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  • Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/

    In October 2021, an international conference was organized by the Andrei Sakharov Research Center under the Patronage of the President of Lithuania Gitanas Nausėda. The subject was the development of diplomatic ties between Lithuania and Russia, which were analyzed from different angles and over different time periods, beginning with the signature of the Treaty on the Foundations of Interstate Relations between Lithuania and Russia in 1991. When Lithuania re-established its independence in March 1990, Russia was still part of the USSR. Diplomatic relations between the two countries took a turning point with the signing of a Treaty on July 29th, 1991. This agreement remains an outstanding example of how international law can be the basis for re-establishing new and productive relations. The Treaty contained the principles that guide relations between Lithuania and Russia: the non-use of force and non-interference in internal affairs; respect for sovereignty, territorial integrity, and the inviolability of borders; cooperation in economic fields and other spheres. The Treaty was a significant step forward, particularly considering that the Soviet Union was still in place when it was signed, although Russia was beginning to establish an independent foreign policy. Moreover, in the agreement, Russia publicly acknowledged the violation of Lithuanian borders in 1940 and the illegality of Soviet occupation, a result that no other Baltic country had obtained. The 1991 Treaty was partially the result of developments in international relations between the East and West that followed the signing of the Helsinki Accords in 1975. The negotiations took place in an atmosphere of great excitement and desire for change, and despite some eventual friction, the Russian and Lithuanian people and their leaders demonstrated mutual respect and commitment to the ideals of democracy and freedom. After this historical achievement, positive relations were maintained for some years. However, while Lithuania remained on the path towards democracy and integration in Europe, Russia, unfortunately, regressed to an autocratic regime guided by the authoritarian leader Vladimir Putin. Lithuania was soon faced with a neighbour that was becoming hostile and threatening. Indeed, the annexation of Crimea and the war in the Donbas; the consequences of the political crisis in Belarus; and the negative attitude of the current Russian leadership toward the West continue to demonstrate the Kremlin does not share the respect for international law that prevailed under Boris Yeltsin. Is there any possibility of evolving the present situation? There is always hope, but it would take great commitment on both sides. Putin’s regime appears to off er no prospect for growth or development and therefore any breakthrough in the near future seems unlikely. Outcomes are difficult to predict, however, and one thing seems certain: the Russian population will not always remain passive. As the past has shown, the role of Western democracies, and countries like Lithuania in particular, may stimulate a broader understanding of human rights, civil society, and the rule of law in the region, thus fostering the basis for a new and open dialogue. 2021 m. spalį Andrejaus Sacharovo tyrimų centras surengė tarptautinę konferenciją, kurią globojo LR Prezidentas Gitanas Nausėda. Jos tema - Lietuvos ir Rusijos diplomatinių santykių raida, kuri buvo analizuojama įvairiais aspektais ir skirtingais laikotarpiais, pradedant nuo Lietuvos ir Rusijos sutarties dėl tarpvalstybinių santykių pasirašymo 1991 metais. Kai 1990 m. kovo mėn. Lietuva atkūrė savo nepriklausomybę, Rusija vis dar priklausė SSRS. Diplomatiniai santykiai tarp abiejų šalių pasiekė lūžį, kai 1991 m. liepos 29 d. buvo pasirašyta Sutartis. Ši sutartis tebėra puikus pavyzdys, kaip tarptautinė teisė gali būti pagrindas naujiems ir produktyviems santykiams atkurti. Sutartyje buvo įtvirtinti principai, kuriais grindžiami Lietuvos ir Rusijos santykiai: jėgos nenaudojimas ir nesikišimas į vidaus reikalus; pagarba suverenitetui, teritoriniam vientisumui ir sienų neliečiamumui; bendradarbiavimas ekonomikos ir kitose srityse. Sutartis buvo svarbus žingsnis į priekį, ypač atsižvelgiant į tai, kad jos pasirašymo metu vis dar veikė Sovietų Sąjunga, nors Rusija jau buvo pradėjusi formuoti savarankišką užsienio politiką. Be to, šia sutartimi Rusija viešai pripažino Lietuvos sienų pažeidimą 1940 m. ir sovietų okupacijos neteisėtumą, ko nebuvo pasiekusi nė viena kita Baltijos šalis. 1991 m. sutartį iš dalies lėmė Rytų ir Vakarų tarptautinių santykių pokyčiai, įvykę po 1975 m. Helsinkio susitarimų pasirašymo. Derybos vyko didelio susijaudinimo ir permainų troškimo atmosferoje, ir, nepaisant tam tikros trinties, Rusijos ir Lietuvos žmonės bei jų vadovai parodė abipusę pagarbą ir atsidavimą demokratijos ir laisvės idealams. Po šio istorinio pasiekimo keletą metų buvo palaikomi teigiami santykiai. Tačiau kol Lietuva toliau ėjo demokratijos ir integracijos į Europą keliu, Rusija, deja, grįžo prie autokratinio režimo, kuriam vadovauja autoritarinis lyderis Vladimiras Putinas. Netrukus Lietuva susidūrė su kaimyne, kuri tapo priešiška ir grėsminga. Iš tiesų Krymo aneksija ir karas Ukrainoje, politinės krizės Baltarusijoje padariniai ir neigiamas dabartinės Rusijos vadovybės požiūris į Vakarus ir toliau rodo, kad Kremliui nebūdinga pagarba tarptautinei teisei, kuri vyravo valdant Borisui Jelcinui. Ar yra kokia nors galimybė pakeisti dabartinę padėtį? Visada yra vilties, tačiau tam reikia didelio abiejų pusių įsipareigojimo. Atrodo, kad V. Putino režimas neturi jokių augimo ar vystymosi perspektyvų, todėl bet koks proveržis artimiausiu metu atrodo mažai tikėtinas. Vis dėlto rezultatus sunku prognozuoti, ir viena atrodo aišku: Rusijos gyventojai ne visada liks pasyvūs. Kaip parodė praeitis, Vakarų demokratijų, ypač tokių šalių kaip Lietuva, vaidmuo gali paskatinti platesnį žmogaus teisių, pilietinės visuomenės ir teisinės valstybės supratimą regione ir taip sukurti pagrindą naujam ir atviram dialogui.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Vytautas Magnus Univ...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Riškutė-Kariniauskienė, Giedrė;
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    Authors: Perkumienė, Dalia; Safaa, Larbi;

