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2,665 Research products, page 1 of 267

  • Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage
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  • 2013-2022
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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Novgorodov, Innokentiy; Lemskaya, Valeriya; Tokmashev, Denis; Aktaş, Erhan;
    Publisher: Elsevier Science Bv
    Country: Turkey

    15th International Conference Linguistic and Cultural Studies - Traditions and Innovations (LKTI) -- NOV 09-11, 2015 -- Tomsk, RUSSIA -- Natl Res Tomsk Polytechn Univ, Inst Power Engn, Dept Foreign Languages This study encourages a multidisciplinary research to identify parallels in the group belonging and chronology of South Siberian Turkic (Chulym Turkic and Bachat Teleut) and Yakut. There is solid evidence that the ancestors of modern Yakuts and their language originate from the Central Asian steppe Proto-Turkic community of the 1st century BC. South Siberian Turkic varieties have not been studied as thoroughly, but they are expected to have traces of some non-Turkic language substratum. The analysis of the Teleut gene pool has revealed two different components of the Turkic and non-Turkic nature, which gives reason to consider non-Turkic elements in Teleut as aboriginal. The gene pool study of the Chulym Turks is expected to contribute to the issue of language history and Chulym Turkic lexicon which is etymologically vague from the Turkic viewpoint. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Johnson, Sarah Rose;
    Publisher: eScholarship, University of California
    Country: United States

    This dissertation examines how the Centralverein deutscher Staatsb�rger j�dischen Glaubens and the Volksverein f�r das katholische Deutschland utilized decentralization into the local and regional spheres to participate in German society, shape public and political discourse, and strengthen their respective community’s sense of belonging and identity. Drawing on the Centralverein and Volksverein’s administrative records held in archives in England and Germany, this dissertation assesses how their networks of local and regional branches operated and how power and responsibility shifted between the center and the periphery during the German Empire, the Weimar Republic, and Nazi Germany. In decentering away from their respective central office to focus on the local and regional branches, this dissertation argues that local and regional branches were the main sites in which religious minority groups constructed and reinforced their influence, whether political or social. Whether through providing legal or political defense or holding assemblies and lectures, religious minority associations worked to unite their members and create a unified front for political and social action on their own behalf. In promoting a positive connection to Jewishness while also defending Germanness, the Centralverein’s local and regional branches created tailored spaces in which Centralverein members could develop and affirm a synthesized German-Jewish identity while also asserting their civic belonging in the local, regional, and national spheres. Through both a comparative and integrated institutional history of the Centralverein and Volksverein’s decentralization, this dissertation provides a more detailed understanding of social and political relations between minority and majority communities during the German Empire, the Weimar Republic, and Nazi Germany. A comparative perspective allows for examining how minority religious associations responded and adapted to changes at the state level and navigated shifting means of self-assertion and political expression. In examining how German-Jewish and German-Catholic associations implemented decentralization and accommodated regionalization, this study decenters the examination of belonging, the pluralities of civic, regional, and religious identities and what it meant to represent religious minority interests in the German public sphere in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2014
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Streffen, Isabella; Archino, Sarah; McSherry, Siofra;
    Publisher: The And Or Project
    Country: United Kingdom

    First in a series of 4 online exhibitions by collective And Or. Command Plus with Molly Morin and Nia Davies was the first online exhibition by collective And Or, running from February-June 2014. For this inaugural show, And Or brought together art, text, poetry and design by a web of collaborators including Molly Morin, Nia Davies, Nora O Murchú and Alice Poulalion to create a cycle of interactive work and response that confounds the distinction between text and image.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    VESTAL, MARQUES A;
    Publisher: eScholarship, University of California
    Country: United States

    Urban histories of race and housing currently ignore the daily conflicts over debt, occupancy, and autonomy that characterized the private market for shelter and home in the United States. The historical literature, instead, has concentrated on the role of government policy, economic restructuring, real estate professionals, white homeowners, and black activists in constructing and resisting racially segregated metropolitan real estate and mortgage markets, resulting in discriminatory access to homeownership and credit for black Americans. This study aims to construct a history not of the contested role of race in housing, but the contested role of private property in shaping the black experience of housing. Specifically, this dissertation examines seminal moments of property conflict in Black Los Angeles between 1920 and 1950, arguing that the everyday conflicts over debt, rent, eviction, and autonomy comprised the central substance of the history of black home struggle in the city. Property conflicts were the complaints, jokes, gossip, lawsuits, deals, compromises, and regular violence that parties, often of unequal power, engaged in to claim contested entitlements over land, housing, and revenue, of which contests over segregation were but one aspect of conflict. Thus, the focus on struggle in this study is both broadened and made more intimate. For working-class black Angelenos, the goal of property conflict was to make and to keep home amid urban growth and contraction, not to make a city or to enter the vaunted status of homeowner. By centering the contentious intersection of home and private property, this study consolidates the struggles of both working-class property owners and tenants into a more holistic history of black land struggle. To uncover the history of black property conflict in Los Angeles between 1920 and 1950, this study tracked a variety of scattered records that documented such conflict: black newspapers, manuscript collections, Los Angeles City Council minutes and petitions, Los Angeles Board of Supervisors minutes, Superior Court criminal and civil lawsuits, and other city, state, and federal records. Unearthing these records reveals that the history of black land struggle in Los Angeles is the history of conflict over the terms of private property. The findings of this study force urban historians, and anyone concerned with housing policy, to rethink the central problem of race and housing in the United States. The problem is not the discriminatory access to the private property rights and neighborhoods of white America, it is instead, the inadequate structure of private property governance that forces people of unequal power to fight over the contracts stipulating the terms of home for profit.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Durst, Péter; Szabó, Martina Katalin; Vincze, Veronica; Zsibrita, János;
    Publisher: Centre for Applied Language Studies, University of Jyväskylä
    Countries: Finland, Hungary

