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137 Research products, page 1 of 14

  • Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage
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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Becher, Tanja;
    Publisher: Helsingin yliopisto
    Country: Finland

    This thesis proposes polyphonic interpretations of the short film Birds in the Earth (Eatnanvuloš Lottit, 2018) by Sámi artist Marja Helander. The thesis investigates and develops a method to decentralise the research of Sámi art conducted by non-Sámi art historian’s perspective. The artwork addresses discourses about the Sámi history, culture and current matters. This raises the question of which kind of interpretation a non-Sámi art historian can form employing traditional art historical methods such as researching literature. The thesis examines how including perspectives of Sámi interviewees influences the comprehension and therefore decentralises interpretations of Birds in the Earth. The base of this thesis lays in the tradition of art historical analysis and interpretation. Additions include writings on decolonisation and Indigenous art by Kerstin Knopf, the term of polyphonic history by Peter Burke and inter/view as exchange of gazes following Alessandro Portelli. In order to formulate decentralised interpretations, three open-ended interviews with Sámi spectators are conducted about their experience and understanding of the short film. Thoughts and stories articulated by the interviewees are woven into the interpretation which proceeds by the categories of choreography, costumes, props and scenography. With the short film as point of departure, Sámi discourses are discussed such as landownership, tourism and appropriation, togetherness with nature and Sámi identity. Input from the interviews is combined with research insights from literature, seminars and documentaries. Both the interviews and the art historical research are presented alongside each other without competing or excluding each other. Adding Sámi interviewees’ perspectives decreases the distance between a non-Sámi art historian’s interpretation and the Sámi artwork which would have formed through merely employing research from literature, seminars and documentaries. The interpretation is enriched and comes alive by the interviewees’ elaborated experiences. The decentralised and therefore decentralising narratives come closer to the substance of the artwork as the art historian is formulating while self-reflecting. This implicitly demands the acknowledgement of historical and cultural references of art history itself and a reflected positioning of the non-Sámi art historian’s role in relation to Sámi discourses alongside researching and writing. Developing the methodology of non-Sámi art historians writing about Sámi art proofs necessary and purposive due to the growing importance of and interest in Indigenous art.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Durst, Péter; Szabó, Martina Katalin; Vincze, Veronica; Zsibrita, János;
    Publisher: Centre for Applied Language Studies, University of Jyväskylä
    Countries: Finland, Hungary

    The aim of this article is to show how automatic morphological tools originally used to analyze native speaker data can be applied to process data from a learner corpus of Hungarian. We collected written data from 35 students majoring in Hungarian studies at the University of Zagreb, Croatia. The data were analyzed by magyarlanc, a sentence splitter, morphological analyzer, POS-tagger and dependency parser, which found 667 unknown word forms. We investigated the recommendations made by the Hungarian spellchecker hunspell for these unknown words and the correct forms were manually chosen. It was found that if the first suggestion made by hunspell was automatically accepted, an accuracy score of 82% could be attained. We also introduce our automatic error tagger, which makes use of our annotation scheme developed on the basis of the special characteristics of Hungarian morphology and learner language, and which is able to reliably locate and label morphological errors. peerReviewed

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Hämäläinen, Riina;
    Publisher: Helsingin yliopisto
    Country: Finland

