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154 Research products

  • Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage
  • 2023-2023
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Kim, Heige;

    Out of Place serves as a record for the last three years of my practice, tracing the ideas that informed my work, braiding together the strands of conflicting ideas and research on the Salton Sea, plastic waste, dust, and how we are tethered to invisible labor and wastescapes. This paper is a patchwork, a quilt of my weavings with personal narratives, drawing upon Discard studies, Asian American studies, Indigenous studies, autotheory, and artists across disciplines to resituate my Asian American identity. This paper follows the trail of waste and debris, re-routed and re-formed, expressing the entanglement of our lives with non-human beings and the environment.

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    Authors: Rovner, Melissa;

    During the American Progressive Era, discourses of progress were co-constructed with racialized ideas about habitation. Communal, matriarchal, semi-nomadic, and self-built dwellings and their racialized inhabitants were positioned as antagonists to a single-family, heteropatriarchal, Anglo-American ideal. As associated with the Arts and Crafts Movement, the Craftsman, Spanish Colonial and Mission Revival style bungalows that defined Los Angeles’ suburbs presented an illusion of self-made, simple living in connection with nature and frontier ideologies. Though purportedly democratic, the development of the suburbs involved the conversion of Indigenous lands into private property. Meanwhile, Indigenous peoples, Black migrants and ethnic Mexicans were funneled into worker housing while employed in the construction and maintenance of a domestic sphere that secured social and financial capital for beneficiaries of Whiteness. The dissertation focuses on three sites where this occurred that have since been erased in the physical landscape, as much as in the public imaginary: 1) The Pacific Electric Railway Company’s labor camps, home to Mexican workers who built and maintained Henry Huntington’s exclusive Pasadena suburbs and resorts; 2) The homes built and maintained by students of the Sherman Institute, an Indian Boarding School in Riverside, California for the vocational training of Indigenous youth; 3) The bungalows of the industrial suburbs marketed to Black and unskilled employees of the Los Angeles Investment Company, a home-building enterprise that went on to build racially restricted, residential subdivisions in southwestern Los Angeles. In each case, laborers were racially targeted and housed in overcrowded, unsanitary, and flimsily built structures that materially foretold their demise and future redevelopment. This research challenges conceptions of the “slums” familiarized by neighborhood surveys, by exposing how their production was instrumental to the construction and maintenance of the suburbs. The chapters of this dissertation devote themselves to the designed details of these hidden histories, as emerging from three distinct labor camp, domestic service, and industrial suburbs. Though historically unique in their racial, material, geographic, and social composition, when considered together, the three sites demonstrate a commitment to settling labor and race through the uneven development of the domestic sphere.

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    Authors: Kim, Gina;

    This dissertation focuses on the formation of multiethnic Pan-Asianism in modern art in Manchuria under the Japanese occupation in the first half of the twentieth century. Responding to the rapidly changing political conditions from the era of the informal empire (1906–⁠1932) to the Manchukuo period (1932–1945), artists of settler and local communities sought to transform artistic practice by bringing their colonial and native identities into the state-endorsed visual productions. Rather than viewing the art of Manchukuo as a dark valley of wartime stagnation or as a confrontation/assimilation between the colonized and the colonizer, my approach is to recover the historical moment when the notion of transnational modernity in art was shaped, contested, and reappropriated not only by state actors but by unstable, multi-dimensional social relations. I pay special attention to the state art exhibitions in Manchukuo as the last piece of Japan’s intra-imperial salon network involving colonial Korea and Taiwan, which exposed and reproduced the subjugation and dynamics of intersectional identities: race, ethnicity, genealogy, gender, and class. Case studies throughout four chapters demonstrate how the field of power in the art scene shifted from “cosmopolitan” Dalian to “ultra-modern” Changchun after the birth of Manchukuo in 1932, and how artists selectively claimed their Asiatic traditional and modern identities amid the political shift. The first chapter examines the development of metropolitan art productions in Dalian shaped by settler communities under powerful railway imperialism and local government by appropriating visual spectacles of Chinese labor and ethnic culture. The second chapter explores the deployment of the state art exhibition in Changchun and the anti-state exhibition in Fengtian, which revealed multifaceted interactions between Japanese and Chinese. The third chapter provides a case study of settler artist Kai Mihachirō (1903–1979) and his research on Manchurian folklore and folk arts in demonstrating how Manchukuo’s local characters were appropriated by Japanese settlers and the state in classifying, collecting, and curating races. In the fourth chapter, I address Manchukuo’s machine aesthetics, featured in the state art exhibitions, as an embodiment of Pan-Asian modernity and Japanese imperialism engendered by advanced technology and science, which became mobilized as wartime rhetoric.

