinese culture, which was seen as weakening China in the face of foreign imperialism. Chinese medicine however, was not completely repudiated. For all the harsh criticism of Chinese theories of knowing the body based on concepts like yin yang, and methods of diagnosis such as pulse reading, in areas of treatment, herbal and mineral especially, doctors and patients still viewed their native medicine as retaining some value. For prior to the rise of medical schools in the mid-19th century and lab-based biomedicine in the mid-20th century, doctors of Western medicine – often portrayed as charlatans hawking unproven nostrums – struggled to respond effectively to diseases. I ask how Chinese doctors of Western medicine in Shanghai made a case for themselves as figures of authority at a time when Western medicine was ascendant yet could not offer reliable cures for many of the major diseases of the time. Drawing on professional medical journals, popular newspapers, and legal regulations, I show how physicians presented themselves as ethical professionals; how medical journals turned subjective experience into objective scientific knowledge; and the ways professional, popular, and state reporting transformed authoritative herbs into efficacious drugs. The forms of institutional organization and knowledge production that created this medical authority simultaneously produced a whole host of tensions: between professional ethics and medical entrepreneurship; scientific knowledge that was locally contingent but sought to be globally coherent; and between authentic and commodified indigenous medicine. I argue that a particular formation of Sino-Western medicine, knowledge production, and the market in Republican Shanghai resulted in print media restructuring hierarchies of knowledge production to hinge less on asserting the inherent qualities of medical experts, knowledge, or drugs, and more on articulating the institutional processes that validated claims as an expert physician, producer of medical knowledge, and purveyor of effective medical treatments.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Lagle, Susan Elisabeth;
    Publisher: eScholarship, University of California
    Country: United States

    Since their discovery over a century ago, Neandertals have been the subject of myriad studies concerning their behavior, biology, and evolutionary relationship with humans. Despite decades of intensive research, the behavior of our closest relatives remains among the more contentious topics of paleoanthropology. Beginning in the mid-20th century, researchers began to recognize the complexity of the growing Middle Paleolithic archaeological record associated with Neandertals, particularly the variability in their lithic assemblages. Lithic studies have remained a cornerstone of behavioral investigations, but the faunal record is also recognized as a crucial component for exploring Neandertal lifeways. Changes in prey resource type and availability in differing environmental contexts likely impacted how Neandertals navigated their landscape, affecting both hunting and prey processing practices as well as tool-making decisions. Quina Mousterian lithic assemblages in southwestern France are often associated with faunal assemblages with high proportions of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), leading to suggestions that the characteristic Quina scrapers with intensive retouch signify a flexible, adaptable, and highly mobile toolkit appropriate for seasonal hunting of this possibly migratory species. This idea must be more fully explored through systematic zooarchaeological studies of mobility-related topics such as seasonality and prey carcass transport.This study begins to address these questions through zooarchaeological analyses of Quina-associated faunal assemblages from three sites in southwestern France: Roc de Marsal Level 4, Jonzac Level 22, and Pech de l'Azé IV Level 4a. Previous studies looked at subsets of these assemblages but I sought to generate complete datasets using consistent methodology, which required a full analysis of Roc de Marsal and an analysis of small materials from screening at Jonzac and Pech d l'Azé IV. Seasonality is investigated through studies of teeth (dental eruption and wear and cementum annuli) and fetal bone, while carcass transport is investigated through studies of skeletal part representation. Because these topics were discussed in previous Jonzac and Pech de l'Azé studies that relied only on plotted materials, I explored the varying impact of including screened materials on these and other study topics like species representation, mortality profiles, and butchery. Finally, I developed a new multi-level Bayesian Poisson model for studying skeletal part representation (SPR) that explores how the relative proportion of recorded elements from the sites relates to nutritional indicators like marrow cavity volume and the food utility index, given the effects of bone density. All three sites had different seasonality signatures, with Roc de Marsal showing use throughout the year while Jonzac was primarily used in the fall-winter and Pech de l'Azé in the spring-summer. I was also able to compare the three sites in terms of prey selection, with Pech de l'Azé IV having mostly juvenile reindeer while Roc de Marsal and Jonzac also had high numbers of prime adults. All three sites show extensive butchery, little carnivore activity, and no notable evidence of burning. My conclusions are mostly consistent with previous studies, except that earlier work at Jonzac indicated that carcass transport was not related to bone marrow content but the new SPR model suggests otherwise. Because of pandemic-related travel restrictions, some data from Roc de Marsal remains to be collected; the complete data will allow more comprehensive comparative analyses that will more fully address mobility-related connections between subsistence and technology in Quina Mousterian and other contexts in southwestern France.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Kokontis, Kate Menninger;
    Publisher: eScholarship, University of California
    Country: United States