    The relevance of this study. International legal efforts to protect cultural heritage have undergone quite contrasting changes in the recent period. It should be noted that cases of destruction and looting of cultural heritage protection cause concern and anxiety. Attention should be drawn to the cultural heritage protection conflicts in the former Yugoslavia, as well as in Iraq and Afghanistan, as well as Ansar Dine in Mali. There is more than one definition of cultural heritage in the scientific literature. In the laws of the Republic of Lithuania, cultural heritage is understood in a broad sense as material, which consists of movable and immovable values, and intangible heritage – traditions, knowledge, and abilities passed from generation to generation, cultural, historical landscape, reflecting the relationship of man with the environment.The main problems. Cultural rights and intellectual property rights are recognized as human rights in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948). Some researchers have argued that the right to cultural heritage can be one of the basic human rights that is associated with intellectual property rights (Shyllon, 2015) other researchers believe that this right does not fall into the category of basic human rights: these rights can be considered economic and/or commercial rather than social or cultural. The following tasks: 1. To analyze the concept of cultural heritage. 2. To analyze legal regulation of cultural heritage protection. 3. Based on the data of the performed analysis, to submit conclusions. The aim of research– to analyze legal aspects and problems of immovable cultural heritage as a tourism object. The paper concluded that cultural heritage protection has a public interest. This obliges both state institutions and society to be active in order to preserve and integrate cultural heritage protected objects in today's world. The novelty of the analyzed topic is that protecting immovable cultural heritage is not easy because there are many interest groups at work. The article emphasizes that immovable cultural heritage is a public interest. This obliges both state institutions and society to be active in order to preserve and integrate cultural heritage protected objects in today's world. The used methodology document analysis, systematic analysis, comparative analysis, logical – analytical and meta – analysis methods

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Vytautas Magnus Univ...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Vytautas Magnus Univ...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Gradinskaitė, Vilma;

    Palaipsniui į Lietuvos muziejus ir privačius rinkinius grįžta iš gimtinės emigravusių ir po pasaulį pasklidusių daili ninkų pavieniai darbai ir kolekcijos. Kasmet gausėja Lietuvos nacionalinio dailės muziejaus dailininkų išeivių kūrybos fondas, pasipildantis ir Lietuvos žydų (litvakų) dailininkų darbais. Vis dėlto nemažai dingusių kolekcijų dar tik laukia, kol bus atrastos, o galbūt net sugrįš į Lietuvos muziejų dailės fondus. Užmarštyje skendi ir Lietuvoje nežinomo litvako dailininko Alberto Benjamino Rappaporto (1898–1969) iš Anykščių biografija ir kūryba, o gausi jo ta pybos darbų kolekcija kol kas dingusi be žinios. Siekiant išnarplioti dailininko A. Rappaporto gyvenimo ir kūrybos gijas, bendradarbiauta su Lietuvos, JAV ir Kanados archyvais, bibliotekomis ir muziejais bei dailininko giminaičiais, remtasi periodine spauda jidiš, lietuvių, prancūzų ir anglų kalbomis. The artist Albert Rappaport was born in Anykščiai in 1898. In 1911, the family emigrated to New York. Rappaport became an American citizen in 1925 and began to travel widely. He studied fine art in New York, Paris, Dresden and Munich. He visited South America, Africa and traveled extensively through Europe (1925–1927, 1933, 1937–1939), returning to the United States now and again. The artist participated in several dozen exhibitions. He showed his work in Paris, Rome, Florence, Barcelona, Palma de Mallorca, Copenhagen, Mexico City, Havana, New York, Calgary and Montreal, in addition to his solo exhibitions in 1937 in Warsaw and Vilnius, and in Kaunas, Riga and Tallinn in 1938. After Rappaport’s death, in March 17, 1969 in Montreal, his collection of artworks disappeared and has thus far not been found. To date, two of his painted portraits are known to exist– one belongs to the private collection of Jonathan C. Rappaport, another is on display at the Jewish Public Library in Montreal.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ “Lituanistika”, Inte...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ “Lituanistika”, Inte...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Petrauskaitė, Kristina;

