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  • Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage
  • 2019-2023
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Bhatta, Girija;

    The attic of Häme Castle has many undefined shapes because of structural deformation or weathering which is very difficult or impossible to represent accurately using parametric BIM objects. The historic styles of Häme Castle include organic shapes, which again can be more time consuming or difficult to model accurately using simple solid geometry. Häme Castle was scanned in the form of point cloud which was helpful to find the location of the structural components, but the 3D modelling could make it more beneficial. The features, such as heritage importance and values can be combined into the 3D model in a structured and consistent way which allows easy information uprooting and the production of deliverables. BIM offers a robust information management framework that can be highly beneficial for Häme Castle. Häme Castle has one of the oldest building trusses in Europe. It is assumed that the trusses of the main castle are 500 years old. By absorbing high-quality digital survey datasets, BIM does not only represent the image of the existing historic framework, but will also allow the investigating, quality checking and complex analysis of proposed involvement in various scenarios of the castle. The calculations done by the software are faster, more efficient, and easier to correct than the manual calculations. The amount of material needed for the building could help us to know the amount of money needed for the renovation or reconstruction of the building. The adoption of BIM in Häme Castle may drive by significant gains in terms of efficiency and cost savings during capital and operational stages in terms of spatial coordination and conservation planning through improved visualisation, analysis, and options appraisal. Working with BIM will experience reduced project risk, improved timelines, and better project outcomes. BIM appears less popular in terms of adoption by heritage professionals. If the information model of the Häme Castle is maintained, it can be an invaluable decision making and management tool for the castle throughout its life cycle. The purpose of this Bachelor's thesis was to demonstrate how to design the 3D model and conduct structural analysis of a historical building (Häme Castle) using Building information modeling (BIM) software. The analysis was done for trusses in a three-dimensional arrangement in RFEM software. As the result of the project work, the results were positive which proves that the main castle trusses are strong enough to bear all kind of loads.

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    Theseus
    2020
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      Theseus
      2020
      Data sources: Theseus
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    Authors: Karjalainen, Nina-Elise;

    Tämä pro gradu käsittelee alkuperäiskansojen suhdetta arkeologiaan. Esimerkeiksi on valittu Suomen saamelaiset ja Yhdysvaltain alkuperäiskansat. Tarkastelun kohteeksi nousee repatriaatio ja siihen liittyvät kysymykset arkeologian ja museologian näkökulmasta. Pro gradussa tarkastellaan saamelaisten ja intiaanien suhdetta arkeologiseen tutkimukseen ja tutkijoita näiden ihmisryhmien historian valossa. Stereotypiat ja niiden vaikutukset näkyvät arkeologian kehityksessä. Työssä tarkastellaan rasismin ja nationalismin yhteyttä arkeologisiin tutkimuksiin, sekä pohditaan niihin liittyviä vaaroja nykypäivän arkeologiselle tieteelle. Saamelaisten ja erityisesti intiaanien yhteys Sami Power ja Red Power liikkeiden myötä, vaikutti arkeologiaan. Yksi Red Power liikkeen suurista saavutuksista on lakiuudistus vuodelta 1990. The Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act antoi Yhdysvaltain alkuperäiskansoille mahdollisuuden vaatia kansojensa luurankoja luovutettavaksi takaisin. Syntynyt tilanne on luonut uuden asetelman alkuperäiskansojen ja arkeologien välille. Repatriaation käytänteet ovat muuttaneet arkeologien ja alkuperäiskansojen välisiä valtarakenteita ja alkuperäiskansoille ollaan antamassa ääni, sekä museoiden näyttelyiden luomisprosesseissa että museoiden aineistojen omistamiseen liittyvissä kysymyksissä. Kysymykseen, kuka omistaa menneisyyden, liittyy monia ristiriitoja ja haasteita. Kulttuuristen aineistojen hallussapitoon, myyntiin ja omistamiseen on kautta arkeologian historian käytetty perusteluita, jotka menettävät validiuutensa nykyisessä NAGPRAn luomassa tilanteessa. Ajattelun rakenteet ovat muuttuneet. Alkuperäiskansojen ja museoiden välille luodaan uusia yhteistyön ja yhteisymmärryksen muotoja. Eri alkuperäiskansoilla on erilaisia näkemyksiä siitä, kenen tulisi pitää hallussa ja suojella heidän kulttuurista aineistoaan. Suomessa ja Yhdysvalloissa on reagoitu repatriaatioon eri tavoin, vaikka lopulta on päädytty samaan ratkaisuun, uudelleen hautaukseen. Kysymys siitä kenellä on oikeus tutkia alkuperäiskansojen kulttuureja, ansaitsee jatkuvaa tarkastelua. Vastaus tähän kysymykseen voi vaihtua ajan kuluessa muuttuvissa tilanteissa. Nykyisessä tilanteessa näen, että erilaisista taustoista lähtökohtaisesti tulevat näkemykset laajentavat tutkimuksen kenttää ja syventävät näkemyksiä. Alkuperäiskulttuuritaustainen henkilö ammentaa tutkimukseensa eri lähteistä kuin valtaväestöön kuuluva henkilö. Molemmilla on annettavaa tutkimukselle. Arkeologia elää ajassa ja sen tulee olla tietoinen niistä riskeistä, joita liittyy valtavirran nationalistisiin suuntauksiin. Arkeologian poliittisuus ja sidoksisuus aikaan on johtanut siihen, että arkeologialla on paljon vastattavaa alkuperäiskansoille. Uudenlainen sillanrakennus arkeologien taholta on alkanut, alkuperäiskansoille annetaan menneisyyden hallintaan liittyvä ääni.

