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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Richard-Trémeau Emma; Betts John Charles; Brogan Catriona;

    This collection of photographs was compiled as part of the MaltaPot project at the University of Malta. This project aims to enhance the understanding of pottery technology and provenancein Neolithic Malta, mainly dating to the Għar Dalam, Skorba (Early Neolithic), and Zebbuġ (Late Neolithic) phases. This collection presents sherds from the Għar Dalam phase, photographs, and microphotographs and lists their archaeological contexts and form. This collection was prepared thanks to the information from the National Museum of Archaeology (NMA), Malta, and the FRAGSUS project. The project used multiple techniques to characterise the pottery sherds, such as microscopy, polarised light microscope, X-Ray Fluorescence or X-Ray Diffraction. This collection presents the sherds which were not analysed using these destructive techniques, although they had a section ground flat for microphotography. Data collection was carried out between 2018-2020 by Dr Brogan. The document was compiled by 2023 Ms Richard-Trémeau. Photographs can be used if credited. This upload contains a PDF document and two zip files with the macroscopic photograph (Exterior surface) and the microphotographs.

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    ZENODO
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      ZENODO
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    Source: The Visits of Elizabeth : ELTeC Edition

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    Source: The Professor: A Tale : ELTec edition : ELTeC Edition

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    Authors: Popel, Martin; Tomková, Markéta; Tomek, Jakub; Kaiser, Łukasz; +3 Authors

    CUBBITT En-Cs translation models, exported via TensorFlow Serving, available in the Lindat translation service (https://lindat.mff.cuni.cz/services/translation/). Models are compatible with Tensor2tensor version 1.6.6. For details about the model training (data, model hyper-parameters), please contact the archive maintainer. Evaluation on newstest2014 (BLEU): en->cs: 27.6 cs->en: 34.4 (Evaluated using multeval: https://github.com/jhclark/multeval)

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ LINDAT/CLARIAH-CZ re...arrow_drop_down
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    LINDAT/CLARIAH-CZ repository
    Other ORP type . 2021
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      LINDAT/CLARIAH-CZ repository
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Sánchez García, Manuel;

    Editor introduction of the special dossier on historic spaces and architectures in videogames for Culture & History Digital Journal. Área de Composición Arquitectónica, Departamento de Construcciones Arquitectónicas, Universidad de Granada Dipartimento di Architettura e Design, Politecnico di Torino HUM 813: Architecture and Contemporary Culture

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    Authors: Fayard, Nicole;

    Recent Shakespearean productions, just like current European crises, have highlighted the exclusionary nature of European identity. In defining the scope of this special issue, the aim of this introduction is to shift the study of Shakespeare in/and Europe away from the ideological field of “unity within diversity” and its attendant politics of negotiation and mediation. Instead, it investigates whether re-situating Shakespearean analysis within regimes of exclusionary politics and group conflict attitudes helps to generate dynamic cultural and social understandings. To what effect is Shakespeare’s work invoked in relation with the tensions inherent in European societies? Can such invocations encourage reflections on Europe as a social, political and/or cultural entity? Is it possible to conceptualize Shakespearean drama as offering an effective instrument that connects―or not―the voices of the people of Europe?