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    Authors: Yamashita, Jeffrey;

    Becoming “Hawaiian”: World War II War Heroes and the Rise of Japanese American Power, 1941-1963 examines the most celebrated Asian American war heroes in US history—the Japanese American WWII GIs—to reveal how those soldiers from Hawai‘i became racialized and legitimated as “Hawaiian” war heroes. I introduce a concept of “Hawaiian” racialization as a process by which various racial and ethnic communities ascribed qualities and characteristics of Hawai‘i, such as exotic, friendly, and feminine, onto the non-native men while the soldiers themselves actively created an heroic “Hawaiian” identity. During WWII from their mobilization to their return home from battle, the soldiers were racialized and celebrated as “Hawaiian” war heroes in the US South, in the Japanese American incarceration camps, in liberal white spaces across the US mainland, in Hawai‘i, and internationally in the European campaign. This resulted in cementing an image of “Hawaiian” war heroes as worthy representatives of the Territory and Japanese America to both US mainland and local audiences. I show that this process supported these men’s stakes as inheritors and as future patriarchal leaders of Hawai‘i, Japanese America, and Asian America in the postwar. The heroic racialization facilitated the passage of Hawai‘i Statehood in 1959 and the successful election of two “Hawaiian” war heroes into Congress in 1963. Using extensive multi-site archival research, my historical analysis relies on racial, gendered, and sexuality theories and frameworks from ethnic studies, settler colonial studies, feminist studies, and Asian American studies. This project illustrates Asian Americans creating a celebratory American identity through their racialization as indigenous. The power of non-natives to become the “new” natives is central to US Empire, which supports foundational claims to land, home, family, and nation. My research historicizes Asian American alignment with US Empire, spotlights a power dynamic between Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders, and reveals how Japanese Americans legitimated themselves as “Hawaiians” through the vehicle of the US war hero.

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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ eScholarship - Unive...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Salā, C. Makanani;

    The first trustees of Kamehameha Schools (KS), a group of five White, pro-annexationist entrepreneurs, attempted to engineer social solutions for the territory’s problem with Native Hawaiian youth. They proposed to cure rural and urban youth perceived to have unfit minds and unhealthy bodies. The trustees, administrators, and teachers enacted a curriculum designed to transform the ways Native youth thought about themselves and the world around them; worked in the modern, capitalist economic system; and lived with their families in their own homes. This project of deracination was built on a curriculum of military discipline, the inculcation of a Protestant work ethic, and the proper performance of masculinity and femininity. Bernice Pauahi established KS during a period of tremendous change as the booming sugar plantation economy led to dispossession of Natives from their land, competition with immigrant labor, and public policy which stripped Native Hawaiian monarchs of political power. These settler colonial forces complicated constructions of ability and disability, which were ascribed unevenly on subjugated peoples. Moreover, colonialism introduced foreign diseases which decimated the Native Hawaiian population, leading to the popular perception that Natives were an unhealthy, unfit, dying people. This dissertation is an institutional history of KS, exploring its evolution from an industrial boarding school to a modern college-preparatory institution for Native Hawaiians. It uncovers the varied methods KS used to solve the “Native problem,” and create “fit” Natives who knew how to “properly” think, work, and live.

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    Authors: He-Schaefer, Yali;

    The study of split households in China and elsewhere has tended to focus on rural-urban migration. But the phenomenon of split householding, in which members of the family live separately, is also common among urban-urban migrants, despite the relatively little scholarly attention this group has received. Against this backdrop, this research is concerned with urban and educated split households in China, with a particular focus on how women in these long-distance relationships negotiate relational power in their split households. This paper draws on a combination of 30 in-depth, semi-structured interviews and discourse analysis of public socio-political rhetoric, both historical and contemporary, regarding husbands and wives from split households to shed light on the contemporary relationships between urban, educated Chinese parents and patriarchal values rooted in the Confucian family system.This research reveals that household-splitting is not only a strategy in service of a family’s economic goals, but also a site that potentially (re)shapes gendered values and norms. Split householding incidentally serves as an outlet for women to gain a sense of respite from their “wifely duties” and discover new forms of autonomy, and for men to more freely express emotions of pain and regret, challenging the convention that emotions are associated only with femininity. While such newly constructed freedoms are not a consciously engineered result, these findings support the notion that gender relations in China are at a crossroads between entrenched patriarchal ideologies and narrow spaces of alternative gender practices.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ eScholarship - Unive...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Saylor, Miranda;