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    Authors: Zheleiko, Irina;

    Such techniques of Natural Language Processing as information extraction and semantic text labelling had been widely utilised in recruitment sphere to decrease the labour and time resources needed to analyse CVs or labour market’s trends. However, the application of such techniques and establishing link between demand for the workforce and education providing organizations is yet to be established. In the current thesis the ideas on processing educational courses descriptions texts is provided in attempt to facilitate the information exchange between the needs of the labour market and skills supply from the educational establishments. In the literature review the analysis of the most recent methods in natural language processing methods is provided (Word2Vec, NER, Sentence Transformers) as well as commentary on their current implementations in labour market related spheres. In the empirical section state-of-the-art SBERT language model is applied to the collected open university courses’ descriptions in order to extract concrete skills from the and then the performance of the SBERT model is accessed through such metrics as precision, recall and f-score, yielding the F-score of 70.4%. As a result, an example of comparison between the skills supplies as identified by Finnish open universities educational courses and demand as identified by the job descriptions data is provided. In conclusion, research paper’s possible managerial applications and theoretical contribution are included.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ LUTPubarrow_drop_down
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    2023
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ LUTPubarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      LUTPub
      2023
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Wahlsten, Marianna;

    Postmodernin arkkitehtuurin vaihtoehtoisena näkökulmana esitetty historiallista eklektisyyttä vastustanut ’kriittinen regionalismi’ voidaan nykypäivänä ymmärtää paikallisuuden ja jatkuvuuden teoriana. Tutkimukseni selvittää miten paikallisuuden merkitystä tulisi huomioida nykyarkkitehtuurin kontekstissa, kun digitaalisuus muuttaa tapaa millä todellisuutta hahmotetaan. Informaation välitykseen liittyvä vallankumous on muokannut ajan ja paikan käsitteitä. Tutkin digitalisaation merkitystä osana arkkitehtuurin luovaa työskentelyä, fenomenologiaan pohjautuvan arkkitehtuuriteorian näkökulmasta. Selvitän myös perspektiivin merkitystä digitaalisten ohjelmien rakenteissa. Tutkimukseni lähtökohta on arkkitehtuurihistorioitsija Kenneth Framptonin essee Towards a Critical Regionalism: SixPoints for an Architecture of Resistance (1983). Esimerkkinä ympäristön huomioinnista Frampton nostaa Alvar Aallon piirtämän Säynätsalon kunnantalon (1952). Käytän rakennusta lähtökohtana tutkimuksessani, kun analysoin miten nykypäivän suunnittelussa voidaan huomioida paikallisuutta ja ympäristöä. Selvitän teorian kehitystä ja niitä mahdollisuuksia, mitä arkkitehtuurissa on toteutettu perustuen Framptonin teesin keskeisiin ajatuksiin. Tulkitsen paikallisuuden käsitettä nykyarkkitehtuurin esimerkkien avulla, myös empiiristen havaintojen ja liikkeen kautta. Vertaan globalisaation merkitystä ja historiallisten kerrostumien jatkumoa kahdessa vastakkaisessa kaupunkitilassa. Ajallisen kehityskaaren havainnollistamiseksi vertaan arkkitehtuurin esimerkkejä eri vuosikymmeniltä. Lopuksi sovellan Framptonin teesiä Anttinen Oiva arkkitehtitoimiston suunnittelemaan Helsingin yliopiston pääkirjastoon (2012).

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    Authors: Virtanen, Mira;

    Helsingissä Kluuvin kaupunginosassa, Eduskuntataloa vastapäätä Mannerheimintien itäpuolella, keskustakirjasto Oodin edessä sijaitsee Kansalaistoriksi nimetty aukio. Oodin lisäksi aukiota reunustavat etelässä Sanomatalo ja Kiasma ja luoteessa Musiikkitalo. Viimeisen kymmenen vuoden aikana Kansalaistori on muuttunut epämääräisestä rakennustyömaiden keskellä olevasta kentästä kivetyksi ja selvärajaiseksi aukioksi. Ennen kuin vuonna 2004 lainvoiman saanut Töölönlahden asemakaava nimesi aukion Kansalaistoriksi, on torin paikalle ja sen ympäristöön ehditty tehdä lukuisia suunnitelmia 1900-luvun kuluessa. Tutkielmassani tarkastelen suunnitelmien kautta, millaista julkista kaupunkitilaa Töölönlahden eteläpuolelle on suunniteltu. Taustaksi analyysilleni käyn läpi pääpiirteittäin, miten Töölönlahden ympäristö ennen 1900-lukua rakentui. Suunnitelmissa kiinnitän huomiota erityisesti siihen, millaisia aukioratkaisuja niissä esitetään ja miten rakennetumpi alue niissä liittyy Töölönlahtea ympäröivään puistoon. Lopuksi tarkastelen toteutunutta Kansalaistoria vertaamalla sitä suunnitelmiin. Tärkeimpänä aineistonani ovat alueelle tehtyjen suunnitelmien kuvalliset esitykset: asemakaavapiirustukset, havainnekuvat, liikennekaaviot ja leikkaukset. Lisäksi käytän analyysissäni suunnitelmien selostuksia ja suunnitelmia käsittelevää tutkimuskirjallisuutta. Alueen suunnittelun etenemistä ja alueen rakentumista käyn läpi kirjallisuuden ja arkistomateriaalin avulla. Toteutetun Kansalaistorin lisäksi aineistonani nykytilanteen tarkastelussa ovat suunnitelmat, joiden perusteella tori on toteutettu: voimassaoleva Töölönlahden asemakaava ja Töölönlahden eteläosan puistosuunnitelma. Torisuunnitelmia Töölönlahdelle on tehty siitä lähtien kun Eduskuntatalon sijoittamisesta nykyisen Mannerheimintien reunaan päätettiin 1920-luvulla. Muodoiltaan torit ovat vaihdelleet ja myös niiden tapa liittyä ympäröivään kaupunkirakenteeseen ja puistoihin on vaihdellut. Tavara-aseman siirto Pasilaan 1980-luvun lopussa vapautti alueen rakentamiseen. 2000-luvun kuluessa Kansalaistori on muotoutunut rajoiltaan epäselvästä keskusaukiosta keskustakirjasto Oodin edusaukioksi.