    The aim of this article is to show how automatic morphological tools originally used to analyze native speaker data can be applied to process data from a learner corpus of Hungarian. We collected written data from 35 students majoring in Hungarian studies at the University of Zagreb, Croatia. The data were analyzed by magyarlanc, a sentence splitter, morphological analyzer, POS-tagger and dependency parser, which found 667 unknown word forms. We investigated the recommendations made by the Hungarian spellchecker hunspell for these unknown words and the correct forms were manually chosen. It was found that if the first suggestion made by hunspell was automatically accepted, an accuracy score of 82% could be attained. We also introduce our automatic error tagger, which makes use of our annotation scheme developed on the basis of the special characteristics of Hungarian morphology and learner language, and which is able to reliably locate and label morphological errors. peerReviewed

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Freitas, Cristiana; Borges, Maria Manuel; Revez, Jorge;
    Publisher: Association for Computing Machinery
    Country: Portugal

    The availability of digitised cultural heritage content held by archives and other memory institutions improves their visibility, facilitate and increases access to information, allowing new kinds of research of digital heritage, namely Digital Humanities. This study intends to report how Municipal Archives of mainland Portugal are ensuring access to their digitized cultural heritage content. For this purpose, an analysis was held to collect data about online catalogues with digital objects linked to the archival description in 278 Municipal Archives of mainland Portugal. The data revealed that the openness of the primary information sources preserved by the municipal archives, which can be reused by all those who need them and particularly by digital humanists, is still in infancy.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Wesp, Julie K.;
    Publisher: eScholarship, University of California
    Country: United States