    It would be possible to start talking about the origins of solo performances or storytelling itself from thousands of years BC. We would also be able to find good examples of solo performances that were non-professional and never shown on stage all over the world: in South and North America, Asia, Australia. However, the aim of this paper is to find and share the origins of professional solo performances in Europe, focusing on those professional solo performances that were shown on stage, to the audience, for entertainment purposes. In this paper also discusses the importance of solo performances in the context of the whole theatre, what it means to the actor and director themselves. The first part of this paper covers the traits of solo theatre, different ways to create a solo performance, what are the main difficulties that arise while in the process of creation and the problem of quality of this type of solo show. In the second part of this paper special attention is being drawn to the very first professional actors and actresses of solo performances in Europe. The third part focuses on the very first actors and directors of professional solo performances in Lithuania. In the last part of this paper, conclusions are drawn how the how the whole research, analysis and understanding the importance of solo performance helped to create a solo performance based on the true story, called „Overstepping“. Pradėti kalbėti apie monospektaklių ar istorijų pasakojimo ištakas būtų galima jau nuo keleto tūkstančių metų prieš Kristų. Taip pat būtų galima rasti ir gerų mėgėjiškų, profesionalioje scenoje nerodytų monospektaklių pavyzdžių visame pasaulyje: Šiaurės, Pietų Amerikoje, Azijoje, Australijoje, tačiau šio bakalauro baigiamasis darbas yra skirtas rasti ir apžvelgti būtent profesionalių monospektaklių ištakas Europoje. Ištakas tų solo pasirodymų, kurie buvo rodomi scenoje, publikos pramogai. Šiame darbe taip pat yra kalbama apie mono teatro rūšies svarbą teatro kontekste, ką ji reiškia aktoriui ir režisieriui. Pirmoje darbo dalyje yra įsigilinama į šios teatro rūšies bruožus ir monospektaklio kūrybos būdus, su kokiais sunkumais yra susiduriama kuriant solo pasirodymą bei kokybės problemą. Antroje dalyje dėmesys yra atkreipiamas į pirmuosius profesionalius solo pasirodymų aktorius bei aktores Europoje, o trečioje dalyje yra kalbama apie profesionalių monospektaklių kūrėjus ir pradininkus Lietuvoje, dėl kurių turime šią teatro rūšį ir šiandien. Paskutinėje dalyje yra apibendrinama kaip visas tyrimas, analizė ir įsigilinimas į solo teatrą ir tokių pasirodymų svarbą padėjo kurti tikra istorija paremtą monospektaklį „Peržengimas“.

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    Authors: Pilarczyk-Palaitis, Anna Ewa;

    The last century of Lithuanian history and the resulting dynamics of political and demographic change have radically transformed the role, meaning and forms of interpretation of Polish heritage in Lithuania. The purpose of the article is to observe the main directions of changes taking place within the cultural memory of Poles living in Lithuania – the largest national minority group in Lithuania. The report presents the processes of changing topicality of Polish heritage in Lithuania in three main areas of active cultural memory: history, art and religion. The first area is represented by objects related to Józef Piłsudski, the second one by the Pohulanka Theatre (now the Russian Drama Theatre) in Vilnius and objects related to Adam Mickiewicz, and the third one by objects related to the cult of Divine Mercy. The article analyses official communication of these memory objects (published by the objects’ owners or official managers) as well as memory practices and rituals carried out in these objects and described on social media and in news articles published in Lithuania in 2017–2019. Observing various types of storage media, in this case, some selected objects of cultural heritage and rituals and texts accompanying them, it is possible to notice processes of variability, exchange, erasing, redefining memory and hence the dynamics of changes in the Polish collective identity in modern Lithuania. The analysis of the formal ritualization and communication of these objects has enabled noticing several interesting trends, above all an occurrence of the phenomenon of polylogue of narratives and the process of universalization of Polish heritage in Lithuania and thus Lithuanian and Polish collective memory approaching each other. The following analysis is valuable as a starting point for reflection on the transformation of the ethnic identity of Poles in Lithuania. [...]

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    Authors: Karanauskas, Tadas;