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    Authors: Becher, Tanja;

    This thesis proposes polyphonic interpretations of the short film Birds in the Earth (Eatnanvuloš Lottit, 2018) by Sámi artist Marja Helander. The thesis investigates and develops a method to decentralise the research of Sámi art conducted by non-Sámi art historian’s perspective. The artwork addresses discourses about the Sámi history, culture and current matters. This raises the question of which kind of interpretation a non-Sámi art historian can form employing traditional art historical methods such as researching literature. The thesis examines how including perspectives of Sámi interviewees influences the comprehension and therefore decentralises interpretations of Birds in the Earth. The base of this thesis lays in the tradition of art historical analysis and interpretation. Additions include writings on decolonisation and Indigenous art by Kerstin Knopf, the term of polyphonic history by Peter Burke and inter/view as exchange of gazes following Alessandro Portelli. In order to formulate decentralised interpretations, three open-ended interviews with Sámi spectators are conducted about their experience and understanding of the short film. Thoughts and stories articulated by the interviewees are woven into the interpretation which proceeds by the categories of choreography, costumes, props and scenography. With the short film as point of departure, Sámi discourses are discussed such as landownership, tourism and appropriation, togetherness with nature and Sámi identity. Input from the interviews is combined with research insights from literature, seminars and documentaries. Both the interviews and the art historical research are presented alongside each other without competing or excluding each other. Adding Sámi interviewees’ perspectives decreases the distance between a non-Sámi art historian’s interpretation and the Sámi artwork which would have formed through merely employing research from literature, seminars and documentaries. The interpretation is enriched and comes alive by the interviewees’ elaborated experiences. The decentralised and therefore decentralising narratives come closer to the substance of the artwork as the art historian is formulating while self-reflecting. This implicitly demands the acknowledgement of historical and cultural references of art history itself and a reflected positioning of the non-Sámi art historian’s role in relation to Sámi discourses alongside researching and writing. Developing the methodology of non-Sámi art historians writing about Sámi art proofs necessary and purposive due to the growing importance of and interest in Indigenous art.

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    Authors: Hämäläinen, Riina;

    The sex/gender model used in biological archaeologies to investigate human remains and past lives is one that relies on the epistemological and ontological separation of sex and gender. Despite this separation the model ends up treating these concepts synonymously due to the taken-for-granted binary nature of sex which in a deterministic manner eventuates into an equally binary gender. This thesis develops a theoretical framework for an archaeological concept of gender that operates without the division, binarism and determinism implicit in the sex/gender model. Pursuing answers to the questions whether it is possible to approach both sex and gender in archaeology in a nonbinary way, and if so, what is an archaeologically feasible alternative, it seeks to devise a method to approach sex and gender in mortuary archaeology beyond the deterministic binary. This thesis is firmly theory-oriented and the writings of various authors within the discipline of archaeology, feminism and queer studies comprise the necessary material. The theories pertaining to the field of feminism are intersectionality and queer theory, which eschew normativity and essentialism and call for gender diversity. Respective to archaeology, the theories influencing this thesis derive from new materialisms to whom the rejection of divisions and dichotomies is characteristic. In this regard, of particular note are the writings of new materialist and feminist theorist Karen Barad. Applying her theories concerning the relational, entangled and mutually constitutive nature of matter and meaning to the topic of sex and gender is central in devising a nonbinary new materialist perspective to be used for the purpose of a more open and inclusive mortuary archaeology. This thesis reveals that the dualistic division between nature and culture has resulted in a separate conceptual development and different strategies of engagement concerning sex and gender. The reason why sex is seen as a biological fact and gender as a cultural meaning proves false when both are affected equally by nature and culture, with the body serving as a nexus-point in which these two forces converge. Applying Barad’s insight reveals that binary sex is not an inherent quality of the body, but one that is produced through a scientific biomedical apparatus. Sex and gender exist in a state of inseparability when undetermined, but when subjected to a determination process, they become mutually exclusive phenomena, thereby disrupting sex-to-gender determinism. In their separate state, both are constitutive of matter and meaning, which is why gender made determined through intersectionality can be used to study gendered understandings through the materiality of the body, exempt from binary views. Analysing a topical bioarchaeological publication concerning a female Viking warrior through the approach that does not depend on the sex binary reveals that a scientific biomedical apparatus is subject to criticism on multiple fronts. Though the case study should be credited with rejecting gender role stereotypes, it demonstrates determinism and binarism as well as homogeneity and universalism in terms of categories. Failing to imagine possibilities beyond a fixed binary also results in the exclusion of alternate ways of knowing and being. The open-ended approach proposed in this thesis not only seeks to grant these possibilities opportunities to exist, but counsels cognisance towards the exclusions apparatuses enact. Embracing speculation, it also holds ambiguity and vagueness to be meaningful qualities pertaining to gendered archaeology. Regarding the mortuary setting, binary sex determinations need not be abandoned, but they should be used alongside this nonbinary approach.