    This dissertation investigates a collection of innovative and unorthodox paintings that aggrandized the role of the Virgin Mary. These works were inspired by a seventeenth-century biography of the Virgin written by the Spanish mystic Sor Mar�a de �greda (1602–1665). Sor Mar�a argued that the Madonna was Christ and God’s equal, queen of wisdom, and co-redeemer of the world—shocking claims that provoked debate in Europe and the Americas. In the Viceroyalty of New Spain, artists embraced Sor Mar�a’s dramatic valorization of Mary by creating distinctive images that elevated the Virgin’s stature, altering canonical sacred subjects including the Immaculate Conception, Annunciation, Last Supper, Flagellation, and Assumption. By examining instances of colonial painting departing from orthodoxy, this project underscores how New Spanish artists were at the forefront of iconographic developments that transformed sacred art rather than the recipients of pictorial traditions inherited from Europe. Moreover, the thesis promises to reveal the fundamental role of female authors and subjects in colonial art first by highlighting how a woman’s visions inspired these pictorial changes and second by analyzing the exceptional importance of the Madonna in Mexican Catholicism beyond the Virgin of Guadalupe.

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    Authors: Katzenbach, Katrina;

    The end of National Socialism and the Second World War created a vacuum for German cultural identity in West Germany, leading to a philosophical discourse regarding the nature and future of that identity, a discourse in which visual aesthetics played a vital part. Hoping to create and reinforce the idea of a fundamental reshaping of society, philosophers, art critics, artists, and historians gathered in Darmstadt in July of 1950 to discuss “Das Menschenbild in unserer Zeit”, “The Image of Man in Our Time”. Seemingly only focused on aesthetic formalism, the Darmstädter Gespräche posed deeper existential questions about how a future, post-National Socialist identity would be shaped and reflected in visual art. The following thesis argues that such works as Louise Rösler’s 1951 collage, Die Strasse, rather than evincing the indecision and lack of direction typically assigned to this period of West German art, show a pivotal and much needed grappling with the existential issues of the time, and form a vital part of how West Germany perceived itself and the path forward.

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    Authors: Trombley, Trent Michael;

    This project employs multiple methods to explore how shifting periods of autonomy during the Portuguese Middle Ages (c. 500-1500 AD) impacted the social and biological fabric of everyday life and post-mortem bodily integrity in religiously distinct communities. The archaeological materials from Santarém, Portugal offer an opportunity to facilitate a comparative approach, as many of the excavated cemetery sites within the municipality are a palimpsest, and contain members of distinct religious and temporal communities. This dissertation prioritizes two cemetery sites: Avenida 5 de Outubro (S.Av5Out; n = 164 burials) and Largo Cândido dos Reis (S.LCR; n = 622 burials) which contain the human skeletal remains of Islamic (c. 8th – 12th centuries, C.E.) and Christian (c. 12th – 16th centuries, C.E.) city residents. This project examines how religious identity might explain some of the variation within and between medieval communities through an investigation of both lived experience (lifeways) and death, dying, and burial treatment (deathways). Lifeways are examined through three major axes: 1) oral health and disease, 2) growth and development, and 3) cortical bone maintenance and loss. The data overall suggest minor differences between Islamic and Christian sub-samples, though Christians exhibited reduced stature, increased odds of some indicators of non-specific stress (porotic hyperostosis and periostosis), and dental pathological lesions. Deathways are similarly examined along three major axes: 1) post-hoc archaeothanatology, 2) macrotaphonomic indicators (preservation, erosion, weathering), and 3) microtaphonomy (histotaphonomy). Islamic and Christian burials were found to be highly different in terms of construction, with Islamic graves significantly narrower and shallower than their Christian counterparts. Islamic skeletons were also less represented, and significantly less preserved than their Christian counterparts, regardless of age and/or sex. The results of this dissertation are part of an emerging pattern that the Christian conquests (canonically termed “Reconquista”) may well have been drastic in their restructuring and urbanizing of the Iberian Peninsula, for both the living and the dead. By examining both lifeways and deathways, this approach and accompanying results demonstrate synthesizing both bioarchaeological assessments of livelihood and funerary taphonomic assessments of deadlihood can reveal more textured understanding of past communities and how the living and the dead become intertwined in urban spaces.