    The sex/gender model used in biological archaeologies to investigate human remains and past lives is one that relies on the epistemological and ontological separation of sex and gender. Despite this separation the model ends up treating these concepts synonymously due to the taken-for-granted binary nature of sex which in a deterministic manner eventuates into an equally binary gender. This thesis develops a theoretical framework for an archaeological concept of gender that operates without the division, binarism and determinism implicit in the sex/gender model. Pursuing answers to the questions whether it is possible to approach both sex and gender in archaeology in a nonbinary way, and if so, what is an archaeologically feasible alternative, it seeks to devise a method to approach sex and gender in mortuary archaeology beyond the deterministic binary. This thesis is firmly theory-oriented and the writings of various authors within the discipline of archaeology, feminism and queer studies comprise the necessary material. The theories pertaining to the field of feminism are intersectionality and queer theory, which eschew normativity and essentialism and call for gender diversity. Respective to archaeology, the theories influencing this thesis derive from new materialisms to whom the rejection of divisions and dichotomies is characteristic. In this regard, of particular note are the writings of new materialist and feminist theorist Karen Barad. Applying her theories concerning the relational, entangled and mutually constitutive nature of matter and meaning to the topic of sex and gender is central in devising a nonbinary new materialist perspective to be used for the purpose of a more open and inclusive mortuary archaeology. This thesis reveals that the dualistic division between nature and culture has resulted in a separate conceptual development and different strategies of engagement concerning sex and gender. The reason why sex is seen as a biological fact and gender as a cultural meaning proves false when both are affected equally by nature and culture, with the body serving as a nexus-point in which these two forces converge. Applying Barad’s insight reveals that binary sex is not an inherent quality of the body, but one that is produced through a scientific biomedical apparatus. Sex and gender exist in a state of inseparability when undetermined, but when subjected to a determination process, they become mutually exclusive phenomena, thereby disrupting sex-to-gender determinism. In their separate state, both are constitutive of matter and meaning, which is why gender made determined through intersectionality can be used to study gendered understandings through the materiality of the body, exempt from binary views. Analysing a topical bioarchaeological publication concerning a female Viking warrior through the approach that does not depend on the sex binary reveals that a scientific biomedical apparatus is subject to criticism on multiple fronts. Though the case study should be credited with rejecting gender role stereotypes, it demonstrates determinism and binarism as well as homogeneity and universalism in terms of categories. Failing to imagine possibilities beyond a fixed binary also results in the exclusion of alternate ways of knowing and being. The open-ended approach proposed in this thesis not only seeks to grant these possibilities opportunities to exist, but counsels cognisance towards the exclusions apparatuses enact. Embracing speculation, it also holds ambiguity and vagueness to be meaningful qualities pertaining to gendered archaeology. Regarding the mortuary setting, binary sex determinations need not be abandoned, but they should be used alongside this nonbinary approach.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Fay-Leino, Rachel;
    Publisher: Metropolia Ammattikorkeakoulu
    Country: Finland

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of 3D imaging applications in conservation in a manner accessible to conservators. In order to do this, the basics of 3D imaging, as it applies to conservation, had to be discussed and explained and the history of 3D imaging in cultural heritage and conservation examined. Case studies were used as examples of the most relevant applications for this technology in conservation. Finally, a theoretical look was taken at the broader meaning of 3D imaging in the conservation field. The study found that a wide variety of applications are available in the conservation field, namely those of documentation, analysis, and monitoring. Some applications are currently accessible, while others will become more appropriate as costs are established and developments made. Conservation theories were examined to place 3D imaging into the broader context of conservation and to push for more cooperation and resources spent on the adoption of 3D imaging into the conservators’ toolbox. Tutkimuksen tarkoitus oli pohtia 3D mallintamisen sovelluksia konservoimisen puitteissa tavalla, joka tukisi konservaattoreiden työtä. Jotta tämä olisi mahdollista, 3D mallintamisen perusteet ja historia kulttuuriperinnön ja konservoimisen työkaluna piti käsitellä ja selittää. Tapaustutkimuksia käytettiin esimerkkeinä siitä, miten tätä teknologiaa voi soveltaa konservoinnin kannalta. Lopuksi 3D mallintamisen laajempaa merkitystä konservoinnissa tarkasteltiin teorian kautta. Konservoinnin teorioita tutkittiin, jotta 3D mallintamista voitaisiin tarkastella konservoinnin laajemmassa kontekstissa ja jotta yhteistyö ja resurssit tällä saralla lisääntyisivät niin, että 3D mallintamista pidettäisiin yhtenä konservaattoreiden työkaluista.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Suikkanen, Saku;
    Country: Finland