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    In October 2021, an international conference was organized by the Andrei Sakharov Research Center under the Patronage of the President of Lithuania Gitanas Nausėda. The subject was the development of diplomatic ties between Lithuania and Russia, which were analyzed from different angles and over different time periods, beginning with the signature of the Treaty on the Foundations of Interstate Relations between Lithuania and Russia in 1991. When Lithuania re-established its independence in March 1990, Russia was still part of the USSR. Diplomatic relations between the two countries took a turning point with the signing of a Treaty on July 29th, 1991. This agreement remains an outstanding example of how international law can be the basis for re-establishing new and productive relations. The Treaty contained the principles that guide relations between Lithuania and Russia: the non-use of force and non-interference in internal affairs; respect for sovereignty, territorial integrity, and the inviolability of borders; cooperation in economic fields and other spheres. The Treaty was a significant step forward, particularly considering that the Soviet Union was still in place when it was signed, although Russia was beginning to establish an independent foreign policy. Moreover, in the agreement, Russia publicly acknowledged the violation of Lithuanian borders in 1940 and the illegality of Soviet occupation, a result that no other Baltic country had obtained. The 1991 Treaty was partially the result of developments in international relations between the East and West that followed the signing of the Helsinki Accords in 1975. The negotiations took place in an atmosphere of great excitement and desire for change, and despite some eventual friction, the Russian and Lithuanian people and their leaders demonstrated mutual respect and commitment to the ideals of democracy and freedom. After this historical achievement, positive relations were maintained for some years. However, while Lithuania remained on the path towards democracy and integration in Europe, Russia, unfortunately, regressed to an autocratic regime guided by the authoritarian leader Vladimir Putin. Lithuania was soon faced with a neighbour that was becoming hostile and threatening. Indeed, the annexation of Crimea and the war in the Donbas; the consequences of the political crisis in Belarus; and the negative attitude of the current Russian leadership toward the West continue to demonstrate the Kremlin does not share the respect for international law that prevailed under Boris Yeltsin. Is there any possibility of evolving the present situation? There is always hope, but it would take great commitment on both sides. Putin’s regime appears to off er no prospect for growth or development and therefore any breakthrough in the near future seems unlikely. Outcomes are difficult to predict, however, and one thing seems certain: the Russian population will not always remain passive. As the past has shown, the role of Western democracies, and countries like Lithuania in particular, may stimulate a broader understanding of human rights, civil society, and the rule of law in the region, thus fostering the basis for a new and open dialogue. 2021 m. spalį Andrejaus Sacharovo tyrimų centras surengė tarptautinę konferenciją, kurią globojo LR Prezidentas Gitanas Nausėda. Jos tema - Lietuvos ir Rusijos diplomatinių santykių raida, kuri buvo analizuojama įvairiais aspektais ir skirtingais laikotarpiais, pradedant nuo Lietuvos ir Rusijos sutarties dėl tarpvalstybinių santykių pasirašymo 1991 metais. Kai 1990 m. kovo mėn. Lietuva atkūrė savo nepriklausomybę, Rusija vis dar priklausė SSRS. Diplomatiniai santykiai tarp abiejų šalių pasiekė lūžį, kai 1991 m. liepos 29 d. buvo pasirašyta Sutartis. Ši sutartis tebėra puikus pavyzdys, kaip tarptautinė teisė gali būti pagrindas naujiems ir produktyviems santykiams atkurti. Sutartyje buvo įtvirtinti principai, kuriais grindžiami Lietuvos ir Rusijos santykiai: jėgos nenaudojimas ir nesikišimas į vidaus reikalus; pagarba suverenitetui, teritoriniam vientisumui ir sienų neliečiamumui; bendradarbiavimas ekonomikos ir kitose srityse. Sutartis buvo svarbus žingsnis į priekį, ypač atsižvelgiant į tai, kad jos pasirašymo metu vis dar veikė Sovietų Sąjunga, nors Rusija jau buvo pradėjusi formuoti savarankišką užsienio politiką. Be to, šia sutartimi Rusija viešai pripažino Lietuvos sienų pažeidimą 1940 m. ir sovietų okupacijos neteisėtumą, ko nebuvo pasiekusi nė viena kita Baltijos šalis. 1991 m. sutartį iš dalies lėmė Rytų ir Vakarų tarptautinių santykių pokyčiai, įvykę po 1975 m. Helsinkio susitarimų pasirašymo. Derybos vyko didelio susijaudinimo ir permainų troškimo atmosferoje, ir, nepaisant tam tikros trinties, Rusijos ir Lietuvos žmonės bei jų vadovai parodė abipusę pagarbą ir atsidavimą demokratijos ir laisvės idealams. Po šio istorinio pasiekimo keletą metų buvo palaikomi teigiami santykiai. Tačiau kol Lietuva toliau ėjo demokratijos ir integracijos į Europą keliu, Rusija, deja, grįžo prie autokratinio režimo, kuriam vadovauja autoritarinis lyderis Vladimiras Putinas. Netrukus Lietuva susidūrė su kaimyne, kuri tapo priešiška ir grėsminga. Iš tiesų Krymo aneksija ir karas Ukrainoje, politinės krizės Baltarusijoje padariniai ir neigiamas dabartinės Rusijos vadovybės požiūris į Vakarus ir toliau rodo, kad Kremliui nebūdinga pagarba tarptautinei teisei, kuri vyravo valdant Borisui Jelcinui. Ar yra kokia nors galimybė pakeisti dabartinę padėtį? Visada yra vilties, tačiau tam reikia didelio abiejų pusių įsipareigojimo. Atrodo, kad V. Putino režimas neturi jokių augimo ar vystymosi perspektyvų, todėl bet koks proveržis artimiausiu metu atrodo mažai tikėtinas. Vis dėlto rezultatus sunku prognozuoti, ir viena atrodo aišku: Rusijos gyventojai ne visada liks pasyvūs. Kaip parodė praeitis, Vakarų demokratijų, ypač tokių šalių kaip Lietuva, vaidmuo gali paskatinti platesnį žmogaus teisių, pilietinės visuomenės ir teisinės valstybės supratimą regione ir taip sukurti pagrindą naujam ir atviram dialogui.