    Klimato kaita yra viena iš augančių grėsmių kultūros paveldui XXI-ame amžiuje. Lietuvoje yra susiduriama su kylančia temperatūra, didėjančiu intensyvių kritulių kiekiu, dažnėjančiais ekstremaliais meteorologiniais reiškiniais, kylančiu Baltijos jūros vandens lygiu ir augančiu potvyniu pavojumi. Architektūros paveldo objektai yra itin pažeidžiami šiems klimato kaitos indikatoriams. Klimato kaitos poveikis kultūros paveldui Lietuvoje yra beveik netyrinėtas. Apie tai užsimenama vos keliuose nacionaliniuose dokumentuose, todėl šiuo tyrimu buvo siekiama nustatyti pirminius klimato kaitą atspindinčius klimatinius veiksnius, kurie padėtų prognozuoti ateityje vyksiančius kultūros paveldo objektų pokyčius. Šio darbo tikslas buvo įvertinti klimato kaitos poveikį Lietuvos pajūrio architektūros paveldui. Apibendrinus pasaulinę praktiką, nustatyta, kad architektūros paveldą klimato kaita veikia sukeldama struktūrinius pažeidimus, griūtis, konstrukcinių medžiagų kokybės prastėjimą ir nykimą. Lyginant duomenis nustatyta, kad Lietuvoje klimato kaitos daromas poveikis yra vidutinis. Daugiausiai kultūros paveldo nuostolių Lietuvoje yra fiksuojama audrų, uraganų metu, sukeliant pastatų ir mažosios architektūros objektų griūtį. Tyrimo metu buvo vertinama Klaipėdos miesto, Klaipėdos rajono ir Palangos miesto architektūros paveldo objektų, esančių ne toliau kaip 2 kilometrai nuo Baltijos jūros kranto, būklė. Nustatyta, kad dėl vyraujančių kritulių krypties dažniausiai drėksta vakarinės ir šiaurinės pastatų sienos, sukeldamos konstrukcinių medžiagų byrėjimą, tamsėjimą ar puvimą. Pažeistos vietos tampa jautrios biologiniams veiksniams – kerpėms, pelėsiams ir samanoms. Netinkuotų plytų mūro pastatuose pažeidžiamiausias yra kalkių skiedinys, kurį ardo biologiniai veiksniai ar besikaupiančios druskos. Jūros bangų mūšos tiesioginį poveikį patiria inžinerinis objektas – Kukuliškių (Karklės) baterija. Remiantis šiuolaikinės paveldosaugos teorija ir praktika darbe pasiūlytos rekomendacijos pastatų apsaugai in-situ ir teisinei paveldosaugos bazei, apsaugant Lietuvos kultūros paveldą nuo klimato kaitos grėsmių. Viena iš svarbiausių priemonių – nuolatinė pastatų priežiūra ir įvykusių pažeidimų šalinimas. Klimato kaitos poveikį yra itin sunku vertinti dėl veiksnių įvairovės ir jų neapibrėžtumo, tad ir darbo metu buvo susidurta su įvairiais apribojimais. Nepaisant to, darbas gali būti vienas iš pirmųjų Lietuvoje pradedant sistemingus kultūros paveldo tyrimus klimato kaitos kontekste ir diegiant tarptautine praktika paremtus kultūros paveldo apsaugos mechanizmus. Climate change is one of the emerging threats to cultural heritage in XXIst century. In Lithuania growing temperature, increase of intense rainfall and extreme meteorological events, Baltic sea-level rise and flooding are usually registered. Architectural heritage is particulary vulnerable to these climate change indicators. Climate change impact on cultural heritage is hardly researched in Lithuania. Only few national documents mention this topic, therefore this research aimed to determine the primary climate change factors, that would enable to foresee cultural heritage changes in the future. The aim of this work was to evaluate the climate change impact to Lithuanian coastal architectural heritage. Summarized international practice showed that climate change causes structural damage, destruction, deterioration and decay of building constructions. Comparison of this data implied that climate change impact in Lithuania is mediocre. Cultural heritage losses in Lithuania are mostly recorded after storms and hurricanes, causing demolition of buildings and small-scale architectural objects. In this research Klaipėda city, Klaipėda county and Palanga town architectural heritage objects, located up to 2 kilometers from the seaside were being evaluated. It was assessed that predominant direction of precipitation moistures the western and northern sides of the walls, causing disruption, blackening and decay of construction materials. Damaged walls are becoming vulnerable to biological threats, such as lichen, mold and moss. The most vulnerable part of masonry walls is mortar, which could be eroded by biological activity and salt crystallisation. The battery of Kukuliškiai is directly impacted by tidal waves. In order to protect the Lithuanian cultural heritage from climate change threats, the recommendations for heritage protection on-site and heritage law are being proposed based by up-to-date cultural heritage protection principles. One of the most improtant means is the permanent maintenance of buildings and elimination of damages. Climate change is difficult to evaluate due to variety of factors and their uncertainty, thus this work has various limitations. Nevertheless, this research could be the starting point to sytemical cultural heritage research in the times of climate change, developing internationally-based cultural heritage protection mechanisms in Lithuania.

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    Authors: Zhou, Mowen;

    Classical music performance art, with its unique artistic accumulation and humanistic implication, provides an irreplaceable insight into the significance of contemporary styles and classical transmission in the history of Western music. Klasikinis muzikos atlikimo menas, kurio unikali meninė kauptis ir humanistinė reikšmė, suteikia mums nepakeičiamą perspektyvą giliai suprasti šiuolaikinį stilių ir klasikinio paveldėjimo reikšmę Vakarų muzikos istorijoje.