    I argue that contemporary Americans of many ethnoracial backgrounds have, in the past forty years, negotiated the painful consequences of a form of multiculturalism that rewards otherness with cultural capital and punishes it with structural and symbolic abjection, through mechanisms of what I call "performative return": genealogical invocations of legitimating and mythologized origins, particularly ancestral homelands and fraught narratives of arrival to the United States, that become mobilized in performances to a range of ideological and political ends. Some of these performances are local to specific cities and some take place in a discursive realm; some are mobilized for purposes of truly liberatory democratic ends, and others to redraw the boundaries of exclusion. In the context of this dissertation, I turn my attention in particular to two narratives of transatlantic arrival to the U.S. - the Middle Passage, and Ellis Island immigration. As transatlantic arrivals to the U.S., the groups of subjects implicated in these narratives have tended to have had relatively permanent stays here - more so, for instance, than im/migrants from elsewhere in the Americas, who are more likely, on account of proximity, to navigate transnational back-and-forth relationships with their home country. But more significantly, these narratives are the purview of racial subjects in the U.S. who are implicated in a pernicious and reductive black-white binary conception of race. Resultantly, these narratives - particularly in the context of post-civil rights multiculturalisms - are articulated in relation to one another in a variety of ways. Ratifying origins shores up legitimacy, which is to say, it shores up the felicitousness of the performative. And performativity is a deeply temporal concept - while a performance takes place as a discrete event in a bounded moment in time, performativity is the repetition and revision over a long expanse of time: it is the longue durée, the mechanism by which social and power structures are formed and upheld. Performative return is central to the process of creating usable histories to various and sometimes deeply conflicting political and ideological ends: origins shore up legitimacy so that the narratives they invoke become articulated as reality. I establish a comparative framework of racialized histories and groups, of defining moments in the construction of an American racial state, and the ways in which their consequences register and are negotiated in the present through representations that slip into various worldmaking activities. And the project is comparative and relational not only because the racial state produces its subjects relationally within the framework of slavery, genocide, conquest and imperialism, and immigration, but also because I want to demonstrate the across-the-board nature of the ways that the past, ancestral homelands, and narratives of arrival are invoked as a means of negotiating racialized subjects' exclusion and legitimacy. The performative returns that I examine articulate the racial state, as well as ground-up negotiations of groups' and individuals' own racialized experiences or categorizations, in terms of the relational context of the U.S. in the world. That is, the performative returns are produced within a historical consciousness and transnational imaginary that brings spatial and temporal causes to bear on one another and takes seriously the constitutive potential of memory, the uses of narratives, and the calling into being of re-constituted "elsewheres."

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Humphrey, Olivia;
    Publisher: eScholarship, University of California
    Country: United States

    This dissertation explores the implications of “dying for the motherland” in late imperial Russia. What did this mean at the turn of the twentieth century, when battlefields were being transformed by new technologies of war, the population was becoming increasingly urban and literate, and in a geopolitical entity that was as much imperial as it was national? While the vast majority of the scholarship on military death has revolved around the idea of the nation, my research on late imperial Russia foregrounds the critical role played by three other thematic factors: technology, modernity, and space. Methodologically, I take the approach that the material remains of the dead soldiers, sailors, and aviators were not distinct from their representations but profoundly symbiotic. These two aspects reflected an intertwining of military and media, battlefield and home front, in ways that were central to the social and cultural history of the era. At this time, new technologies of destruction, new modes of communication, and new ideas about citizenship and personhood were challenging prior conceptions about what dying for Russia should mean. This process was fuelled by the media, which was grappling with the same world of novel ideas but also trying to understand how to market them to a mass audience. I argue that placing military death at the fulcrum of this interchange reveals a dynamic between the military and the media that the tsarist government valiantly tried, but ultimately failed, to control. The military dead were conscripted posthumously to causes beyond the nation. Using archival documents, printed materials, and visual sources, I adopt a spacious definition of military death that includes killing and dying, institutional and personal responses, and representations. The five chapters of my dissertation cover the Russo-Japanese War through the early years of the First World War. My work insists that matters of military death, most intimate and personal, not only map onto the broader ebbs and flows of cultural change and revolutionary ferment but offer some novel and critical insights into those processes.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Morris, Annelise Elizabeth;
    Publisher: eScholarship, University of California
    Country: United States