    Utilizing skeletal remains from an urban, colonial hospital in Central Mexico, this dissertation strives to illustrate how an examination of the bodies from archaeological contexts can shed light on the activities of everyday life in the past. While other archaeological material can tell us about the tools used to perform activities, we do not always have accurate information about who was doing what, when, and for how long. If not careful, scholars can fall into the trap of preconceived notions of a gendered division of labor that may or may not accurately portray how daily life activities were organized in other times and spaces. This issue is complicated by historical documents from the Spanish Colonial Period in the Americas, which were often written by European men and with specific administrative agendas. Similarly, the examination of gendered objects within archaeological explorations of Colonial Mexico are fraught with cyclical reasoning that stem from methodological issues within the subfield of bioarchaeology. Skeletal remains provide an exceptional opportunity to examine the actual bodies of individuals that accomplished day-to-day tasks. Yet, rather than simply relying on binary sex categories derived from skeletal features to discern gendered patterns of labor, I instead examine groupings of individuals that are derived from similar kinds of biomechanical stress. Combining the social theories of embodiment and materiality with biological understandings of bone remodeling and biomechanics, the bioarchaeological analyses used in this research illustrate how the social and biological interact to create unique individual bodies that literally become chronicles of the amount and kind of activities performed during life. These changes better illustrate the organization of labor that actually occurred rather than arbitrarily creating groups of individuals based on modern conceptions of sex/gender that cannot always be ascertained from the skeleton and may not have even existed in societies in the past. The specific historical focus of my research is on the urban colonial experience in Central Mexico. The skeletal collection utilized in this study was recovered from the remains of the Hospital Real San José de los Naturales (HSJN), established in 1553 as the first royally sponsored hospital to care for the indigenous population in the Spanish colonies. Three non-invasive bioarchaeological analyses are used to discern subtle material changes to the bone tissue. Macroscopic analysis of entheseal changes interprets the areas of insertion for muscles on long bones that change with biomechanical stress from repetitive movements commonly used in everyday life. Next, metacarpal radiogrammetry examines the amount of cortical bone of the second metacarpal bone of the hand and provides a rough estimation of the amount of bone remodeling that occurred throughout adulthood for each individual as well as the trends in the population as a whole. Finally, cross-sectional geometry utilizes computed tomography images of the transverse plane of long bones (humerus and femur) to analyze the amount of cortical bone as well as its distribution around the central axis of the long bone. This geometric analysis provides not only an understanding of the amount of bone, but its overall strength and rigidity in response to biomechanical stress. The combination of various bioarchaeological analyses provides a richer understanding of the numerous ways in which the stress of daily activity becomes literally incorporated into bone. Furthermore, none of these methodologies are intrinsically tied to the traditional methodology of sexing skeletons and therefore is free from many of the interpretive issues that result from simplistic categorizations of individuals. Most bioarchaeological data analyzes these data separated according to age or sex groups, but this practice is based on the assumption that a difference should be present between these variable. In this study, differences in the amount of muscle usage is found when following this method of preliminary division by age and sex, but differences in the kind of muscle usage is less clear. This could be the result of a significant overlap in the kinds of biomechanical stress received over the life course and between males and females. Instead, I used an exploratory data analysis software program and statistical cluster analysis, to identify groups of individuals with similar kinds of bony changes. None of these cluster groups consisted of solely males or solely females, supporting the notion that a preliminary division may obscure other patterns of biomechanical stress. The cluster analyses help to do two things overall - isolate small groups of individuals on the extremes with a lot of bone growth or very little bone growth so that other averages are not skewed; and isolate groups of individuals who experienced unique kinds of movement. Additionally, these analyses are able to isolate variation that exists in terms of movement within age or sex groups. Sharing a sex/gender identity does not automatically mean that you will have the same opportunities available to you. This is an especially important factor to remember for this skeletal population, since other identities such as geographical origin or migration status created drastic differences in activity.For the lower limb, the ability to isolate unique kinds of movement proved to be the most useful aspect of this different interpretive approach. When examining the data by age or sex groups, all individuals showed signs of walking on two feet (leg extension, lower leg flexion and extension, and plantar flexion) with only slight differences in the amount of stress. One of the groups derived from the cluster analysis, however, indicated that in addition to the movements associated with walking they also had a higher amount of stress from leg adduction (moving the leg toward the midline of the body). During this time period, the Spanish introduced new techniques for creating pottery using a potter's wheel with a lower kick wheel to create momentum. It is possible that this isolated group of individuals may have experienced this unique kind of biomechanical stress as a result of such a unique labor opportunity. For the upper limb, the cluster analysis was useful for isolating groups of individuals with different kinds of movement, but also for showing variation in the amount of stress within sex groups. The data, when preliminarily divided according to age and sex, showed slight increases in the amount of stress across the life course and high average scores for males than females; however, differences in kind of biomechanical stress was less clear. The groups derived from cluster analysis for entheseal changes helped to separate groups of individuals with more whole arm movements (arm extension, shoulder rotation, and arm abduction) and a group of individuals with more precise forearm movements (forearm supination, forearm flexion, and hand/wrist control). The individuals in this last group are both males and females, which is why it may have been difficult to discern this difference with the data preliminarily divided. Another important distinction found was different levels of activity among individuals that performed these whole arm movements and that also caused an increase in the amount and distribution of the cortical bone among the males in the population. Only indigenous males were obligated to participate in the different tribute labor systems during this colonial time and it is possible that the cluster groups help to isolate this subset of the male population that performed more strenuous manual labor. Interpretation from a perspective of embodied subjectivities acknowledges that many different aspects of identities controlled the kinds of labor opportunities available to individuals in urban New Spain. Individuals who performed similar kinds of work on a day-to-day basis will have similar kinds of responses to these biomechanical stresses and cluster analysis illustrates actual distinctions in the way individuals were using their bodies that then became incorporated into the skeleton. If the data are divided from the beginning of analysis then our interpretations are inventing differences that may or not actually exist. Rather, biological data related to categorical aspects of identity should be added into interpretations only after groups of individuals with similar kinds of bone changes have been identified, in order to avoid assumptions about labor organization based on modern conceptions, historical written documents, or other archaeological data. The complex intersection of gender, geographical origin, age, and migration status during the colonial period likely influenced the creation of these variable groups of individuals with unique biomechanical stress.Despite the unique historical moment that brings these varied populations together, bioarchaeological analyses of other times and places should also attempt to analyze the data from a perspective of embodied subjects. This means that patterns of organization should be discerned from the bone functional adaptation data first. The groups of individuals identified will then represent people who experienced similar kinds of biomechanical stress that later became materially incorporated into their bodies. Interpretation of these patterns should include other biological variables, like age and sex, but only after divisions by biomechanical stress. Preliminary divisions only test if our assumptions about how labor should be organized actually exist, rather then help to interpret actual patterns of difference.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Lindhorst, Sebastian;
    Publisher: PANGAEA