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    Authors: Aleknavičius, Kipras;

    Stanislovas Rubinovas (1930-2013) was one of the most important cultural representatives during the Soviet occupation of Lithuania. Because of his Jewish heritage he suffered persecution by the hands of the Nazi and had to hide in the forests of Belarus, where he suffered from famine and faced death many times. After surviving the war he became one of the most popular opera singers in Lithuania, who was recognized in the whole Soviet Union. He worked in Kaunas Musical Theatre, later in Lithuania’s Philharmonic Theatre, during this time he went on a lot of concert trips throughout the whole Soviet Union. In 1976 he established the Youth Musical Group, which later became the Kaunas Chamber Theatre. This theatre was a resistance to the nation wide censorship of culture which was enforced by the Soviet Union, the plays that were performed challenged the regime’s status quo, a lot of young people had the chance to become professional actors during and were able to create plays that were culturally rich and profound. S. Rubinovas helped create a lot of plays and he worked with unprofessional “kids from the streets”, who later became successful and well know actors. These actions were propelled by romantic and idealistic ideas (the theatre performed in Chernobyl, after the nuclear catastrophe, after the tragic events of January 13th the theatre collective went to Moscow to show what happened there). Because S. Rubinovas was persecuted during wartime, he became a stoic fighter against antisemitism and sought to preserve truthful historic memory. The purpose of this study is to investigate the life of S. Rubinovas, using his own written memoir book “Miške ir scenoje“ and the information gathered in interviews, to shed light on a very important cultural character, which has not been properly investigated. Stanislovas Rubinovas (1930-2013) buvo vienas iš svarbiausių Lietuvos kultūrinių veikėjų Sovietų Sąjungos okupacijos metais. Dėl savo žydiškos kilmės Antrojo pasaulinio karo metais buvo persekiojamas nacių, dėl to turėjo slapstytis miškuose, patirti badą, susidūrimus su mirtimi. Išgyvenęs karą tapo vienu populiariausiu operos solistų Lietuvoje, buvo pripažintas ir visoje Sovietų Sąjungoje. Dirbo ir vaidino Kauno muzikiniame teatre, Lietuvos valstybinėje filharmonijoje, leidosi į daugybę kelionių po Sovietų Sąjungą. 1976 m. įkūrė Jaunimo muzikinę grupę, kuri vėliau patapo Kauno Kameriniu Teatru. Teatro veikla priešinosi Sovietų Sąjungos valdžios priskiriamai kultūros cenzūrai, statė rėžimui netinkamus spektaklius, dirbo su neprofesionaliais aktoriai ir siekė kurti tikrą kultūrinę vertę turinčius dalykus. Sukūrė daug vaidinimu, padėjo daugumai jaunų žmonių tapti profesionaliais aktoriais, vykdė idėjinę ir romantinę veiklą (keliavo koncertuoti į Černobilį, keliavo į Maskva rodyti sausio 13-ąją nufilmuotų kadrų). Kadangi pats patyrė persekiojimus dėl savo kilmės, buvo aktyvus veikėjas prieš antisemitizmą, skatino atminti tikrąją istoriją. Šio darbo tikslas – naudojantis S. Rubinovo parašyta atsiminimų knyga „Miške ir scenoje“, bei interviu metodu surinkta medžiaga, aprašyti vieną iš svarbiausių Lietuvos kultūrinių veikėjų, jo išgyvenimus karo metais, jo kūrybinę veiklą ir siekimą išsaugoti tikrąjį istorinį atminimą

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    Authors: Ūsas, Aivaras;