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    Authors: September, Aramis;

    The purpose of this thesis was to analyse representations of the horse in art history and examine ways in which representations of the horse could be used to posit new positive representations of power. The theoretical section explored the lineage of horse imagery in art history; this section also explored power imagery as well. The portrayal of the horse in Western art was analysed from the Renaissance onwards in order to have a firm historical understanding. From this base of understanding, the potential for new image creation was discussed. Paintings and statues were the primary focus of the thesis for its analysis. Possibilities for new and more positive images of power were explored through visuals featuring horses. The analysis suggested that because of the horse’s roots in art history as well as its powerful physical strength, status as a prey animal, and its gentle sensitivity, the horse was an image eminently suited for use in positing new and positive non-toxic images of power. Further, the analysis suggested that these new explorations stand in opposition to power images and power conceptualisations based in toxic masculinity and patriarchy. This contrast of new imagery and socially constructed expectations provided the starting point for critiquing current power imagery and moving beyond toxic imagery.

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    Theseus
    2021
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      Theseus
      2021
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    Authors: Kang, Taize;

    Story generation is an artificial intelligence task in which a computer program is used to create literature or stories. This kind of task usually involves giving an initial scene, characters, background information and goals, and then letting the computer program automatically generate a storyline and complete the narrative of the story. Transformers are widely used and achieved state of the art for many different natural language processing tasks, including story generation. With the help of attention mechanism, transforms can overcome overfittting and achieved great results. Generative Pre-trained Transformer (GPT) series are one of the best transformers, which attract many researchers. In this thesis, transformer models are used to design and implement a machine learning method for the generation of very short stories. By introducing a commonsense knowledge base and a rule generator based on it, the models can learn the relationships between context and generate coherent narratives. By given the first sentence of the story as the input, the model can complete the story. The model is based on GPT-2 model and COINS. The dataset used is a collection of short stories. By comparing with the generated results of different models in many aspects, we proved the effectiveness of the model. In addition, the compared results are analyzed to find the potential optimization methods.

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    Authors: Suikkanen, Saku;

    In this work, the utilization of financial news alongside machine learning for predicting stock market movements is examined. The news are handled with various natural language processing methods for finding correlation between the derived attributes and stock market movements. The novelty of this work lies in the application of BNS and LDA methods as well as 2-word combinations alongside with LSTM neural network. The main point of the work is to examine the usefulness of the results achieved with the formerly mentioned methods and neural networks as well as comparing the results with market efficiency. In the research it was concluded that the models containing 2-word combinations derived with the BNS-method, produced differing results to those models, where the 2-word combinations were not used. However, the overall results followed random patterns and thus reliable results were not achieved. For achieving more reliable results, better approach could be predicting intraday stock market movements per Efficient Market hypothesis. Used datasets were possibly also too concise for the complexity of the problem. Tässä työssä tarkastellaan talousuutisten hyödyntämistä yhdessä koneoppimisen kanssa osakemarkkinoiden ennustamiseen. Uutisia käsitellään tietyillä luonnollisen kielen käsittelyn menetelmillä ja niistä pyritään löytämään korrelaatiota osakkeen liikkeiden kanssa. Työn uutuusarvona ovat BNS- ja LDA-menetelmien, sekä 2 sanan kombinaatioiden käyttö LSTM-neuroverkon yhteydessä. Työn pääasiallisena tavoitteena on tarkastella edellä mainittujen menetelmien ja neuroverkkojen yhdessä tuottamien tulosten hyödyllisyyttä ja niiden vertautumista markkinoiden tehokkuuteen. Tutkimuksessa selvisi, että mallit, jotka sisältävät BNS-menetelmällä johdettuja 2 sanan kombinaatioita, tuottavat poikkeavia tuloksia niihin malleihin verrattuna, joissa niitä ei käytetä. Tulokset kuitenkin noudattivat kaiken kaikkiaan satunnaista vaihtelua ja luotettavia tuloksia ei täten saatu. Tulosten parantamiseksi, parempi lähtökohta voisi olla päivän sisäisten vaihtelujen ennustaminen, markkinoiden tehokkuuden hypoteesin mukaisesti. Käytetyt tietoaineistot olivat myös mahdollisesti liian suppeat kompleksisuudeltaan vaativalle ongelmalle.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Bhatta, Girija;