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    Authors: Sinensky, R. J.;

    The development and spread of agricultural economies fundamentally changed the scale and scope of organizational forms evident in diverse human societies worldwide. In the past, many researchers adopted simple causal models to understand relationships among domesticated plants, population pressure, mobility, the formation of population aggregates, and burgeoning inequality. Early agricultural societies across the Americas, however, were culturally and economically diverse. The papers that compose this dissertation contribute to an ongoing re-evaluation of foodways, mobility, sociopolitical change, and village formation in early agricultural societies across the Americas and the world more broadly. Drawing on theoretical frameworks and models developed in anthropology, and the social and ecological sciences, each chapter presents theoretically rich, data-driven interpretations of themes central to the transformation of early farming societies–mobility, foodways, sociopolitical change, factors influencing the formation and trajectories of early population aggregates, and the resilience of early food production systems. Site-specific analyses of paleoethnobotanical data, food processing tools, and agricultural soils provide a foundation to explore the foodways and mobility strategies of 1700-1300 BC villagers in Mesoamerica, and 1250-750 BC farmers in the Sonoran Desert. The development and widespread adoption of a shared cuisine at Paso de la Amada, one the earliest sedentary villages and ceremonial centers in Mesoamerica, helped forge collective identities amongst households with diverse histories and mobility practices. Millennial-scale reconstructions of precipitation and temperature from tree-ring chronologies, and regional demographic reconstructions informed by settlement, dendrochronological, and radiocarbon data provide insight into the timing and tempo of social change when diverse Ancestral Pueblo communities across the Colorado Plateau of the northern US Southwest adopted a shared set of social, political, culinary, and landscape practices that provided a foundation for early villages and the rise of regional systems. Comparing and contrasting factors involved in the formation of first-wave and second-wave population aggregates within specific regions of the northern US Southwest highlights that early farming societies were diverse and dynamic. In the aggregate, the papers in this dissertation underscore that the development and spread of novel food production strategies and sociopolitical arrangements in early agricultural societies was not mechanistic or strictly economic–the foodways and culinary choices of early farmers were deeply intertwined with the identities of individuals and communities more broadly.

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    Authors: Kim, Heige;

    Out of Place serves as a record for the last three years of my practice, tracing the ideas that informed my work, braiding together the strands of conflicting ideas and research on the Salton Sea, plastic waste, dust, and how we are tethered to invisible labor and wastescapes. This paper is a patchwork, a quilt of my weavings with personal narratives, drawing upon Discard studies, Asian American studies, Indigenous studies, autotheory, and artists across disciplines to resituate my Asian American identity. This paper follows the trail of waste and debris, re-routed and re-formed, expressing the entanglement of our lives with non-human beings and the environment.

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    Authors: Rovner, Melissa;

    During the American Progressive Era, discourses of progress were co-constructed with racialized ideas about habitation. Communal, matriarchal, semi-nomadic, and self-built dwellings and their racialized inhabitants were positioned as antagonists to a single-family, heteropatriarchal, Anglo-American ideal. As associated with the Arts and Crafts Movement, the Craftsman, Spanish Colonial and Mission Revival style bungalows that defined Los Angeles’ suburbs presented an illusion of self-made, simple living in connection with nature and frontier ideologies. Though purportedly democratic, the development of the suburbs involved the conversion of Indigenous lands into private property. Meanwhile, Indigenous peoples, Black migrants and ethnic Mexicans were funneled into worker housing while employed in the construction and maintenance of a domestic sphere that secured social and financial capital for beneficiaries of Whiteness. The dissertation focuses on three sites where this occurred that have since been erased in the physical landscape, as much as in the public imaginary: 1) The Pacific Electric Railway Company’s labor camps, home to Mexican workers who built and maintained Henry Huntington’s exclusive Pasadena suburbs and resorts; 2) The homes built and maintained by students of the Sherman Institute, an Indian Boarding School in Riverside, California for the vocational training of Indigenous youth; 3) The bungalows of the industrial suburbs marketed to Black and unskilled employees of the Los Angeles Investment Company, a home-building enterprise that went on to build racially restricted, residential subdivisions in southwestern Los Angeles. In each case, laborers were racially targeted and housed in overcrowded, unsanitary, and flimsily built structures that materially foretold their demise and future redevelopment. This research challenges conceptions of the “slums” familiarized by neighborhood surveys, by exposing how their production was instrumental to the construction and maintenance of the suburbs. The chapters of this dissertation devote themselves to the designed details of these hidden histories, as emerging from three distinct labor camp, domestic service, and industrial suburbs. Though historically unique in their racial, material, geographic, and social composition, when considered together, the three sites demonstrate a commitment to settling labor and race through the uneven development of the domestic sphere.