    My dissertation examines the historical and archaeological traces of the rural Black farmsteads we call our Homeplace, from approximately 1840 to the 1920. In it, I argue that these archaeological, architectural, and textual material resonances make visible the actions of resistance in Black communities by signifying the labor of persistence. Displacement and disenfranchisement are unfortunately a consistent and threatening theme in the history of the African-American experience in the United States. As such, holding on to and securing private space is a difficult and often futile process. In a society that systematically displaces people of color, persistence through land ownership and rural self-sufficient farming allows for the occupation and cultivation of the Homeplace; a private, decolonized space which becomes a quintessential site of resistance for Black Americans in the nineteenth century.To illustrate these points, I draw on theories of memory and materiality to examine the ways in which racialization is itself a dimension of materiality. I argue that this means racialization has a physical reality that is socially constituted, historically contingent, embodied and yet dispersed in its enforcement. At the same time, I examine my positionality as a Black descendant of these farmsteaders and as a member of the community undertaking a community-centered archaeological project. I explore the process of excavation as an act of historical resistance and empowerment, creating a moment for community members, stakeholders, and descendants to re-remember and memorialize pasts that are discursively recorded only in our memories and these materials. I assert that our best understanding of disenfranchised pasts must come from an engagement not only with African Diaspora scholarship, but also with the stakeholders and communities who are the stewards of these pasts.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    McIsaac, Stephen Robert;
    Publisher: eScholarship, University of California
    Country: United States

    In contemporary South Africa, spatial segregation, racism, and economic exclusion remain trenchant features of everyday life twenty-five years after the end of apartheid. Based on twenty months of ethnographic research in the township of Khayelitsha and Cape Town more broadly, this dissertation tracks different post-apartheid approaches to mental health care, which attempt to address these ongoing legacies. Through extensive fieldwork at a community-based organization that provides therapeutic support in isiXhosa, I argue that therapeutic practices by black South Africans de-stabilize and experiment with the normative confines of the psychotherapeutic encounter. Rather than treat individual psyches, therapists’ practices are oriented toward the relational space between generations, a political therapeutic driven by the affective force of the therapists’ own history of struggle toward a different future for black youth, who continue to be marked by the legacies of colonialism and apartheid (what I call “generational care” throughout the dissertation). Second, I argue that normative psychology continues to assume a nuclear family configuration as the norm against which all pathology is judged and therapeutic interventions practiced. I suggest this is particularly so for theories of attachment and infant development, which assume that only a particular configuration of the family—biological parents who unconditionally care for a child in the same physical space as them—is productive of “stable” subjects later in life. By following the history of psychiatry in South Africa, narratives of care from mental health professionals working on the Cape Flats, as well as policy and research agendas, I track how discourses of “cultural difference” evade processes of racialization and consequential racisms in normative psychological theories and interventions. I argue that different practical and conceptual therapeutic experiments are necessary, ones that imagine forms of care adequate to the lived afterlives of the settler-colonial project, and particularly ones for those related outside the nuclear family form.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    BISHOP, ANNA BRANDEBERRY;
    Publisher: eScholarship, University of California
    Country: United States