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    Authors: Silva, Miguel Ribeiro Vilar Brás da;

    A história da humanidade e as suas evidências arqueológicas são inestimáveis e devem ser preservadas, respeitadas e valorizadas. No entanto, o trabalho tradicional de um arqueólogo é principalmente uma tarefa manual, lenta e requer conhecimento especializado, bem como considerável experiência, o que representa uma limitação significativa devido à disponibilidade limitada de arqueólogos. Além disso, preocupações com o aquecimento global, o aumento generalizado do nível do mar ou a destruição devido a atividades humanas, entre outras, contribuem para um crescente receio de perder alguns sítios arqueológicos, já que o método tradicional de identificação e preservação desses sítios não consegue acompanhar a velocidade de propagação de tais problemas. Decorrente destes factos, aliado a uma tendência generalizada e com sucesso no recurso a técnicas de Inteligência Artificial em outras especialidades, também na Arqueologia tem-se vindo a verificar uma adesão significativa. A adoção de técnicas de Inteligência Artificial tem permitido alguma ajuda aos arqueólogos em várias tarefas, com especial foco na identificação de sítios arqueológicos através do recurso a métodos de deteção remota. Atualmente, não existem aplicações ou ferramentas que possam executar este trabalho, no entanto, tem-se verificado um esforço crescente de estudo e desenvolvimento de trabalho nesse sentido, quer ao nível académico quer científico. Esta tese tem como objetivo implementar uma ferramenta que, através da leitura de dados LiDAR, coletados de uma determinada área geográfica, consiga efetuar uma deteção de objetos referentes a vestígios arqueológicos específicos (mamoas), recorrendo a uma variedade de modelos de machine learning, atribuindo uma classificação para determinar se identificou ou não com sucesso a presença de uma mamoa. O ponto de partida do trabalho realizado nesta tese inicia-se com o acesso e trabalho realizado sobre três técnicas de visualização aplicada sobre dados LiDAR, nomeadamente consiste no acesso a ficheiros como Digital Terrain Model (DTM), Local Relief Model (LRM) e Slope. Estes dados LiDAR e consequente conversão nas técnicas de visualização anteriormente citadas ocorreram a partir de voos de drones, equipados com sensores LiDAR que, sobrevoando a zona de Viana do Castelo, proporcionou a obtenção de tais dados. Adicionalmente aos três ficheiros de técnicas de visualização, foi também disponibilizado um ficheiro shape que fornece informação georreferenciada da localização de mamoas na área sobrevoada pelos drones. Com recurso ao software QGIS, foi possível identificar que, as localizações das mamoas encontravam-se relativamente concentradas numa parte específica das imagens. Desta forma, e considerando o tamanho dos ficheiros em questão, efetuou-se uma seleção nas imagens, cortando áreas que já apresentassem uma distância considerável da mamoa mais próxima, de forma a tornar mais ágil o processo de trabalho e treino dos modelos escolhidos. Posteriormente, e com as imagens em tamanho mais reduzido, efetuou-se uma operação de combinação entre as três tipologias de imagens, obtendo uma única imagem onde, incorporando as características destas, permitiu realçar determinados aspetos com intuito de, posteriormente, auxiliar nas tarefas de treino e teste dos modelos de aprendizagem profunda a que foram aplicados. Seguiu-se o processo de pré-processamento de dados tendo sido definido e trabalhado um programa que executasse a mesma tarefa, fornecendo como output um dataset em formato COCO, formato escolhido dada popularidade e sucesso verificado na aplicação a métodos de deteção de objetos. A construção deste dataset foi igualmente realizada de forma a criar estrutura de ficheiros que, respeitando na mesma o formato COCO, proporcionasse a aplicação da técnica de leave-one-out cross-validation, uma vez que, foi considerado a melhor opção dada existência de apenas 77 mamoas, de forma a evitar cenários de enviesamento de dados ou até overfitting. Para diversificar e enriquecer esta análise comparativa, foram criados dois datasets diferentes, cujas bounding boxes em volta