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    Authors: Kim, Gina;

    This dissertation focuses on the formation of multiethnic Pan-Asianism in modern art in Manchuria under the Japanese occupation in the first half of the twentieth century. Responding to the rapidly changing political conditions from the era of the informal empire (1906–⁠1932) to the Manchukuo period (1932–1945), artists of settler and local communities sought to transform artistic practice by bringing their colonial and native identities into the state-endorsed visual productions. Rather than viewing the art of Manchukuo as a dark valley of wartime stagnation or as a confrontation/assimilation between the colonized and the colonizer, my approach is to recover the historical moment when the notion of transnational modernity in art was shaped, contested, and reappropriated not only by state actors but by unstable, multi-dimensional social relations. I pay special attention to the state art exhibitions in Manchukuo as the last piece of Japan’s intra-imperial salon network involving colonial Korea and Taiwan, which exposed and reproduced the subjugation and dynamics of intersectional identities: race, ethnicity, genealogy, gender, and class. Case studies throughout four chapters demonstrate how the field of power in the art scene shifted from “cosmopolitan” Dalian to “ultra-modern” Changchun after the birth of Manchukuo in 1932, and how artists selectively claimed their Asiatic traditional and modern identities amid the political shift. The first chapter examines the development of metropolitan art productions in Dalian shaped by settler communities under powerful railway imperialism and local government by appropriating visual spectacles of Chinese labor and ethnic culture. The second chapter explores the deployment of the state art exhibition in Changchun and the anti-state exhibition in Fengtian, which revealed multifaceted interactions between Japanese and Chinese. The third chapter provides a case study of settler artist Kai Mihachirō (1903–1979) and his research on Manchurian folklore and folk arts in demonstrating how Manchukuo’s local characters were appropriated by Japanese settlers and the state in classifying, collecting, and curating races. In the fourth chapter, I address Manchukuo’s machine aesthetics, featured in the state art exhibitions, as an embodiment of Pan-Asian modernity and Japanese imperialism engendered by advanced technology and science, which became mobilized as wartime rhetoric.

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    Authors: Yamashita, Jeffrey;

    Becoming “Hawaiian”: World War II War Heroes and the Rise of Japanese American Power, 1941-1963 examines the most celebrated Asian American war heroes in US history—the Japanese American WWII GIs—to reveal how those soldiers from Hawai‘i became racialized and legitimated as “Hawaiian” war heroes. I introduce a concept of “Hawaiian” racialization as a process by which various racial and ethnic communities ascribed qualities and characteristics of Hawai‘i, such as exotic, friendly, and feminine, onto the non-native men while the soldiers themselves actively created an heroic “Hawaiian” identity. During WWII from their mobilization to their return home from battle, the soldiers were racialized and celebrated as “Hawaiian” war heroes in the US South, in the Japanese American incarceration camps, in liberal white spaces across the US mainland, in Hawai‘i, and internationally in the European campaign. This resulted in cementing an image of “Hawaiian” war heroes as worthy representatives of the Territory and Japanese America to both US mainland and local audiences. I show that this process supported these men’s stakes as inheritors and as future patriarchal leaders of Hawai‘i, Japanese America, and Asian America in the postwar. The heroic racialization facilitated the passage of Hawai‘i Statehood in 1959 and the successful election of two “Hawaiian” war heroes into Congress in 1963. Using extensive multi-site archival research, my historical analysis relies on racial, gendered, and sexuality theories and frameworks from ethnic studies, settler colonial studies, feminist studies, and Asian American studies. This project illustrates Asian Americans creating a celebratory American identity through their racialization as indigenous. The power of non-natives to become the “new” natives is central to US Empire, which supports foundational claims to land, home, family, and nation. My research historicizes Asian American alignment with US Empire, spotlights a power dynamic between Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders, and reveals how Japanese Americans legitimated themselves as “Hawaiians” through the vehicle of the US war hero.