    In this work, the utilization of financial news alongside machine learning for predicting stock market movements is examined. The news are handled with various natural language processing methods for finding correlation between the derived attributes and stock market movements. The novelty of this work lies in the application of BNS and LDA methods as well as 2-word combinations alongside with LSTM neural network. The main point of the work is to examine the usefulness of the results achieved with the formerly mentioned methods and neural networks as well as comparing the results with market efficiency. In the research it was concluded that the models containing 2-word combinations derived with the BNS-method, produced differing results to those models, where the 2-word combinations were not used. However, the overall results followed random patterns and thus reliable results were not achieved. For achieving more reliable results, better approach could be predicting intraday stock market movements per Efficient Market hypothesis. Used datasets were possibly also too concise for the complexity of the problem. Tässä työssä tarkastellaan talousuutisten hyödyntämistä yhdessä koneoppimisen kanssa osakemarkkinoiden ennustamiseen. Uutisia käsitellään tietyillä luonnollisen kielen käsittelyn menetelmillä ja niistä pyritään löytämään korrelaatiota osakkeen liikkeiden kanssa. Työn uutuusarvona ovat BNS- ja LDA-menetelmien, sekä 2 sanan kombinaatioiden käyttö LSTM-neuroverkon yhteydessä. Työn pääasiallisena tavoitteena on tarkastella edellä mainittujen menetelmien ja neuroverkkojen yhdessä tuottamien tulosten hyödyllisyyttä ja niiden vertautumista markkinoiden tehokkuuteen. Tutkimuksessa selvisi, että mallit, jotka sisältävät BNS-menetelmällä johdettuja 2 sanan kombinaatioita, tuottavat poikkeavia tuloksia niihin malleihin verrattuna, joissa niitä ei käytetä. Tulokset kuitenkin noudattivat kaiken kaikkiaan satunnaista vaihtelua ja luotettavia tuloksia ei täten saatu. Tulosten parantamiseksi, parempi lähtökohta voisi olla päivän sisäisten vaihtelujen ennustaminen, markkinoiden tehokkuuden hypoteesin mukaisesti. Käytetyt tietoaineistot olivat myös mahdollisesti liian suppeat kompleksisuudeltaan vaativalle ongelmalle.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Bhatta, Girija;
    Country: Finland

    The attic of Häme Castle has many undefined shapes because of structural deformation or weathering which is very difficult or impossible to represent accurately using parametric BIM objects. The historic styles of Häme Castle include organic shapes, which again can be more time consuming or difficult to model accurately using simple solid geometry. Häme Castle was scanned in the form of point cloud which was helpful to find the location of the structural components, but the 3D modelling could make it more beneficial. The features, such as heritage importance and values can be combined into the 3D model in a structured and consistent way which allows easy information uprooting and the production of deliverables. BIM offers a robust information management framework that can be highly beneficial for Häme Castle. Häme Castle has one of the oldest building trusses in Europe. It is assumed that the trusses of the main castle are 500 years old. By absorbing high-quality digital survey datasets, BIM does not only represent the image of the existing historic framework, but will also allow the investigating, quality checking and complex analysis of proposed involvement in various scenarios of the castle. The calculations done by the software are faster, more efficient, and easier to correct than the manual calculations. The amount of material needed for the building could help us to know the amount of money needed for the renovation or reconstruction of the building. The adoption of BIM in Häme Castle may drive by significant gains in terms of efficiency and cost savings during capital and operational stages in terms of spatial coordination and conservation planning through improved visualisation, analysis, and options appraisal. Working with BIM will experience reduced project risk, improved timelines, and better project outcomes. BIM appears less popular in terms of adoption by heritage professionals. If the information model of the Häme Castle is maintained, it can be an invaluable decision making and management tool for the castle throughout its life cycle. The purpose of this Bachelor's thesis was to demonstrate how to design the 3D model and conduct structural analysis of a historical building (Häme Castle) using Building information modeling (BIM) software. The analysis was done for trusses in a three-dimensional arrangement in RFEM software. As the result of the project work, the results were positive which proves that the main castle trusses are strong enough to bear all kind of loads.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Rautiola, Essi;
    Publisher: Helsingfors universitet
    Country: Finland