das mamoas apresentavam tamanhos diferentes, nomeadamente 15x15 metros e 30x30 metros. Como o objetivo da tese é a realização de testes em algumas arquiteturas de deteção de objeto, foi utilizada um projeto que, está precisamente preparado e desenvolvido para a realização de análises de benchmark, de várias metodologias de classificação de imagem, nas quais estão incluídas as de deteção de objeto. Esta biblioteca permitiu a realização do estudo comparativo não só entre as arquiteturas analisadas e identificadas como as mais promissoras e populares na análise de estado de arte, como ainda permitiu a comparação com outras arquiteturas dada a variedade de oferta de modelos que a mesma proporcionava. Este estudo conseguiu realizar a comparação com um total de nove arquiteturas de aprendizagem profunda, testando quatro detetores two-stage e cinco detetores one-stage. Como era esperado, a maioria dos detetores two-stage superou os detetores one-stage em termos de precisão média de deteção de mamoas, com exceção do modelo Fully Convolutional One-Stage (FCOS), que alcançou a maior precisão média de todos os modelos testados, apresentando resultados entre 68,1% e 78,6% em ambos os datasets. Igualmente esperado foi a confirmação do modelo one-stage Single Shot Detector (SSD) como sendo o modelo com mais rápido tempo de processamento de treino, apesar de, entre os restantes modelos, a diferença de tempo já ser menos significativa e não se notar uma supremacia dos modelos one-stage como seria inicialmente esperado. Human history and its archaeological evidence are priceless and should be preserved, esteemed and respected. However, the traditional work of an archaeologist is mainly manual labour, sluggish and requires specialized knowledge as well as considerable experience, which represents quite a limitation due to the available community of archaeologists. Besides this fact, concerns about global warming, the generalized rise of sea levels or destruction due to human activities, among others, contribute to a growing fear of losing some archaeological sites as the traditional method of identification and preservation of these sites can’t keep up with the propagation speed of such problems. Because of this, a growing willingness to implement Artificial Intelligence techniques has been evidenced, which allows some help to the archaeologist in several tasks, with particular focus to archaeological sitting identification, through remote detection. Currently, there are no applications or tools that can execute such work, however, there has been a growing effort in studies and work on a scientific and academic level. This thesis aims to implement a tool that, through LiDAR data readings, gathered from some geographical area, can perform object detection to specific archaeological findings (such as mounds), testing a variety of machine learning models to, assigning a classification, determine if it’s in the presence of an archaeological mound. The input of the work done for this thesis consists of a Digital Terrain Model (DTM), a Local Relief Model (LRM) and a Slope obtained from drone flights over Viana do Castelo, with the use of LiDAR sensors. The combination of these three images was processed to achieve a single image with higher identification of certain features for future model training. For comparison reasons, two datasets were built with different margin sizes around each archaeological mound. The goal of the thesis is to perform tests on some object detection architectures, compare the efficiency of their evaluations and be able to determine which of the tested models performs a better prediction result on detecting the presence of an archaeological mound. This study was able to perform the comparison of a total of nine Deep Learning (DL) architectures, testing four two-stage detectors and five one-stage detectors. As expected, most of the two-stage detectors outperformed the one-stage detectors in terms of mean average precision for the detection of archaeological mounds, except for the one stage detector Fully Convolutional One-Stage (FCOS), which achieved the highest mean average precision from all, showing results between 68.1% to 78.6% for both size dataset.