    Sediment data from the Bahamian Santaren carbonate drift reveal the variability of trans-Atlantic Saharan dust transport back to about 100 ka BP (MIS 5.3) and demonstrate that carbonate drifts are a valuable pelagic archive of aeolian dust flux. Carbonate drift bodies are common around tropical carbonate platforms. They represent large-scale accumulations of ocean-current transported material, which originates from the adjacent shallow-water carbonate factory as well as from pelagic production, i.e. periplatform ooze. Subordinately, there is a clay- to silt-size non-carbonate fraction, which typically amounts to less than 10 % of the sediment volume and originates from aeolian and fluvial input. Sedimentation rates in the 5.42 m long core GeoHH-M95-524 recovered 25 km west of Great Bahama Bank in the Santaren Channel ranges from 1.5 to 24.5 cm ka-1 with lowest values during the last glacial lowstand and highest values following platform re-flooding around 8 ka BP. These sedimentation rates imply that carbonate drifts have not only the potential to resolve long-term environmental changes on orbital time scales, but also millennial to centennial fluctuations during interglacials. The sediment core has been investigated aiming on characterizing the lithogenic dust fraction. Laboratory analyses included XRF core scanning, determination of carbonate content, grain-size analyses (of bulk and terrigenous fraction), as well as visual inspections of the lithogenic residue; the age model is based on oxygen isotopes and radiocarbon ages. Data show that the input of aeolian dust in the periplatform ooze as indicated by Ti/Al and Fe/Al element ratios abruptly increases at 57 ka BP, stays elevated during glacial times, and reaches a Holocene minimum around 6.5 ka BP, contemporary to the African Humid Period. Subsequently, there is a gradual increase in dust flux which almost reaches glacial levels during the last centuries. Grain-size data show that the majority of dust particles fall into the fine silt range (below 10 µm); however, there is a pronounced coarse dust fraction in the size range up to 63 µm and individual 'giant' dust particles are up to 515 µm large. Total dust flux and the relative amounts of fine and coarse dust are decoupled. The time-variable composition of the grain-size spectrum is interpreted to reflect different dust transport mechanisms: fine dust particles are delivered by the trade winds and the geostrophic winds of the Saharan Air Layer, whereas coarse dust particles travel with convective storm systems. This mode of transport ensures continuous re-suspension of large particles and results in a prolonged transport. In this context, grain-size data from the terrigenous fraction of carbonate drifts provide a measure for past coarse dust transport, and consequently for the frequency of convective storm systems over the dust source areas and the tropical Atlantic.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Becher, Tanja;
    Publisher: Helsingin yliopisto
    Country: Finland

    This thesis proposes polyphonic interpretations of the short film Birds in the Earth (Eatnanvuloš Lottit, 2018) by Sámi artist Marja Helander. The thesis investigates and develops a method to decentralise the research of Sámi art conducted by non-Sámi art historian’s perspective. The artwork addresses discourses about the Sámi history, culture and current matters. This raises the question of which kind of interpretation a non-Sámi art historian can form employing traditional art historical methods such as researching literature. The thesis examines how including perspectives of Sámi interviewees influences the comprehension and therefore decentralises interpretations of Birds in the Earth. The base of this thesis lays in the tradition of art historical analysis and interpretation. Additions include writings on decolonisation and Indigenous art by Kerstin Knopf, the term of polyphonic history by Peter Burke and inter/view as exchange of gazes following Alessandro Portelli. In order to formulate decentralised interpretations, three open-ended interviews with Sámi spectators are conducted about their experience and understanding of the short film. Thoughts and stories articulated by the interviewees are woven into the interpretation which proceeds by the categories of choreography, costumes, props and scenography. With the short film as point of departure, Sámi discourses are discussed such as landownership, tourism and appropriation, togetherness with nature and Sámi identity. Input from the interviews is combined with research insights from literature, seminars and documentaries. Both the interviews and the art historical research are presented alongside each other without competing or excluding each other. Adding Sámi interviewees’ perspectives decreases the distance between a non-Sámi art historian’s interpretation and the Sámi artwork which would have formed through merely employing research from literature, seminars and documentaries. The interpretation is enriched and comes alive by the interviewees’ elaborated experiences. The decentralised and therefore decentralising narratives come closer to the substance of the artwork as the art historian is formulating while self-reflecting. This implicitly demands the acknowledgement of historical and cultural references of art history itself and a reflected positioning of the non-Sámi art historian’s role in relation to Sámi discourses alongside researching and writing. Developing the methodology of non-Sámi art historians writing about Sámi art proofs necessary and purposive due to the growing importance of and interest in Indigenous art.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Safranski Mark; Safranski Mark;
    Country: Greece

    This dissertation examines both the patterns of trade between the Aegean and North Syria and the consumption habits of Aegean commodities by the local North Syrian communities with an emphasis on pottery from the LBA to IA III. Material, as well as textual evidence, is taken into consideration as well as the theories of contextual archaeology. This dissertation examines both the patterns of trade between the Aegean and North Syria and the consumption habits of Aegean commodities by the local North Syrian communities with an emphasis on pottery from the LBA to IA III. Material, as well as textual evidence, is taken into consideration as well as the theories of contextual archaeology.