    Tutkielma käsittelee New Yorkin kaupungin kaavoituslainsäädännön kerrosneliöbonusjärjestelmää sekä sen synnyttämiä yksityisomisteisia julkisia tiloja ja niiden tilallista laatua nykyisten ihanteiden valossa. Esimerkkitiloina käytetään Manhattanin keskikaupungille kuuden korttelin alueelle sijoittuvaa kymmenen sisä- ja ulkotilan sarjaa. Kerrosneliöbonusjärjestelmä on ollut osa kaupungin kaavoituslainsäädäntöä vuodesta 1961 alkaen ja liittyy olennaisesti New Yorkin kaupungin korkean rakentamisen perinteisiin. Se on mahdollistanut ylimääräisten kerrosneliömetrien rakentamisen tornitaloihin yli asemakaavassa määritellyn neliömääräkaton tiiviin rakentamisen sallivilla alueilla vastineeksi julkisen sisä- tai ulkotilan avaamisesta samalle tontille. Tarjoamalla yhden julkitilaneliömetrin rakennuttaja on parhaimmillaan saanut rakentaa pilvenpiirtäjäänsä kymmenen kerrosneliömetriä lisää tilaa. Käytännössä tornitalot ovat näin nousseet kaavan normaalitilanteessa sallimaa korkeammiksi. Järjestelmän turvin on tähän mennessä rakennettu yli 500 eri kokoista julkista tilaa yli 300 eri kohteeseen ja se on myös tuottanut noin 1,5 miljoonaa lisäkerrosneliömetriä kaupungin, lähinnä Manhattanin alueen, pilvenpiirtäjiin. Kaavoituslainsäädäntö määrittelee 14 erilaista tilatyyppiä, joita kaikkia koskevat eri suunnitteluohjeet ja joista jokaisesta tarjoutuu erikokoinen bonus. Sekä sallitut tilatyypit, niistä tarjoutuvan bonuksen suuruus että niiden suunnitteluohjeet ovat vuosien saatossa muuttuneet useampaan kertaan. Tilat voivat esimerkiksi olla erilaisia aukioita, atriumeja, katettuja jalkakäytävän levennyksiä tai erilaisia ulkona tai sisällä kulkevia reittejä tontin ja sillä sijaitsevan rakennuksen halki. Etenkin osa läpikulkureiteistä on kaupungin tiettyihin kortteleihin jalankulun helpottamiseksi määräämiä edellytyksenä rakennusluvan myöntämiselle. Näistä pakollisista läpikulkureiteistä vain osa on kerryttänyt bonuksia rakentajilleen. Esimerkkeinä käsiteltävistä tiloista kuusi muodostaa kortteleita halkovan, vuoroin ulko-, vuoroin sisätilassa kulkevan kävelykadun nimeltä Sixth-and-a-Half Avenue Manhattanin kuudennen ja seitsemännen avenuen välille, loput neljä tilaa taas muodostavat vaihtoehtoisia läpikulkuja tälle vuonna 2012 jalkakäytävillä yhteen liitetylle reitille. Tilat on rakennettu pääasiallisesti 1980- ja 1990-lukujen aikana ja osa niistä on uudistettu viimeisten kymmenen vuoden sisällä. Mukana on niin neliöbonuksia tuoneita kuin pakotettujakin tiloja. Osa niistä tarjoaa käyttäjilleen taukopaikkoja, osa on tarkoitettu vain nopeaan läpikulkuun, osa liittyy kiinteästi tontilla sijaitsevien pilvenpiirtäjien toimintoihin, osa on muista toiminnoista täysin irrallisia, osa on auki aina, osa suljetaan työpäivän päättyessä. Yhteistä kaikille tiloille on se, että vaikka ne sijaitsevat yksityisellä tonttimaalla, ei tonttien haltijoilla ole oikeutta rajoittaa niiden käyttöä, muuten kuin kaupungin määrittämien säännösten puitteissa. Yhteistä on myös se, että tiloille rakennusluvan myöntämisen yhteydessä määritellyt suunnittelu- ja ylläpito-ohjeet ja -rajoitukset pätevät siihen asti, että tontilla sijaitseva rakennus puretaan. Koska tällaiset yksityisomisteiset mutta silti julkiset, kaikille avoimet ulko- ja sisätilat muodostavat merkittävät osan New Yorkin kaupungin julkitilasta, on perusteltua käsitellä myös niiden tilallista laatua kaupunkilaisen tai kaupungissa vierailevan turistin näkökulmasta. Ovatko ne nykyisin hyväksi ymmärrettyä kaupunkitilaa ja jos eivät, miten niitä voisi kehittää, miten ne parantavat jalkaisin liikkuvan ihmisen kokemusta kaupungista, ja ovatko ne todella kaikkien kaupunkilaisten käytettävissä? Laatua tarkastellaan toisaalta kaupungin itse itselleen asettamien tavoitteiden, toisaalta tunnustettujen kaupunkitutkijoiden kuten William H. Whyten, Jan Gehlin ja Jeff Speckin tai American Institute of Architectsin New Yorkin osaston teesien kautta. Arvioinnissa hyödynnetään myös Sixth-and-a-Half Avenuesta muutaman viime vuoden aikana ilmestyneitä lehtiartikkeleita ja kirjoittajan omakohtaista kokemusta tiloista. Tutkielma onkin syntynyt osin juuri näissä käsittelemissään tiloissa. This thesis talks about the zoning bonus system in New York City and the privately owned public spaces created as part of this system. It also reflects on the spatial quality of the existing spaces. The concept of privately owned public space is discussed