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    Authors: Salā, C. Makanani;

    The first trustees of Kamehameha Schools (KS), a group of five White, pro-annexationist entrepreneurs, attempted to engineer social solutions for the territory’s problem with Native Hawaiian youth. They proposed to cure rural and urban youth perceived to have unfit minds and unhealthy bodies. The trustees, administrators, and teachers enacted a curriculum designed to transform the ways Native youth thought about themselves and the world around them; worked in the modern, capitalist economic system; and lived with their families in their own homes. This project of deracination was built on a curriculum of military discipline, the inculcation of a Protestant work ethic, and the proper performance of masculinity and femininity. Bernice Pauahi established KS during a period of tremendous change as the booming sugar plantation economy led to dispossession of Natives from their land, competition with immigrant labor, and public policy which stripped Native Hawaiian monarchs of political power. These settler colonial forces complicated constructions of ability and disability, which were ascribed unevenly on subjugated peoples. Moreover, colonialism introduced foreign diseases which decimated the Native Hawaiian population, leading to the popular perception that Natives were an unhealthy, unfit, dying people. This dissertation is an institutional history of KS, exploring its evolution from an industrial boarding school to a modern college-preparatory institution for Native Hawaiians. It uncovers the varied methods KS used to solve the “Native problem,” and create “fit” Natives who knew how to “properly” think, work, and live.

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    Authors: He-Schaefer, Yali;

    The study of split households in China and elsewhere has tended to focus on rural-urban migration. But the phenomenon of split householding, in which members of the family live separately, is also common among urban-urban migrants, despite the relatively little scholarly attention this group has received. Against this backdrop, this research is concerned with urban and educated split households in China, with a particular focus on how women in these long-distance relationships negotiate relational power in their split households. This paper draws on a combination of 30 in-depth, semi-structured interviews and discourse analysis of public socio-political rhetoric, both historical and contemporary, regarding husbands and wives from split households to shed light on the contemporary relationships between urban, educated Chinese parents and patriarchal values rooted in the Confucian family system.This research reveals that household-splitting is not only a strategy in service of a family’s economic goals, but also a site that potentially (re)shapes gendered values and norms. Split householding incidentally serves as an outlet for women to gain a sense of respite from their “wifely duties” and discover new forms of autonomy, and for men to more freely express emotions of pain and regret, challenging the convention that emotions are associated only with femininity. While such newly constructed freedoms are not a consciously engineered result, these findings support the notion that gender relations in China are at a crossroads between entrenched patriarchal ideologies and narrow spaces of alternative gender practices.

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    Authors: Saylor, Miranda;

    This dissertation investigates a collection of innovative and unorthodox paintings that aggrandized the role of the Virgin Mary. These works were inspired by a seventeenth-century biography of the Virgin written by the Spanish mystic Sor Mar�a de �greda (1602–1665). Sor Mar�a argued that the Madonna was Christ and God’s equal, queen of wisdom, and co-redeemer of the world—shocking claims that provoked debate in Europe and the Americas. In the Viceroyalty of New Spain, artists embraced Sor Mar�a’s dramatic valorization of Mary by creating distinctive images that elevated the Virgin’s stature, altering canonical sacred subjects including the Immaculate Conception, Annunciation, Last Supper, Flagellation, and Assumption. By examining instances of colonial painting departing from orthodoxy, this project underscores how New Spanish artists were at the forefront of iconographic developments that transformed sacred art rather than the recipients of pictorial traditions inherited from Europe. Moreover, the thesis promises to reveal the fundamental role of female authors and subjects in colonial art first by highlighting how a woman’s visions inspired these pictorial changes and second by analyzing the exceptional importance of the Madonna in Mexican Catholicism beyond the Virgin of Guadalupe.