Advanced search in Research products
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
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arrow_drop_down
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Include:
The following results are related to Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
2,665 Research products, page 1 of 267
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Novgorodov, Innokentiy; Lemskaya, Valeriya; Tokmashev, Denis; Aktaş, Erhan;
    Publisher: Elsevier Science Bv
    Country: Turkey

    15th International Conference Linguistic and Cultural Studies - Traditions and Innovations (LKTI) -- NOV 09-11, 2015 -- Tomsk, RUSSIA -- Natl Res Tomsk Polytechn Univ, Inst Power Engn, Dept Foreign Languages This study encourages a multidisciplinary research to identify parallels in the group belonging and chronology of South Siberian Turkic (Chulym Turkic and Bachat Teleut) and Yakut. There is solid evidence that the ancestors of modern Yakuts and their language originate from the Central Asian steppe Proto-Turkic community of the 1st century BC. South Siberian Turkic varieties have not been studied as thoroughly, but they are expected to have traces of some non-Turkic language substratum. The analysis of the Teleut gene pool has revealed two different components of the Turkic and non-Turkic nature, which gives reason to consider non-Turkic elements in Teleut as aboriginal. The gene pool study of the Chulym Turks is expected to contribute to the issue of language history and Chulym Turkic lexicon which is etymologically vague from the Turkic viewpoint. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Johnson, Sarah Rose;
    Publisher: eScholarship, University of California
    Country: United States

    This dissertation examines how the Centralverein deutscher Staatsb�rger j�dischen Glaubens and the Volksverein f�r das katholische Deutschland utilized decentralization into the local and regional spheres to participate in German society, shape public and political discourse, and strengthen their respective community’s sense of belonging and identity. Drawing on the Centralverein and Volksverein’s administrative records held in archives in England and Germany, this dissertation assesses how their networks of local and regional branches operated and how power and responsibility shifted between the center and the periphery during the German Empire, the Weimar Republic, and Nazi Germany. In decentering away from their respective central office to focus on the local and regional branches, this dissertation argues that local and regional branches were the main sites in which religious minority groups constructed and reinforced their influence, whether political or social. Whether through providing legal or political defense or holding assemblies and lectures, religious minority associations worked to unite their members and create a unified front for political and social action on their own behalf. In promoting a positive connection to Jewishness while also defending Germanness, the Centralverein’s local and regional branches created tailored spaces in which Centralverein members could develop and affirm a synthesized German-Jewish identity while also asserting their civic belonging in the local, regional, and national spheres. Through both a comparative and integrated institutional history of the Centralverein and Volksverein’s decentralization, this dissertation provides a more detailed understanding of social and political relations between minority and majority communities during the German Empire, the Weimar Republic, and Nazi Germany. A comparative perspective allows for examining how minority religious associations responded and adapted to changes at the state level and navigated shifting means of self-assertion and political expression. In examining how German-Jewish and German-Catholic associations implemented decentralization and accommodated regionalization, this study decenters the examination of belonging, the pluralities of civic, regional, and religious identities and what it meant to represent religious minority interests in the German public sphere in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2014
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Streffen, Isabella; Archino, Sarah; McSherry, Siofra;
    Publisher: The And Or Project
    Country: United Kingdom

    First in a series of 4 online exhibitions by collective And Or. Command Plus with Molly Morin and Nia Davies was the first online exhibition by collective And Or, running from February-June 2014. For this inaugural show, And Or brought together art, text, poetry and design by a web of collaborators including Molly Morin, Nia Davies, Nora O Murchú and Alice Poulalion to create a cycle of interactive work and response that confounds the distinction between text and image.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    VESTAL, MARQUES A;
    Publisher: eScholarship, University of California
    Country: United States

    Urban histories of race and housing currently ignore the daily conflicts over debt, occupancy, and autonomy that characterized the private market for shelter and home in the United States. The historical literature, instead, has concentrated on the role of government policy, economic restructuring, real estate professionals, white homeowners, and black activists in constructing and resisting racially segregated metropolitan real estate and mortgage markets, resulting in discriminatory access to homeownership and credit for black Americans. This study aims to construct a history not of the contested role of race in housing, but the contested role of private property in shaping the black experience of housing. Specifically, this dissertation examines seminal moments of property conflict in Black Los Angeles between 1920 and 1950, arguing that the everyday conflicts over debt, rent, eviction, and autonomy comprised the central substance of the history of black home struggle in the city. Property conflicts were the complaints, jokes, gossip, lawsuits, deals, compromises, and regular violence that parties, often of unequal power, engaged in to claim contested entitlements over land, housing, and revenue, of which contests over segregation were but one aspect of conflict. Thus, the focus on struggle in this study is both broadened and made more intimate. For working-class black Angelenos, the goal of property conflict was to make and to keep home amid urban growth and contraction, not to make a city or to enter the vaunted status of homeowner. By centering the contentious intersection of home and private property, this study consolidates the struggles of both working-class property owners and tenants into a more holistic history of black land struggle. To uncover the history of black property conflict in Los Angeles between 1920 and 1950, this study tracked a variety of scattered records that documented such conflict: black newspapers, manuscript collections, Los Angeles City Council minutes and petitions, Los Angeles Board of Supervisors minutes, Superior Court criminal and civil lawsuits, and other city, state, and federal records. Unearthing these records reveals that the history of black land struggle in Los Angeles is the history of conflict over the terms of private property. The findings of this study force urban historians, and anyone concerned with housing policy, to rethink the central problem of race and housing in the United States. The problem is not the discriminatory access to the private property rights and neighborhoods of white America, it is instead, the inadequate structure of private property governance that forces people of unequal power to fight over the contracts stipulating the terms of home for profit.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Durst, Péter; Szabó, Martina Katalin; Vincze, Veronica; Zsibrita, János;
    Publisher: Centre for Applied Language Studies, University of Jyväskylä
    Countries: Finland, Hungary