    There is still a stereotype in the general public that jazz is music for musicians who demonstrate their musical, improvisational and interpretive skills to each other. Such a stereotype forms the opinion that the society considers jazz as a niche branch of art, but this is not the case - in Lithuania, jazz is rapidly growing a generation of performers and fans. It is important to understand and evaluate the circumstances in which this music originated, how it developed and what influence the development of jazz music had on the quality and aesthetics of contemporary Lithuanian jazz. Research questions: How the development of jazz in Lithuania differed from the development of world jazz music. What circumstances and personalities had the greatest influence on the development of Lithuanian jazz? How did the development trends of jazz create the quality, aesthetics and popularity of Lithuanian jazz? The object of the research is the development of Lithuanian jazz. The aim of the research: To present the development of jazz music in Lithuania. Research tasks: To present the development of jazz music in the world. To single out the most famous representatives of Lithuanian jazz music and to evaluate the influence of these jazz musicians, composers and teachers on the change of jazz in Lithuania. To reveal the relationship between the development of jazz music and the quality, aesthetics and popularity of Lithuanian jazz. Research methods: The research methods of scientific, historical and methodological literature, analysis and generalization of publications in the press were used in the research. Jazz as an independent style was recognized in Lithuania only in 1961, but until the restoration of independence due to the Soviet ideology, the development of jazz was not as inert as in the world. The great shift in the development of jazz music in Lithuania took place during the period of “warming up” (approximately 1953–1964), as political, economic and cultural changes took place at that time. The connections of jazz with Lithuanian folk traditions have created a unique color of jazz music, which excludes Lithuanian jazz from the works of performers from other countries. The ideological context in post-war Lithuania encoded the phenomenon of jazz popularity, it was like an element of social rebellion, it helped to promote changes in society and politics. Plačioje visuomenėje vis dar gajus stereotipas, kad džiazas - tai muzika, skirta muzikantams, kurie vienas kitam demonstruoja savo išlavintus muzikinius, improvizacijos ir interpretavimo gebėjimus. Toks stereotipas formuoja nuomonę, kad visuomenė džiazą laiko nišine meno šaka, tačiau taip nėra – Lietuvoje džiazas sparčiai augina atlikėjų bei gerbėjų kartą. Svarbu suvokti ir įvertinti, kokiomis aplinkybėmis atsirado ši muzika, kaip ji vystėsi ir kokią įtaką džiazo muzikos raida padarė šiuolaikinio Lietuviško džiazo kokybei ir estetikai. Tyrimo klausimai: Kaip džiazo raida Lietuvoje skyrėsi nuo pasaulinės džiazo muzikos raidos. Kokios aplinkybės ir asmenybės turėjo didžiausią įtaką Lietuvos džiazo raidai? Kaip džiazo raidos tendencijos kūrė Lietuviško džiazo kokybę, estetiką ir populiarumą? Tyrimo objektas – Lietuvos džiazo raida. Tyrimo tikslas: Pristatyti džiazo muzikos raidą Lietuvoje. Tyrimo uždaviniai: Pristatyti džiazo muzikos raidą pasaulyje. Išskirti žymiausius Lietuvos džiazo muzikos atstovus bei įvertinti šių džiazo muzikantų, kūrėjų ir pedagogų įtaką džiazo kaitai Lietuvoje. Atskleisti džiazo muzikos raidos ir Lietuvos džiazo kokybės, estetikos ir populiarumo santykį. Tyrimo metodai: Tyrime naudoti mokslinės, istorinės ir metodinės literatūros, publikacijų spaudoje analizės ir apibendrinimo metodai. Džiazas kaip savarankiškas stilius Lietuvoje pripažintas tik 1961 m., tačiau iki Nepriklausomybės atgavimo dėl sovietinės ideologijos džiazo raida buvo tokia inertiška, kaip pasaulyje. Didysis poslinkis džiazo muzikos raidoje Lietuvoje įvyko „atšilimo“ laikotarpiu (maždaug 1953–1964 m.), kadangi tuo metu vyko politiniai, ekonominiai ir kultūriniai pokyčiai. Džiazo jungtys su lietuvių liaudies tradicijomis sukūrė savitą džiazo muzikos koloritą, išskyrusį Lietuvos džiazą iš kitų šalių atlikėjų kūrybos. Ideologinis kontekstas pokarinėje Lietuvoje kodavo džiazo populiarumo fenomeną, jis buvo tarsi socialinio maišto elementas, padėjo skatinti pokyčius visuomenėje ir politikoje.