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    Authors: O’Hagan, Lauren Alex;
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    Authors: Niccolucci, Franco; Drago, Federico; Savini, Gianluca;

    Heritage Sciences, i.e. the application of scientific experimental methods to the analysis of cultural heritage artefacts, produces a large quantity of numeric data that are only loosely related to the cultural object to which the analyses were applied. The lack of standard data models for the different technologies employed makes interoperability between datasets almost impossible. On the other hand, the same cultural objects and activities on them (studies, interventions, etc.) are documented in textual documents usually with very basic metadata. This situation requires the intervention of a human to link the documentation of scientific analyses to the documentation of the cultural object, e.g. chemical analyses and physical to a study by an art historian; this in the end prevents data re-use and data-driven research. Learn more

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    Authors: Richard-Trémeau Emma; Betts John Charles; Brogan Catriona;

    This collection of photographs was compiled as part of the MaltaPot project at the University of Malta. This project aims to enhance the understanding of pottery technology and provenancein Neolithic Malta, mainly dating to the Għar Dalam, Skorba (Early Neolithic), and Zebbuġ (Late Neolithic) phases. This collection presents sherds from the Għar Dalam phase, photographs, and microphotographs and lists their archaeological contexts and form. This collection was prepared thanks to the information from the National Museum of Archaeology (NMA), Malta, and the FRAGSUS project. The project used multiple techniques to characterise the pottery sherds, such as microscopy, polarised light microscope, X-Ray Fluorescence or X-Ray Diffraction. This collection presents the sherds which were not analysed using these destructive techniques, although they had a section ground flat for microphotography. Data collection was carried out between 2018-2020 by Dr Brogan. The document was compiled by 2023 Ms Richard-Trémeau. Photographs can be used if credited. This upload contains a PDF document and two zip files with the macroscopic photograph (Exterior surface) and the microphotographs.

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    Source: The Visits of Elizabeth : ELTeC Edition

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    Source: The Professor: A Tale : ELTec edition : ELTeC Edition

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    Authors: Popel, Martin; Tomková, Markéta; Tomek, Jakub; Kaiser, Łukasz; +3 Authors

    CUBBITT En-Cs translation models, exported via TensorFlow Serving, available in the Lindat translation service (https://lindat.mff.cuni.cz/services/translation/). Models are compatible with Tensor2tensor version 1.6.6. For details about the model training (data, model hyper-parameters), please contact the archive maintainer. Evaluation on newstest2014 (BLEU): en->cs: 27.6 cs->en: 34.4 (Evaluated using multeval: https://github.com/jhclark/multeval)

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    Authors: Sánchez García, Manuel;

    Editor introduction of the special dossier on historic spaces and architectures in videogames for Culture & History Digital Journal. Área de Composición Arquitectónica, Departamento de Construcciones Arquitectónicas, Universidad de Granada Dipartimento di Architettura e Design, Politecnico di Torino HUM 813: Architecture and Contemporary Culture

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    Authors: Fayard, Nicole;

    Recent Shakespearean productions, just like current European crises, have highlighted the exclusionary nature of European identity. In defining the scope of this special issue, the aim of this introduction is to shift the study of Shakespeare in/and Europe away from the ideological field of “unity within diversity” and its attendant politics of negotiation and mediation. Instead, it investigates whether re-situating Shakespearean analysis within regimes of exclusionary politics and group conflict attitudes helps to generate dynamic cultural and social understandings. To what effect is Shakespeare’s work invoked in relation with the tensions inherent in European societies? Can such invocations encourage reflections on Europe as a social, political and/or cultural entity? Is it possible to conceptualize Shakespearean drama as offering an effective instrument that connects―or not―the voices of the people of Europe?