    The aim of this article is to show how automatic morphological tools originally used to analyze native speaker data can be applied to process data from a learner corpus of Hungarian. We collected written data from 35 students majoring in Hungarian studies at the University of Zagreb, Croatia. The data were analyzed by magyarlanc, a sentence splitter, morphological analyzer, POS-tagger and dependency parser, which found 667 unknown word forms. We investigated the recommendations made by the Hungarian spellchecker hunspell for these unknown words and the correct forms were manually chosen. It was found that if the first suggestion made by hunspell was automatically accepted, an accuracy score of 82% could be attained. We also introduce our automatic error tagger, which makes use of our annotation scheme developed on the basis of the special characteristics of Hungarian morphology and learner language, and which is able to reliably locate and label morphological errors. peerReviewed

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Freitas, Cristiana; Borges, Maria Manuel; Revez, Jorge;
    Publisher: Association for Computing Machinery
    Country: Portugal

    The availability of digitised cultural heritage content held by archives and other memory institutions improves their visibility, facilitate and increases access to information, allowing new kinds of research of digital heritage, namely Digital Humanities. This study intends to report how Municipal Archives of mainland Portugal are ensuring access to their digitized cultural heritage content. For this purpose, an analysis was held to collect data about online catalogues with digital objects linked to the archival description in 278 Municipal Archives of mainland Portugal. The data revealed that the openness of the primary information sources preserved by the municipal archives, which can be reused by all those who need them and particularly by digital humanists, is still in infancy.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Wesp, Julie K.;
    Publisher: eScholarship, University of California
    Country: United States