with the help of ten indoor and outdoor spaces located within a 6-city-block area in Midtown Manhattan. The zoning bonus system, officially called incentive zoning, was introduced in the 1961 New York City Zoning Resolution. It is a logical continuation to the development of the skyscrapers in the first half of the 20th century and the need to regulate their height and volume, and to secure light and air at street level in a skyscraper intensive city. The bonus system has made it possible to add square meters to those skyscrapers that have already reached the zoning district specific top limit in exchange for the provision of indoor or outdoor public space on the zoning lot. The bonus has varied between three and ten square meters of additional space for each square meter of public space provided. In practice this means that the developers have been able to build taller towers than the base floor area ratio for the zoning lot would otherwise permit. All in all, more than 500 privately owned public spaces have been built since 1961 at more than 300 locations in New York City and especially Manhattan. The built bonused floor area adds up to approximately 1.5 million square meters. The Zoning Resolution and its amendments define 14 different types of privately owned public space that all have their own specific design guidelines and that all have provided the developers with different sized floor area bonuses. The permitted types of space, the sizes of the bonuses, the design guidelines, as well as the permit processes have all varied within the past 50 years. The privately owned public spaces can be different kinds of plazas, atriums, covered sidewalk widenings, arcades or various types of indoor or outdoor routes through the host buildings. In some parts of Manhattan the City of New York has mandated the provision of these public through-block connections. In some case the bonuses have been withheld. Six of the ten spaces discussed here form a 6-block-long mid-block pedestrian passageway called Sixth-and-a-Half Avenue, the other four spaces form two variants to the named route. In 2012 the route located between 6th and 7th Avenues was formalized with the help of street signs and connecting crosswalks. Most of the spaces forming the route and its variants have been built in the 1980’s and the 1990’s with some having been renovated within the past ten years. Of these spaces some have been mandated, some have brought bonuses to their developers. Some offer places to sit, some are only meant for quick walk-throughs. Some are tightly linked to the functions of their host buildings, some are separate corridors. Some are always open, some close at the end of the business day. What is similar to all the spaces is that even if they are located on private property, the property owners cannot control the use or the users of the spaces except for within the City-specified rules of conduct and opening hours. Another shared aspect is that all the spaces will need to follow the design and maintenance guidelines valid at the time the host buildings received their building permits up until the buildings are demolished or a renovation permit is applied for. As these kinds of privately owned but publicly accessible indoor and outdoor spaces constitute a remarkable share of the public space available in New York City, it is worth studying their spatial quality from the points of view of the possible user groups. Can they be understood as good quality urban public space according to current standards? If not, how could they be developed further? How do they improve the walkability of the city? Are they really open to all? These questions are discussed in regards to the current urban policies of the City of New York, as well as the theses of acknowledged urbanists such as William H. Whyte, Jan Gehl and Jeff Speck. In addition to the existing research, the spatial qualities are also evaluated on the basis of some recent newspaper articles on Sixth-and-Half Avenue, and on-site observation. Parts of the thesis have actually been written within the actual privately owned public spaces discussed while observing other users.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Yang, Jing;
    Publisher: University of Jyväskylä; Contact details: Open Science Centre, University of Jyväskylä, email: jyx@jyu.fi, website: https://osc.jyu.fi/en
    Country: Finland