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    In October 2021, an international conference was organized by the Andrei Sakharov Research Center under the Patronage of the President of Lithuania Gitanas Nausėda. The subject was the development of diplomatic ties between Lithuania and Russia, which were analyzed from different angles and over different time periods, beginning with the signature of the Treaty on the Foundations of Interstate Relations between Lithuania and Russia in 1991. When Lithuania re-established its independence in March 1990, Russia was still part of the USSR. Diplomatic relations between the two countries took a turning point with the signing of a Treaty on July 29th, 1991. This agreement remains an outstanding example of how international law can be the basis for re-establishing new and productive relations. The Treaty contained the principles that guide relations between Lithuania and Russia: the non-use of force and non-interference in internal affairs; respect for sovereignty, territorial integrity, and the inviolability of borders; cooperation in economic fields and other spheres. The Treaty was a significant step forward, particularly considering that the Soviet Union was still in place when it was signed, although Russia was beginning to establish an independent foreign policy. Moreover, in the agreement, Russia publicly acknowledged the violation of Lithuanian borders in 1940 and the illegality of Soviet occupation, a result that no other Baltic country had obtained. The 1991 Treaty was partially the result of developments in international relations between the East and West that followed the signing of the Helsinki Accords in 1975. The negotiations took place in an atmosphere of great excitement and desire for change, and despite some eventual friction, the Russian and Lithuanian people and their leaders demonstrated mutual respect and commitment to the ideals of democracy and freedom. After this historical achievement, positive relations were maintained for some years. However, while Lithuania remained on the path towards democracy and integration in Europe, Russia, unfortunately, regressed to an autocratic regime guided by the authoritarian leader Vladimir Putin. Lithuania was soon faced with a neighbour that was becoming hostile and threatening. Indeed, the annexation of Crimea and the war in the Donbas; the consequences of the political crisis in Belarus; and the negative attitude of the current Russian leadership toward the West continue to demonstrate the Kremlin does not share the respect for international law that prevailed under Boris Yeltsin. Is there any possibility of evolving the present situation? There is always hope, but it would take great commitment on both sides. Putin’s regime appears to off er no prospect for growth or development and therefore any breakthrough in the near future seems unlikely. Outcomes are difficult to predict, however, and one thing seems certain: the Russian population will not always remain passive. As the past has shown, the role of Western democracies, and countries like Lithuania in particular, may stimulate a broader understanding of human rights, civil society, and the rule of law in the region, thus fostering the basis for a new and open dialogue. 2021 m. spalį Andrejaus Sacharovo tyrimų centras surengė tarptautinę konferenciją, kurią globojo LR Prezidentas Gitanas Nausėda. Jos tema - Lietuvos ir Rusijos diplomatinių santykių raida, kuri buvo analizuojama įvairiais aspektais ir skirtingais laikotarpiais, pradedant nuo Lietuvos ir Rusijos sutarties dėl tarpvalstybinių santykių pasirašymo 1991 metais. Kai 1990 m. kovo mėn. Lietuva atkūrė savo nepriklausomybę, Rusija vis dar priklausė SSRS. Diplomatiniai santykiai tarp abiejų šalių pasiekė lūžį, kai 1991 m. liepos 29 d. buvo pasirašyta Sutartis. Ši sutartis tebėra puikus pavyzdys, kaip tarptautinė teisė gali būti pagrindas naujiems ir produktyviems santykiams atkurti. Sutartyje buvo įtvirtinti principai, kuriais grindžiami Lietuvos ir Rusijos santykiai: jėgos nenaudojimas ir nesikišimas į vidaus reikalus; pagarba suverenitetui, teritoriniam vientisumui ir sienų neliečiamumui; bendradarbiavimas ekonomikos ir kitose srityse. Sutartis buvo svarbus žingsnis į priekį, ypač atsižvelgiant į tai, kad jos pasirašymo metu vis dar veikė Sovietų Sąjunga, nors Rusija jau buvo pradėjusi formuoti savarankišką užsienio politiką. Be to, šia sutartimi Rusija viešai pripažino Lietuvos sienų pažeidimą 1940 m. ir sovietų okupacijos neteisėtumą, ko nebuvo pasiekusi nė viena kita Baltijos šalis. 1991 m. sutartį iš dalies lėmė Rytų ir Vakarų tarptautinių santykių pokyčiai, įvykę po 1975 m. Helsinkio susitarimų pasirašymo. Derybos vyko didelio susijaudinimo ir permainų troškimo atmosferoje, ir, nepaisant tam tikros trinties, Rusijos ir Lietuvos žmonės bei jų vadovai parodė abipusę pagarbą ir atsidavimą demokratijos ir laisvės idealams. Po šio istorinio pasiekimo keletą metų buvo palaikomi teigiami santykiai. Tačiau kol Lietuva toliau ėjo demokratijos ir integracijos į Europą keliu, Rusija, deja, grįžo prie autokratinio režimo, kuriam vadovauja autoritarinis lyderis Vladimiras Putinas. Netrukus Lietuva susidūrė su kaimyne, kuri tapo priešiška ir grėsminga. Iš tiesų Krymo aneksija ir karas Ukrainoje, politinės krizės Baltarusijoje padariniai ir neigiamas dabartinės Rusijos vadovybės požiūris į Vakarus ir toliau rodo, kad Kremliui nebūdinga pagarba tarptautinei teisei, kuri vyravo valdant Borisui Jelcinui. Ar yra kokia nors galimybė pakeisti dabartinę padėtį? Visada yra vilties, tačiau tam reikia didelio abiejų pusių įsipareigojimo. Atrodo, kad V. Putino režimas neturi jokių augimo ar vystymosi perspektyvų, todėl bet koks proveržis artimiausiu metu atrodo mažai tikėtinas. Vis dėlto rezultatus sunku prognozuoti, ir viena atrodo aišku: Rusijos gyventojai ne visada liks pasyvūs. Kaip parodė praeitis, Vakarų demokratijų, ypač tokių šalių kaip Lietuva, vaidmuo gali paskatinti platesnį žmogaus teisių, pilietinės visuomenės ir teisinės valstybės supratimą regione ir taip sukurti pagrindą naujam ir atviram dialogui.

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