    Utilizing skeletal remains from an urban, colonial hospital in Central Mexico, this dissertation strives to illustrate how an examination of the bodies from archaeological contexts can shed light on the activities of everyday life in the past. While other archaeological material can tell us about the tools used to perform activities, we do not always have accurate information about who was doing what, when, and for how long. If not careful, scholars can fall into the trap of preconceived notions of a gendered division of labor that may or may not accurately portray how daily life activities were organized in other times and spaces. This issue is complicated by historical documents from the Spanish Colonial Period in the Americas, which were often written by European men and with specific administrative agendas. Similarly, the examination of gendered objects within archaeological explorations of Colonial Mexico are fraught with cyclical reasoning that stem from methodological issues within the subfield of bioarchaeology. Skeletal remains provide an exceptional opportunity to examine the actual bodies of individuals that accomplished day-to-day tasks. Yet, rather than simply relying on binary sex categories derived from skeletal features to discern gendered patterns of labor, I instead examine groupings of individuals that are derived from similar kinds of biomechanical stress. Combining the social theories of embodiment and materiality with biological understandings of bone remodeling and biomechanics, the bioarchaeological analyses used in this research illustrate how the social and biological interact to create unique individual bodies that literally become chronicles of the amount and kind of activities performed during life. These changes better illustrate the organization of labor that actually occurred rather than arbitrarily creating groups of individuals based on modern conceptions of sex/gender that cannot always be ascertained from the skeleton and may not have even existed in societies in the past. The specific historical focus of my research is on the urban colonial experience in Central Mexico. The skeletal collection utilized in this study was recovered from the remains of the Hospital Real San José de los Naturales (HSJN), established in 1553 as the first royally sponsored hospital to care for the indigenous population in the Spanish colonies. Three non-invasive bioarchaeological analyses are used to discern subtle material changes to the bone tissue. Macroscopic analysis of entheseal changes interprets the areas of insertion for muscles on long bones that change with biomechanical stress from repetitive movements commonly used in everyday life. Next, metacarpal radiogrammetry examines the amount of cortical bone of the second metacarpal bone of the hand and provides a rough estimation of the amount of bone remodeling that occurred throughout adulthood for each individual as well as the trends in the population as a whole. Finally, cross-sectional geometry utilizes computed tomography images of the transverse plane of long bones (humerus and femur) to analyze the amount of cortical bone as well as its distribution around the central axis of the long bone. This geometric analysis provides not only an understanding of the amount of bone, but its overall strength and rigidity in response to biomechanical stress. The combination of various bioarchaeological analyses provides a richer understanding of the numerous ways in which the stress of daily activity becomes literally incorporated into bone. Furthermore, none of these methodologies are intrinsically tied to the traditional methodology of sexing skeletons and therefore is free from many of the interpretive issues that result from simplistic categorizations of individuals. Most bioarchaeological data analyzes these data separated according to age or sex groups, but this practice is based on the assumption that a difference should be present between these variable. In this study, differences in the amount of muscle usage is found when following this method of preliminary division by age and sex, but differences in the kind of muscle usage is less clear. This could be the result of a significant overlap in the kinds of biomechanical stress received over the life course and between males and females. Instead, I used an exploratory data analysis software program and statistical cluster analysis, to identify groups of individuals with similar kinds of bony changes. None of these cluster groups consisted of solely males or solely females, supporting the notion that a preliminary division may obscure other patterns of biomechanical stress. The cluster analyses help to do two things overall - isolate small groups of individuals on the extremes with a lot of bone growth or very little bone growth so that other averages are not skewed; and isolate groups of individuals who experienced unique kinds of movement. Additionally, these analyses are able to isolate variation that exists in terms of movement within age or sex groups. Sharing a sex/gender identity does not automatically mean that you will have the same opportunities available to you. This is an especially important factor to remember for this skeletal population, since other identities such as geographical origin or migration status created drastic differences in activity.For the lower limb, the ability to isolate unique kinds of movement proved to be the most useful aspect of this different interpretive approach. When examining the data by age or sex groups, all individuals showed signs of walking on two feet (leg extension, lower leg flexion and extension, and plantar flexion) with only slight differences in the amount of stress. One of the groups derived from the cluster analysis, however, indicated that in addition to the movements associated with walking they also had a higher amount of stress from leg adduction (moving the leg toward the midline of the body). During this time period, the Spanish introduced new techniques for creating pottery using a potter's wheel with a lower kick wheel to create momentum. It is possible that this isolated group of individuals may have experienced this unique kind of biomechanical stress as a result of such a unique labor opportunity. For the upper limb, the cluster analysis was useful for isolating groups of individuals with different kinds of movement, but also for showing variation in the amount of stress within sex groups. The data, when preliminarily divided according to age and sex, showed slight increases in the amount of stress across the life course and high average scores for males than females; however, differences in kind of biomechanical stress was less clear. The groups derived from cluster analysis for entheseal changes helped to separate groups of individuals with more whole arm movements (arm extension, shoulder rotation, and arm abduction) and a group of individuals with more precise forearm movements (forearm supination, forearm flexion, and hand/wrist control). The individuals in this last group are both males and females, which is why it may have been difficult to discern this difference with the data preliminarily divided. Another important distinction found was different levels of activity among individuals that performed these whole arm movements and that also caused an increase in the amount and distribution of the cortical bone among the males in the population. Only indigenous males were obligated to participate in the different tribute labor systems during this colonial time and it is possible that the cluster groups help to isolate this subset of the male population that performed more strenuous manual labor. Interpretation from a perspective of embodied subjectivities acknowledges that many different aspects of identities controlled the kinds of labor opportunities available to individuals in urban New Spain. Individuals who performed similar kinds of work on a day-to-day basis will have similar kinds of responses to these biomechanical stresses and cluster analysis illustrates actual distinctions in the way individuals were using their bodies that then became incorporated into the skeleton. If the data are divided from the beginning of analysis then our interpretations are inventing differences that may or not actually exist. Rather, biological data related to categorical aspects of identity should be added into interpretations only after groups of individuals with similar kinds of bone changes have been identified, in order to avoid assumptions about labor organization based on modern conceptions, historical written documents, or other archaeological data. The complex intersection of gender, geographical origin, age, and migration status during the colonial period likely influenced the creation of these variable groups of individuals with unique biomechanical stress.Despite the unique historical moment that brings these varied populations together, bioarchaeological analyses of other times and places should also attempt to analyze the data from a perspective of embodied subjects. This means that patterns of organization should be discerned from the bone functional adaptation data first. The groups of individuals identified will then represent people who experienced similar kinds of biomechanical stress that later became materially incorporated into their bodies. Interpretation of these patterns should include other biological variables, like age and sex, but only after divisions by biomechanical stress. Preliminary divisions only test if our assumptions about how labor should be organized actually exist, rather then help to interpret actual patterns of difference.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Lindhorst, Sebastian;
    Publisher: PANGAEA