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    In October 2021, an international conference was organized by the Andrei Sakharov Research Center under the Patronage of the President of Lithuania Gitanas Nausėda. The subject was the development of diplomatic ties between Lithuania and Russia, which were analyzed from different angles and over different time periods, beginning with the signature of the Treaty on the Foundations of Interstate Relations between Lithuania and Russia in 1991. When Lithuania re-established its independence in March 1990, Russia was still part of the USSR. Diplomatic relations between the two countries took a turning point with the signing of a Treaty on July 29th, 1991. This agreement remains an outstanding example of how international law can be the basis for re-establishing new and productive relations. The Treaty contained the principles that guide relations between Lithuania and Russia: the non-use of force and non-interference in internal affairs; respect for sovereignty, territorial integrity, and the inviolability of borders; cooperation in economic fields and other spheres. The Treaty was a significant step forward, particularly considering that the Soviet Union was still in place when it was signed, although Russia was beginning to establish an independent foreign policy. Moreover, in the agreement, Russia publicly acknowledged the violation of Lithuanian borders in 1940 and the illegality of Soviet occupation, a result that no other Baltic country had obtained. The 1991 Treaty was partially the result of developments in international relations between the East and West that followed the signing of the Helsinki Accords in 1975. The negotiations took place in an atmosphere of great excitement and desire for change, and despite some eventual friction, the Russian and Lithuanian people and their leaders demonstrated mutual respect and commitment to the ideals of democracy and freedom. After this historical achievement, positive relations were maintained for some years. However, while Lithuania remained on the path towards democracy and integration in Europe, Russia, unfortunately, regressed to an autocratic regime guided by the authoritarian leader Vladimir Putin. Lithuania was soon faced with a neighbour that was becoming hostile and threatening. Indeed, the annexation of Crimea and the war in the Donbas; the consequences of the political crisis in Belarus; and the negative attitude of the current Russian leadership toward the West continue to demonstrate the Kremlin does not share the respect for international law that prevailed under Boris Yeltsin. Is there any possibility of evolving the present situation? There is always hope, but it would take great commitment on both sides. Putin’s regime appears to off er no prospect for growth or development and therefore any breakthrough in the near future seems unlikely. Outcomes are difficult to predict, however, and one thing seems certain: the Russian population will not always remain passive. As the past has shown, the role of Western democracies, and countries like Lithuania in particular, may stimulate a broader understanding of human rights, civil society, and the rule of law in the region, thus fostering the basis for a new and open dialogue. 2021 m. spalį Andrejaus Sacharovo tyrimų centras surengė tarptautinę konferenciją, kurią globojo LR Prezidentas Gitanas Nausėda. Jos tema - Lietuvos ir Rusijos diplomatinių santykių raida, kuri buvo analizuojama įvairiais aspektais ir skirtingais laikotarpiais, pradedant nuo Lietuvos ir Rusijos sutarties dėl tarpvalstybinių santykių pasirašymo 1991 metais. Kai 1990 m. kovo mėn. Lietuva atkūrė savo nepriklausomybę, Rusija vis dar priklausė SSRS. Diplomatiniai santykiai tarp abiejų šalių pasiekė lūžį, kai 1991 m. liepos 29 d. buvo pasirašyta Sutartis. Ši sutartis tebėra puikus pavyzdys, kaip tarptautinė teisė gali būti pagrindas naujiems ir produktyviems santykiams atkurti. Sutartyje buvo įtvirtinti principai, kuriais grindžiami Lietuvos ir Rusijos santykiai: jėgos nenaudojimas ir nesikišimas į vidaus reikalus; pagarba suverenitetui, teritoriniam vientisumui ir sienų neliečiamumui; bendradarbiavimas ekonomikos ir kitose srityse. Sutartis buvo svarbus žingsnis į priekį, ypač atsižvelgiant į tai, kad jos pasirašymo metu vis dar veikė Sovietų Sąjunga, nors Rusija jau buvo pradėjusi formuoti savarankišką užsienio politiką. Be to, šia sutartimi Rusija viešai pripažino Lietuvos sienų pažeidimą 1940 m. ir sovietų okupacijos neteisėtumą, ko nebuvo pasiekusi nė viena kita Baltijos šalis. 1991 m. sutartį iš dalies lėmė Rytų ir Vakarų tarptautinių santykių pokyčiai, įvykę po 1975 m. Helsinkio susitarimų pasirašymo. Derybos vyko didelio susijaudinimo ir permainų troškimo atmosferoje, ir, nepaisant tam tikros trinties, Rusijos ir Lietuvos žmonės bei jų vadovai parodė abipusę pagarbą ir atsidavimą demokratijos ir laisvės idealams. Po šio istorinio pasiekimo keletą metų buvo palaikomi teigiami santykiai. Tačiau kol Lietuva toliau ėjo demokratijos ir integracijos į Europą keliu, Rusija, deja, grįžo prie autokratinio režimo, kuriam vadovauja autoritarinis lyderis Vladimiras Putinas. Netrukus Lietuva susidūrė su kaimyne, kuri tapo priešiška ir grėsminga. Iš tiesų Krymo aneksija ir karas Ukrainoje, politinės krizės Baltarusijoje padariniai ir neigiamas dabartinės Rusijos vadovybės požiūris į Vakarus ir toliau rodo, kad Kremliui nebūdinga pagarba tarptautinei teisei, kuri vyravo valdant Borisui Jelcinui. Ar yra kokia nors galimybė pakeisti dabartinę padėtį? Visada yra vilties, tačiau tam reikia didelio abiejų pusių įsipareigojimo. Atrodo, kad V. Putino režimas neturi jokių augimo ar vystymosi perspektyvų, todėl bet koks proveržis artimiausiu metu atrodo mažai tikėtinas. Vis dėlto rezultatus sunku prognozuoti, ir viena atrodo aišku: Rusijos gyventojai ne visada liks pasyvūs. Kaip parodė praeitis, Vakarų demokratijų, ypač tokių šalių kaip Lietuva, vaidmuo gali paskatinti platesnį žmogaus teisių, pilietinės visuomenės ir teisinės valstybės supratimą regione ir taip sukurti pagrindą naujam ir atviram dialogui.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Vytautas Magnus Univ...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Riškutė-Kariniauskienė, Giedrė;
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    Authors: Perkumienė, Dalia; Safaa, Larbi;

    The relevance of this study. International legal efforts to protect cultural heritage have undergone quite contrasting changes in the recent period. It should be noted that cases of destruction and looting of cultural heritage protection cause concern and anxiety. Attention should be drawn to the cultural heritage protection conflicts in the former Yugoslavia, as well as in Iraq and Afghanistan, as well as Ansar Dine in Mali. There is more than one definition of cultural heritage in the scientific literature. In the laws of the Republic of Lithuania, cultural heritage is understood in a broad sense as material, which consists of movable and immovable values, and intangible heritage – traditions, knowledge, and abilities passed from generation to generation, cultural, historical landscape, reflecting the relationship of man with the environment.The main problems. Cultural rights and intellectual property rights are recognized as human rights in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948). Some researchers have argued that the right to cultural heritage can be one of the basic human rights that is associated with intellectual property rights (Shyllon, 2015) other researchers believe that this right does not fall into the category of basic human rights: these rights can be considered economic and/or commercial rather than social or cultural. The following tasks: 1. To analyze the concept of cultural heritage. 2. To analyze legal regulation of cultural heritage protection. 3. Based on the data of the performed analysis, to submit conclusions. The aim of research– to analyze legal aspects and problems of immovable cultural heritage as a tourism object. The paper concluded that cultural heritage protection has a public interest. This obliges both state institutions and society to be active in order to preserve and integrate cultural heritage protected objects in today's world. The novelty of the analyzed topic is that protecting immovable cultural heritage is not easy because there are many interest groups at work. The article emphasizes that immovable cultural heritage is a public interest. This obliges both state institutions and society to be active in order to preserve and integrate cultural heritage protected objects in today's world. The used methodology document analysis, systematic analysis, comparative analysis, logical – analytical and meta – analysis methods