    The attic of Häme Castle has many undefined shapes because of structural deformation or weathering which is very difficult or impossible to represent accurately using parametric BIM objects. The historic styles of Häme Castle include organic shapes, which again can be more time consuming or difficult to model accurately using simple solid geometry. Häme Castle was scanned in the form of point cloud which was helpful to find the location of the structural components, but the 3D modelling could make it more beneficial. The features, such as heritage importance and values can be combined into the 3D model in a structured and consistent way which allows easy information uprooting and the production of deliverables. BIM offers a robust information management framework that can be highly beneficial for Häme Castle. Häme Castle has one of the oldest building trusses in Europe. It is assumed that the trusses of the main castle are 500 years old. By absorbing high-quality digital survey datasets, BIM does not only represent the image of the existing historic framework, but will also allow the investigating, quality checking and complex analysis of proposed involvement in various scenarios of the castle. The calculations done by the software are faster, more efficient, and easier to correct than the manual calculations. The amount of material needed for the building could help us to know the amount of money needed for the renovation or reconstruction of the building. The adoption of BIM in Häme Castle may drive by significant gains in terms of efficiency and cost savings during capital and operational stages in terms of spatial coordination and conservation planning through improved visualisation, analysis, and options appraisal. Working with BIM will experience reduced project risk, improved timelines, and better project outcomes. BIM appears less popular in terms of adoption by heritage professionals. If the information model of the Häme Castle is maintained, it can be an invaluable decision making and management tool for the castle throughout its life cycle. The purpose of this Bachelor's thesis was to demonstrate how to design the 3D model and conduct structural analysis of a historical building (Häme Castle) using Building information modeling (BIM) software. The analysis was done for trusses in a three-dimensional arrangement in RFEM software. As the result of the project work, the results were positive which proves that the main castle trusses are strong enough to bear all kind of loads.

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    Theseus
    2020
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      Theseus
      2020
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    Authors: Karjalainen, Nina-Elise;

    Tämä pro gradu käsittelee alkuperäiskansojen suhdetta arkeologiaan. Esimerkeiksi on valittu Suomen saamelaiset ja Yhdysvaltain alkuperäiskansat. Tarkastelun kohteeksi nousee repatriaatio ja siihen liittyvät kysymykset arkeologian ja museologian näkökulmasta. Pro gradussa tarkastellaan saamelaisten ja intiaanien suhdetta arkeologiseen tutkimukseen ja tutkijoita näiden ihmisryhmien historian valossa. Stereotypiat ja niiden vaikutukset näkyvät arkeologian kehityksessä. Työssä tarkastellaan rasismin ja nationalismin yhteyttä arkeologisiin tutkimuksiin, sekä pohditaan niihin liittyviä vaaroja nykypäivän arkeologiselle tieteelle. Saamelaisten ja erityisesti intiaanien yhteys Sami Power ja Red Power liikkeiden myötä, vaikutti arkeologiaan. Yksi Red Power liikkeen suurista saavutuksista on lakiuudistus vuodelta 1990. The Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act antoi Yhdysvaltain alkuperäiskansoille mahdollisuuden vaatia kansojensa luurankoja luovutettavaksi takaisin. Syntynyt tilanne on luonut uuden asetelman alkuperäiskansojen ja arkeologien välille. Repatriaation käytänteet ovat muuttaneet arkeologien ja alkuperäiskansojen välisiä valtarakenteita ja alkuperäiskansoille ollaan antamassa ääni, sekä museoiden näyttelyiden luomisprosesseissa että museoiden aineistojen omistamiseen liittyvissä kysymyksissä. Kysymykseen, kuka omistaa menneisyyden, liittyy monia ristiriitoja ja haasteita. Kulttuuristen aineistojen hallussapitoon, myyntiin ja omistamiseen on kautta arkeologian historian käytetty perusteluita, jotka menettävät validiuutensa nykyisessä NAGPRAn luomassa tilanteessa. Ajattelun rakenteet ovat muuttuneet. Alkuperäiskansojen ja museoiden välille luodaan uusia yhteistyön ja yhteisymmärryksen muotoja. Eri alkuperäiskansoilla on erilaisia näkemyksiä siitä, kenen tulisi pitää hallussa ja suojella heidän kulttuurista aineistoaan. Suomessa ja Yhdysvalloissa on reagoitu repatriaatioon eri tavoin, vaikka lopulta on päädytty samaan ratkaisuun, uudelleen hautaukseen. Kysymys siitä kenellä on oikeus tutkia alkuperäiskansojen kulttuureja, ansaitsee jatkuvaa tarkastelua. Vastaus tähän kysymykseen voi vaihtua ajan kuluessa muuttuvissa tilanteissa. Nykyisessä tilanteessa näen, että erilaisista taustoista lähtökohtaisesti tulevat näkemykset laajentavat tutkimuksen kenttää ja syventävät näkemyksiä. Alkuperäiskulttuuritaustainen henkilö ammentaa tutkimukseensa eri lähteistä kuin valtaväestöön kuuluva henkilö. Molemmilla on annettavaa tutkimukselle. Arkeologia elää ajassa ja sen tulee olla tietoinen niistä riskeistä, joita liittyy valtavirran nationalistisiin suuntauksiin. Arkeologian poliittisuus ja sidoksisuus aikaan on johtanut siihen, että arkeologialla on paljon vastattavaa alkuperäiskansoille. Uudenlainen sillanrakennus arkeologien taholta on alkanut, alkuperäiskansoille annetaan menneisyyden hallintaan liittyvä ääni.