    Sediment data from the Bahamian Santaren carbonate drift reveal the variability of trans-Atlantic Saharan dust transport back to about 100 ka BP (MIS 5.3) and demonstrate that carbonate drifts are a valuable pelagic archive of aeolian dust flux. Carbonate drift bodies are common around tropical carbonate platforms. They represent large-scale accumulations of ocean-current transported material, which originates from the adjacent shallow-water carbonate factory as well as from pelagic production, i.e. periplatform ooze. Subordinately, there is a clay- to silt-size non-carbonate fraction, which typically amounts to less than 10 % of the sediment volume and originates from aeolian and fluvial input. Sedimentation rates in the 5.42 m long core GeoHH-M95-524 recovered 25 km west of Great Bahama Bank in the Santaren Channel ranges from 1.5 to 24.5 cm ka-1 with lowest values during the last glacial lowstand and highest values following platform re-flooding around 8 ka BP. These sedimentation rates imply that carbonate drifts have not only the potential to resolve long-term environmental changes on orbital time scales, but also millennial to centennial fluctuations during interglacials. The sediment core has been investigated aiming on characterizing the lithogenic dust fraction. Laboratory analyses included XRF core scanning, determination of carbonate content, grain-size analyses (of bulk and terrigenous fraction), as well as visual inspections of the lithogenic residue; the age model is based on oxygen isotopes and radiocarbon ages. Data show that the input of aeolian dust in the periplatform ooze as indicated by Ti/Al and Fe/Al element ratios abruptly increases at 57 ka BP, stays elevated during glacial times, and reaches a Holocene minimum around 6.5 ka BP, contemporary to the African Humid Period. Subsequently, there is a gradual increase in dust flux which almost reaches glacial levels during the last centuries. Grain-size data show that the majority of dust particles fall into the fine silt range (below 10 µm); however, there is a pronounced coarse dust fraction in the size range up to 63 µm and individual 'giant' dust particles are up to 515 µm large. Total dust flux and the relative amounts of fine and coarse dust are decoupled. The time-variable composition of the grain-size spectrum is interpreted to reflect different dust transport mechanisms: fine dust particles are delivered by the trade winds and the geostrophic winds of the Saharan Air Layer, whereas coarse dust particles travel with convective storm systems. This mode of transport ensures continuous re-suspension of large particles and results in a prolonged transport. In this context, grain-size data from the terrigenous fraction of carbonate drifts provide a measure for past coarse dust transport, and consequently for the frequency of convective storm systems over the dust source areas and the tropical Atlantic.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Becher, Tanja;
    Publisher: Helsingin yliopisto
    Country: Finland

    This thesis proposes polyphonic interpretations of the short film Birds in the Earth (Eatnanvuloš Lottit, 2018) by Sámi artist Marja Helander. The thesis investigates and develops a method to decentralise the research of Sámi art conducted by non-Sámi art historian’s perspective. The artwork addresses discourses about the Sámi history, culture and current matters. This raises the question of which kind of interpretation a non-Sámi art historian can form employing traditional art historical methods such as researching literature. The thesis examines how including perspectives of Sámi interviewees influences the comprehension and therefore decentralises interpretations of Birds in the Earth. The base of this thesis lays in the tradition of art historical analysis and interpretation. Additions include writings on decolonisation and Indigenous art by Kerstin Knopf, the term of polyphonic history by Peter Burke and inter/view as exchange of gazes following Alessandro Portelli. In order to formulate decentralised interpretations, three open-ended interviews with Sámi spectators are conducted about their experience and understanding of the short film. Thoughts and stories articulated by the interviewees are woven into the interpretation which proceeds by the categories of choreography, costumes, props and scenography. With the short film as point of departure, Sámi discourses are discussed such as landownership, tourism and appropriation, togetherness with nature and Sámi identity. Input from the interviews is combined with research insights from literature, seminars and documentaries. Both the interviews and the art historical research are presented alongside each other without competing or excluding each other. Adding Sámi interviewees’ perspectives decreases the distance between a non-Sámi art historian’s interpretation and the Sámi artwork which would have formed through merely employing research from literature, seminars and documentaries. The interpretation is enriched and comes alive by the interviewees’ elaborated experiences. The decentralised and therefore decentralising narratives come closer to the substance of the artwork as the art historian is formulating while self-reflecting. This implicitly demands the acknowledgement of historical and cultural references of art history itself and a reflected positioning of the non-Sámi art historian’s role in relation to Sámi discourses alongside researching and writing. Developing the methodology of non-Sámi art historians writing about Sámi art proofs necessary and purposive due to the growing importance of and interest in Indigenous art.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Safranski Mark; Safranski Mark;
    Country: Greece

    This dissertation examines both the patterns of trade between the Aegean and North Syria and the consumption habits of Aegean commodities by the local North Syrian communities with an emphasis on pottery from the LBA to IA III. Material, as well as textual evidence, is taken into consideration as well as the theories of contextual archaeology. This dissertation examines both the patterns of trade between the Aegean and North Syria and the consumption habits of Aegean commodities by the local North Syrian communities with an emphasis on pottery from the LBA to IA III. Material, as well as textual evidence, is taken into consideration as well as the theories of contextual archaeology.