    Hong Kong based Chinese artist Zheng Bo is committed to socially and ecologically engaged art. He investigates the past and imagines the future from the perspectives of marginalized communities and marginalized plants. He has worked with a number of museums and art spaces in Asia and Europe, most recently TheCube Project Space (Taipei), the Power Station of Art (Shanghai), the Sifang Art Museum (Nanjing), the Times Museum (Guangzhou), the Cass Sculpture Foundation (Chichester, UK), and Villa Vassilieff (Paris).

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Vesiväki, Jenny;
    Country: Finland

    The purpose of this thesis was to understand the concept of periphery in relation to areas and environments, and to gather information on the benefits of exposure to peripheries. A series of artworks was created to accompany the written thesis. The study was conducted to support the artworks by giving them a conceptual framework. The process of making a twenty-artwork series called Periphery Talismans (now my daydreaming is spontaneous) is described in the case study as a part of the thesis. The sources used for the written part include books, articles and essays on topics that relate to peripheries. Wilderness, natural environments, abandoned places and wastelands and the aesthetics of peripheral places are all explored further. The theoretical foundation for the thesis is based on the writings of Marko Leppänen, the founder of The School of Esoteric Geography and Periphery Therapy. Other authors referenced include environmentalist and Pulitzer Prize winning poet, Gary Snyder, artist Jenny Odell and author and translator Ville-Juhani Sutinen. The study revealed the importance of peripheral areas as equalizers. It was made clear that areas that have peripheral qualities are not only havens for wildlife, but also important places of rest and recuperation for humans became evident. Furthermore, it was revealed that seeing our minds and bodies as wild, instead of the normalized view of seeing them as civilized, can help humans experience healing and live more balanced lives.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    September, Aramis;
    Country: Finland

    The purpose of this thesis was to analyse representations of the horse in art history and examine ways in which representations of the horse could be used to posit new positive representations of power. The theoretical section explored the lineage of horse imagery in art history; this section also explored power imagery as well. The portrayal of the horse in Western art was analysed from the Renaissance onwards in order to have a firm historical understanding. From this base of understanding, the potential for new image creation was discussed. Paintings and statues were the primary focus of the thesis for its analysis. Possibilities for new and more positive images of power were explored through visuals featuring horses. The analysis suggested that because of the horse’s roots in art history as well as its powerful physical strength, status as a prey animal, and its gentle sensitivity, the horse was an image eminently suited for use in positing new and positive non-toxic images of power. Further, the analysis suggested that these new explorations stand in opposition to power images and power conceptualisations based in toxic masculinity and patriarchy. This contrast of new imagery and socially constructed expectations provided the starting point for critiquing current power imagery and moving beyond toxic imagery.