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    Authors: Zheleiko, Irina;

    Such techniques of Natural Language Processing as information extraction and semantic text labelling had been widely utilised in recruitment sphere to decrease the labour and time resources needed to analyse CVs or labour market’s trends. However, the application of such techniques and establishing link between demand for the workforce and education providing organizations is yet to be established. In the current thesis the ideas on processing educational courses descriptions texts is provided in attempt to facilitate the information exchange between the needs of the labour market and skills supply from the educational establishments. In the literature review the analysis of the most recent methods in natural language processing methods is provided (Word2Vec, NER, Sentence Transformers) as well as commentary on their current implementations in labour market related spheres. In the empirical section state-of-the-art SBERT language model is applied to the collected open university courses’ descriptions in order to extract concrete skills from the and then the performance of the SBERT model is accessed through such metrics as precision, recall and f-score, yielding the F-score of 70.4%. As a result, an example of comparison between the skills supplies as identified by Finnish open universities educational courses and demand as identified by the job descriptions data is provided. In conclusion, research paper’s possible managerial applications and theoretical contribution are included.

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      2023
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    Authors: Wahlsten, Marianna;

    Postmodernin arkkitehtuurin vaihtoehtoisena näkökulmana esitetty historiallista eklektisyyttä vastustanut ’kriittinen regionalismi’ voidaan nykypäivänä ymmärtää paikallisuuden ja jatkuvuuden teoriana. Tutkimukseni selvittää miten paikallisuuden merkitystä tulisi huomioida nykyarkkitehtuurin kontekstissa, kun digitaalisuus muuttaa tapaa millä todellisuutta hahmotetaan. Informaation välitykseen liittyvä vallankumous on muokannut ajan ja paikan käsitteitä. Tutkin digitalisaation merkitystä osana arkkitehtuurin luovaa työskentelyä, fenomenologiaan pohjautuvan arkkitehtuuriteorian näkökulmasta. Selvitän myös perspektiivin merkitystä digitaalisten ohjelmien rakenteissa. Tutkimukseni lähtökohta on arkkitehtuurihistorioitsija Kenneth Framptonin essee Towards a Critical Regionalism: SixPoints for an Architecture of Resistance (1983). Esimerkkinä ympäristön huomioinnista Frampton nostaa Alvar Aallon piirtämän Säynätsalon kunnantalon (1952). Käytän rakennusta lähtökohtana tutkimuksessani, kun analysoin miten nykypäivän suunnittelussa voidaan huomioida paikallisuutta ja ympäristöä. Selvitän teorian kehitystä ja niitä mahdollisuuksia, mitä arkkitehtuurissa on toteutettu perustuen Framptonin teesin keskeisiin ajatuksiin. Tulkitsen paikallisuuden käsitettä nykyarkkitehtuurin esimerkkien avulla, myös empiiristen havaintojen ja liikkeen kautta. Vertaan globalisaation merkitystä ja historiallisten kerrostumien jatkumoa kahdessa vastakkaisessa kaupunkitilassa. Ajallisen kehityskaaren havainnollistamiseksi vertaan arkkitehtuurin esimerkkejä eri vuosikymmeniltä. Lopuksi sovellan Framptonin teesiä Anttinen Oiva arkkitehtitoimiston suunnittelemaan Helsingin yliopiston pääkirjastoon (2012).

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    Authors: Virtanen, Mira;

    Helsingissä Kluuvin kaupunginosassa, Eduskuntataloa vastapäätä Mannerheimintien itäpuolella, keskustakirjasto Oodin edessä sijaitsee Kansalaistoriksi nimetty aukio. Oodin lisäksi aukiota reunustavat etelässä Sanomatalo ja Kiasma ja luoteessa Musiikkitalo. Viimeisen kymmenen vuoden aikana Kansalaistori on muuttunut epämääräisestä rakennustyömaiden keskellä olevasta kentästä kivetyksi ja selvärajaiseksi aukioksi. Ennen kuin vuonna 2004 lainvoiman saanut Töölönlahden asemakaava nimesi aukion Kansalaistoriksi, on torin paikalle ja sen ympäristöön ehditty tehdä lukuisia suunnitelmia 1900-luvun kuluessa. Tutkielmassani tarkastelen suunnitelmien kautta, millaista julkista kaupunkitilaa Töölönlahden eteläpuolelle on suunniteltu. Taustaksi analyysilleni käyn läpi pääpiirteittäin, miten Töölönlahden ympäristö ennen 1900-lukua rakentui. Suunnitelmissa kiinnitän huomiota erityisesti siihen, millaisia aukioratkaisuja niissä esitetään ja miten rakennetumpi alue niissä liittyy Töölönlahtea ympäröivään puistoon. Lopuksi tarkastelen toteutunutta Kansalaistoria vertaamalla sitä suunnitelmiin. Tärkeimpänä aineistonani ovat alueelle tehtyjen suunnitelmien kuvalliset esitykset: asemakaavapiirustukset, havainnekuvat, liikennekaaviot ja leikkaukset. Lisäksi käytän analyysissäni suunnitelmien selostuksia ja suunnitelmia käsittelevää tutkimuskirjallisuutta. Alueen suunnittelun etenemistä ja alueen rakentumista käyn läpi kirjallisuuden ja arkistomateriaalin avulla. Toteutetun Kansalaistorin lisäksi aineistonani nykytilanteen tarkastelussa ovat suunnitelmat, joiden perusteella tori on toteutettu: voimassaoleva Töölönlahden asemakaava ja Töölönlahden eteläosan puistosuunnitelma. Torisuunnitelmia Töölönlahdelle on tehty siitä lähtien kun Eduskuntatalon sijoittamisesta nykyisen Mannerheimintien reunaan päätettiin 1920-luvulla. Muodoiltaan torit ovat vaihdelleet ja myös niiden tapa liittyä ympäröivään kaupunkirakenteeseen ja puistoihin on vaihdellut. Tavara-aseman siirto Pasilaan 1980-luvun lopussa vapautti alueen rakentamiseen. 2000-luvun kuluessa Kansalaistori on muotoutunut rajoiltaan epäselvästä keskusaukiosta keskustakirjasto Oodin edusaukioksi.