    Although the wars waged by Classic Maya kings were carefully documented in stone by ancient Maya scribes, little is known about the internal battles fought on the political field. Maya inscriptions present the court as a body unified behind its king, however there is reason to believe that courtiers under the king possessed their own aspirations, and competed with one another for power and security. During the Late Classic a flourish of new elite residential construction at royal centers and the appearance of new sub-royal titles on public monuments signaled that a burgeoning noble class gained influence in Maya courts. This second tier of elites existed in an exclusive political system primed for competition over power and resources. Hints in the ancient textual record suggest that factions within Maya courts contended with one another to improve their positions. This dissertation seeks to establish the competition within the aristocracy of a Classic Maya polity, and what methods the secondary elite pursued to jockey for power.Unfortunately, the dearth of non-royal elites in art and texts at most Classic Maya sites poses a methodological challenge: how does one study the internal dynamics of Maya courts without explicit historical references? I hope to address this question by analyzing the Late Classic aristocracy of El Zotz, using archaeological evidence to compare the practices of different lineage groups at the site. I focus on three residential complexes built outside the royal palace of El Zotz during the Late Classic, each with elite characteristics. My research seeks to answer two questions: (1) which of the newly constructed Late Classic residential groups around El Zotz housed non-royal elites? And (2) what strategies did the non-royal elites at El Zotz pursue to gain power within the political system? With these questions I identify the politically influential parties in the court of El Zotz beyond the royal family, and the tactics that they used to compete for dominance inside the government structure at the site.

  • Other research product . 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Mendoza-Ramirez, Juan Eduardo;
    Publisher: eScholarship, University of California
    Country: United States

    ABSTRACT OF THE THESIS This project attempts to offer an extended discussion related to objects as an attachment, as body extension, as interlocutors in how the individual (the body) experience the world. It refers to the physical representation and the many attempts to understand the transformation of both the object and the human body, through their intervention, transformation, re-invention, re-design, and meaningful effects that may produce. A set of elements that will serve to capture, recreate, and redesign my own version and understanding of this interaction. Thus, this project functions as a device of reinterpretation inviting to question and reflect upon artifacts and their modification, body attachments and the ability to modify and reinvent the individual, as well as their public, historical and contemporary discourses, implications, and dimensions.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Karaman, Emine Rezzan;
    Publisher: eScholarship, University of California
    Country: United States

    This dissertation focuses on the gendered constructions of Osmanlılık [Ottoman imperial identity] and Kurdiyati [Kurdish national identity] in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries in majority Kurdish regions near the Persian border. Thus, the dissertation promises a gendered reading of two dynamic processes: 1- The attempts made by Ottoman authorities to bring Kurds from a “state of savagery and nomadism” into the fold of civilization. 2- The formulation of rhetorical, institutional and political strategies of Kurdish elites to construct a Kurdish nation. While doing so, the dissertation pays particular attention to a third parameter-- the socio-political structure of Ottoman Kurdistan-- to discuss its role in the above-mentioned overlapping processes. I argue that the organization of nomadic, semi-nomadic and sedentary tribal life, family structures, existing gender codes and religious systems of Kurdistan not only shaped (and were shaped by) the state’s policies, but that they also had constructive and constitutive roles in the formation of Kurdish national discourses. The dissertation, in this way, aims to discuss the convoluted relationships between these three parameters mainly through the use of gender-based micro-cases from various parts of Ottoman Kurdistan.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Lowman, Ian Nathaniel;
    Publisher: eScholarship, University of California
    Country: United States

    In the 9th century CE, a vast polity centered on the region of Angkor was taking shape in what is today Cambodia and Northeast Thailand. At this time the polity's inhabitants, the Khmers, began to see themselves as members of a community of territorial integrity and shared ethnic identity. This sense of belonging, enshrined in the polity's name, Kambujadesa (i.e., Cambodia) or "the land of the descendants of Kambu," represents one of the most remarkable local cultural innovations in Southeast Asian history. However, the history and implications of early Cambodian identity have thus far been largely overlooked. In this study I use the evidence from the Old Khmer and Sanskrit inscriptions to argue that Angkorian Cambodia (9th-15th centuries CE) was at its conceptual core an ethnic polity or a "nation"--an analytic category signifying, in Steven Grosby's words, an extensive "territorial community of nativity." The inscriptions of Cambodia's provincial elite suggest that the polity's autonomy and its people's common descent were widely disseminated ideals, celebrated in polity-wide myths and perpetuated in representations of the polity's foreign antagonists. I contend that this culture of territorial nativity contradicts the prevailing cosmological model of pre-modern politics in Southeast Asian studies, which assumes that polities before the 19th century were characterized by exaggerated royal claims to universal power and the absence of felt communities beyond extended family and religion. At the same time I seek to problematize standard historical accounts of the nation which fail to observe the affinity between territoriality and fictive kinship in select political cultures before the era of ideological nationalism.