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    Authors: Gradinskaitė, Vilma;

    Palaipsniui į Lietuvos muziejus ir privačius rinkinius grįžta iš gimtinės emigravusių ir po pasaulį pasklidusių daili ninkų pavieniai darbai ir kolekcijos. Kasmet gausėja Lietuvos nacionalinio dailės muziejaus dailininkų išeivių kūrybos fondas, pasipildantis ir Lietuvos žydų (litvakų) dailininkų darbais. Vis dėlto nemažai dingusių kolekcijų dar tik laukia, kol bus atrastos, o galbūt net sugrįš į Lietuvos muziejų dailės fondus. Užmarštyje skendi ir Lietuvoje nežinomo litvako dailininko Alberto Benjamino Rappaporto (1898–1969) iš Anykščių biografija ir kūryba, o gausi jo ta pybos darbų kolekcija kol kas dingusi be žinios. Siekiant išnarplioti dailininko A. Rappaporto gyvenimo ir kūrybos gijas, bendradarbiauta su Lietuvos, JAV ir Kanados archyvais, bibliotekomis ir muziejais bei dailininko giminaičiais, remtasi periodine spauda jidiš, lietuvių, prancūzų ir anglų kalbomis. The artist Albert Rappaport was born in Anykščiai in 1898. In 1911, the family emigrated to New York. Rappaport became an American citizen in 1925 and began to travel widely. He studied fine art in New York, Paris, Dresden and Munich. He visited South America, Africa and traveled extensively through Europe (1925–1927, 1933, 1937–1939), returning to the United States now and again. The artist participated in several dozen exhibitions. He showed his work in Paris, Rome, Florence, Barcelona, Palma de Mallorca, Copenhagen, Mexico City, Havana, New York, Calgary and Montreal, in addition to his solo exhibitions in 1937 in Warsaw and Vilnius, and in Kaunas, Riga and Tallinn in 1938. After Rappaport’s death, in March 17, 1969 in Montreal, his collection of artworks disappeared and has thus far not been found. To date, two of his painted portraits are known to exist– one belongs to the private collection of Jonathan C. Rappaport, another is on display at the Jewish Public Library in Montreal.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ “Lituanistika”, Inte...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ “Lituanistika”, Inte...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Petrauskaitė, Kristina;

    It would be possible to start talking about the origins of solo performances or storytelling itself from thousands of years BC. We would also be able to find good examples of solo performances that were non-professional and never shown on stage all over the world: in South and North America, Asia, Australia. However, the aim of this paper is to find and share the origins of professional solo performances in Europe, focusing on those professional solo performances that were shown on stage, to the audience, for entertainment purposes. In this paper also discusses the importance of solo performances in the context of the whole theatre, what it means to the actor and director themselves. The first part of this paper covers the traits of solo theatre, different ways to create a solo performance, what are the main difficulties that arise while in the process of creation and the problem of quality of this type of solo show. In the second part of this paper special attention is being drawn to the very first professional actors and actresses of solo performances in Europe. The third part focuses on the very first actors and directors of professional solo performances in Lithuania. In the last part of this paper, conclusions are drawn how the how the whole research, analysis and understanding the importance of solo performance helped to create a solo performance based on the true story, called „Overstepping“. Pradėti kalbėti apie monospektaklių ar istorijų pasakojimo ištakas būtų galima jau nuo keleto tūkstančių metų prieš Kristų. Taip pat būtų galima rasti ir gerų mėgėjiškų, profesionalioje scenoje nerodytų monospektaklių pavyzdžių visame pasaulyje: Šiaurės, Pietų Amerikoje, Azijoje, Australijoje, tačiau šio bakalauro baigiamasis darbas yra skirtas rasti ir apžvelgti būtent profesionalių monospektaklių ištakas Europoje. Ištakas tų solo pasirodymų, kurie buvo rodomi scenoje, publikos pramogai. Šiame darbe taip pat yra kalbama apie mono teatro rūšies svarbą teatro kontekste, ką ji reiškia aktoriui ir režisieriui. Pirmoje darbo dalyje yra įsigilinama į šios teatro rūšies bruožus ir monospektaklio kūrybos būdus, su kokiais sunkumais yra susiduriama kuriant solo pasirodymą bei kokybės problemą. Antroje dalyje dėmesys yra atkreipiamas į pirmuosius profesionalius solo pasirodymų aktorius bei aktores Europoje, o trečioje dalyje yra kalbama apie profesionalių monospektaklių kūrėjus ir pradininkus Lietuvoje, dėl kurių turime šią teatro rūšį ir šiandien. Paskutinėje dalyje yra apibendrinama kaip visas tyrimas, analizė ir įsigilinimas į solo teatrą ir tokių pasirodymų svarbą padėjo kurti tikra istorija paremtą monospektaklį „Peržengimas“.

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