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    Authors: Becher, Tanja;

    This thesis proposes polyphonic interpretations of the short film Birds in the Earth (Eatnanvuloš Lottit, 2018) by Sámi artist Marja Helander. The thesis investigates and develops a method to decentralise the research of Sámi art conducted by non-Sámi art historian’s perspective. The artwork addresses discourses about the Sámi history, culture and current matters. This raises the question of which kind of interpretation a non-Sámi art historian can form employing traditional art historical methods such as researching literature. The thesis examines how including perspectives of Sámi interviewees influences the comprehension and therefore decentralises interpretations of Birds in the Earth. The base of this thesis lays in the tradition of art historical analysis and interpretation. Additions include writings on decolonisation and Indigenous art by Kerstin Knopf, the term of polyphonic history by Peter Burke and inter/view as exchange of gazes following Alessandro Portelli. In order to formulate decentralised interpretations, three open-ended interviews with Sámi spectators are conducted about their experience and understanding of the short film. Thoughts and stories articulated by the interviewees are woven into the interpretation which proceeds by the categories of choreography, costumes, props and scenography. With the short film as point of departure, Sámi discourses are discussed such as landownership, tourism and appropriation, togetherness with nature and Sámi identity. Input from the interviews is combined with research insights from literature, seminars and documentaries. Both the interviews and the art historical research are presented alongside each other without competing or excluding each other. Adding Sámi interviewees’ perspectives decreases the distance between a non-Sámi art historian’s interpretation and the Sámi artwork which would have formed through merely employing research from literature, seminars and documentaries. The interpretation is enriched and comes alive by the interviewees’ elaborated experiences. The decentralised and therefore decentralising narratives come closer to the substance of the artwork as the art historian is formulating while self-reflecting. This implicitly demands the acknowledgement of historical and cultural references of art history itself and a reflected positioning of the non-Sámi art historian’s role in relation to Sámi discourses alongside researching and writing. Developing the methodology of non-Sámi art historians writing about Sámi art proofs necessary and purposive due to the growing importance of and interest in Indigenous art.

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    Authors: Hämäläinen, Riina;

    The sex/gender model used in biological archaeologies to investigate human remains and past lives is one that relies on the epistemological and ontological separation of sex and gender. Despite this separation the model ends up treating these concepts synonymously due to the taken-for-granted binary nature of sex which in a deterministic manner eventuates into an equally binary gender. This thesis develops a theoretical framework for an archaeological concept of gender that operates without the division, binarism and determinism implicit in the sex/gender model. Pursuing answers to the questions whether it is possible to approach both sex and gender in archaeology in a nonbinary way, and if so, what is an archaeologically feasible alternative, it seeks to devise a method to approach sex and gender in mortuary archaeology beyond the deterministic binary. This thesis is firmly theory-oriented and the writings of various authors within the discipline of archaeology, feminism and queer studies comprise the necessary material. The theories pertaining to the field of feminism are intersectionality and queer theory, which eschew normativity and essentialism and call for gender diversity. Respective to archaeology, the theories influencing this thesis derive from new materialisms to whom the rejection of divisions and dichotomies is characteristic. In this regard, of particular note are the writings of new materialist and feminist theorist Karen Barad. Applying her theories concerning the relational, entangled and mutually constitutive nature of matter and meaning to the topic of sex and gender is central in devising a nonbinary new materialist perspective to be used for the purpose of a more open and inclusive mortuary archaeology. This thesis reveals that the dualistic division between nature and culture has resulted in a separate conceptual development and different strategies of engagement concerning sex and gender. The reason why sex is seen as a biological fact and gender as a cultural meaning proves false when both are affected equally by nature and culture, with the body serving as a nexus-point in which these two forces converge. Applying Barad’s insight reveals that binary sex is not an inherent quality of the body, but one that is produced through a scientific biomedical apparatus. Sex and gender exist in a state of inseparability when undetermined, but when subjected to a determination process, they become mutually exclusive phenomena, thereby disrupting sex-to-gender determinism. In their separate state, both are constitutive of matter and meaning, which is why gender made determined through intersectionality can be used to study gendered understandings through the materiality of the body, exempt from binary views. Analysing a topical bioarchaeological publication concerning a female Viking warrior through the approach that does not depend on the sex binary reveals that a scientific biomedical apparatus is subject to criticism on multiple fronts. Though the case study should be credited with rejecting gender role stereotypes, it demonstrates determinism and binarism as well as homogeneity and universalism in terms of categories. Failing to imagine possibilities beyond a fixed binary also results in the exclusion of alternate ways of knowing and being. The open-ended approach proposed in this thesis not only seeks to grant these possibilities opportunities to exist, but counsels cognisance towards the exclusions apparatuses enact. Embracing speculation, it also holds ambiguity and vagueness to be meaningful qualities pertaining to gendered archaeology. Regarding the mortuary setting, binary sex determinations need not be abandoned, but they should be used alongside this nonbinary approach.

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    Authors: September, Aramis;

    The purpose of this thesis was to analyse representations of the horse in art history and examine ways in which representations of the horse could be used to posit new positive representations of power. The theoretical section explored the lineage of horse imagery in art history; this section also explored power imagery as well. The portrayal of the horse in Western art was analysed from the Renaissance onwards in order to have a firm historical understanding. From this base of understanding, the potential for new image creation was discussed. Paintings and statues were the primary focus of the thesis for its analysis. Possibilities for new and more positive images of power were explored through visuals featuring horses. The analysis suggested that because of the horse’s roots in art history as well as its powerful physical strength, status as a prey animal, and its gentle sensitivity, the horse was an image eminently suited for use in positing new and positive non-toxic images of power. Further, the analysis suggested that these new explorations stand in opposition to power images and power conceptualisations based in toxic masculinity and patriarchy. This contrast of new imagery and socially constructed expectations provided the starting point for critiquing current power imagery and moving beyond toxic imagery.

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    Theseus
    2021
    License: CC BY-ND 4.0
    Data sources: Theseus
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      Theseus
      2021
      License: CC BY-ND 4.0
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    Authors: Kang, Taize;

    Story generation is an artificial intelligence task in which a computer program is used to create literature or stories. This kind of task usually involves giving an initial scene, characters, background information and goals, and then letting the computer program automatically generate a storyline and complete the narrative of the story. Transformers are widely used and achieved state of the art for many different natural language processing tasks, including story generation. With the help of attention mechanism, transforms can overcome overfittting and achieved great results. Generative Pre-trained Transformer (GPT) series are one of the best transformers, which attract many researchers. In this thesis, transformer models are used to design and implement a machine learning method for the generation of very short stories. By introducing a commonsense knowledge base and a rule generator based on it, the models can learn the relationships between context and generate coherent narratives. By given the first sentence of the story as the input, the model can complete the story. The model is based on GPT-2 model and COINS. The dataset used is a collection of short stories. By comparing with the generated results of different models in many aspects, we proved the effectiveness of the model. In addition, the compared results are analyzed to find the potential optimization methods.

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    Authors: Suikkanen, Saku;

    In this work, the utilization of financial news alongside machine learning for predicting stock market movements is examined. The news are handled with various natural language processing methods for finding correlation between the derived attributes and stock market movements. The novelty of this work lies in the application of BNS and LDA methods as well as 2-word combinations alongside with LSTM neural network. The main point of the work is to examine the usefulness of the results achieved with the formerly mentioned methods and neural networks as well as comparing the results with market efficiency. In the research it was concluded that the models containing 2-word combinations derived with the BNS-method, produced differing results to those models, where the 2-word combinations were not used. However, the overall results followed random patterns and thus reliable results were not achieved. For achieving more reliable results, better approach could be predicting intraday stock market movements per Efficient Market hypothesis. Used datasets were possibly also too concise for the complexity of the problem. Tässä työssä tarkastellaan talousuutisten hyödyntämistä yhdessä koneoppimisen kanssa osakemarkkinoiden ennustamiseen. Uutisia käsitellään tietyillä luonnollisen kielen käsittelyn menetelmillä ja niistä pyritään löytämään korrelaatiota osakkeen liikkeiden kanssa. Työn uutuusarvona ovat BNS- ja LDA-menetelmien, sekä 2 sanan kombinaatioiden käyttö LSTM-neuroverkon yhteydessä. Työn pääasiallisena tavoitteena on tarkastella edellä mainittujen menetelmien ja neuroverkkojen yhdessä tuottamien tulosten hyödyllisyyttä ja niiden vertautumista markkinoiden tehokkuuteen. Tutkimuksessa selvisi, että mallit, jotka sisältävät BNS-menetelmällä johdettuja 2 sanan kombinaatioita, tuottavat poikkeavia tuloksia niihin malleihin verrattuna, joissa niitä ei käytetä. Tulokset kuitenkin noudattivat kaiken kaikkiaan satunnaista vaihtelua ja luotettavia tuloksia ei täten saatu. Tulosten parantamiseksi, parempi lähtökohta voisi olla päivän sisäisten vaihtelujen ennustaminen, markkinoiden tehokkuuden hypoteesin mukaisesti. Käytetyt tietoaineistot olivat myös mahdollisesti liian suppeat kompleksisuudeltaan vaativalle ongelmalle.

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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ LUTPubarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      2020
      Data sources: LUTPub