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    Authors: Katzenbach, Katrina;

    The end of National Socialism and the Second World War created a vacuum for German cultural identity in West Germany, leading to a philosophical discourse regarding the nature and future of that identity, a discourse in which visual aesthetics played a vital part. Hoping to create and reinforce the idea of a fundamental reshaping of society, philosophers, art critics, artists, and historians gathered in Darmstadt in July of 1950 to discuss “Das Menschenbild in unserer Zeit”, “The Image of Man in Our Time”. Seemingly only focused on aesthetic formalism, the Darmstädter Gespräche posed deeper existential questions about how a future, post-National Socialist identity would be shaped and reflected in visual art. The following thesis argues that such works as Louise Rösler’s 1951 collage, Die Strasse, rather than evincing the indecision and lack of direction typically assigned to this period of West German art, show a pivotal and much needed grappling with the existential issues of the time, and form a vital part of how West Germany perceived itself and the path forward.

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    Authors: Trombley, Trent Michael;

    This project employs multiple methods to explore how shifting periods of autonomy during the Portuguese Middle Ages (c. 500-1500 AD) impacted the social and biological fabric of everyday life and post-mortem bodily integrity in religiously distinct communities. The archaeological materials from Santarém, Portugal offer an opportunity to facilitate a comparative approach, as many of the excavated cemetery sites within the municipality are a palimpsest, and contain members of distinct religious and temporal communities. This dissertation prioritizes two cemetery sites: Avenida 5 de Outubro (S.Av5Out; n = 164 burials) and Largo Cândido dos Reis (S.LCR; n = 622 burials) which contain the human skeletal remains of Islamic (c. 8th – 12th centuries, C.E.) and Christian (c. 12th – 16th centuries, C.E.) city residents. This project examines how religious identity might explain some of the variation within and between medieval communities through an investigation of both lived experience (lifeways) and death, dying, and burial treatment (deathways). Lifeways are examined through three major axes: 1) oral health and disease, 2) growth and development, and 3) cortical bone maintenance and loss. The data overall suggest minor differences between Islamic and Christian sub-samples, though Christians exhibited reduced stature, increased odds of some indicators of non-specific stress (porotic hyperostosis and periostosis), and dental pathological lesions. Deathways are similarly examined along three major axes: 1) post-hoc archaeothanatology, 2) macrotaphonomic indicators (preservation, erosion, weathering), and 3) microtaphonomy (histotaphonomy). Islamic and Christian burials were found to be highly different in terms of construction, with Islamic graves significantly narrower and shallower than their Christian counterparts. Islamic skeletons were also less represented, and significantly less preserved than their Christian counterparts, regardless of age and/or sex. The results of this dissertation are part of an emerging pattern that the Christian conquests (canonically termed “Reconquista”) may well have been drastic in their restructuring and urbanizing of the Iberian Peninsula, for both the living and the dead. By examining both lifeways and deathways, this approach and accompanying results demonstrate synthesizing both bioarchaeological assessments of livelihood and funerary taphonomic assessments of deadlihood can reveal more textured understanding of past communities and how the living and the dead become intertwined in urban spaces.

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    Authors: Sinensky, R. J.;

    The development and spread of agricultural economies fundamentally changed the scale and scope of organizational forms evident in diverse human societies worldwide. In the past, many researchers adopted simple causal models to understand relationships among domesticated plants, population pressure, mobility, the formation of population aggregates, and burgeoning inequality. Early agricultural societies across the Americas, however, were culturally and economically diverse. The papers that compose this dissertation contribute to an ongoing re-evaluation of foodways, mobility, sociopolitical change, and village formation in early agricultural societies across the Americas and the world more broadly. Drawing on theoretical frameworks and models developed in anthropology, and the social and ecological sciences, each chapter presents theoretically rich, data-driven interpretations of themes central to the transformation of early farming societies–mobility, foodways, sociopolitical change, factors influencing the formation and trajectories of early population aggregates, and the resilience of early food production systems. Site-specific analyses of paleoethnobotanical data, food processing tools, and agricultural soils provide a foundation to explore the foodways and mobility strategies of 1700-1300 BC villagers in Mesoamerica, and 1250-750 BC farmers in the Sonoran Desert. The development and widespread adoption of a shared cuisine at Paso de la Amada, one the earliest sedentary villages and ceremonial centers in Mesoamerica, helped forge collective identities amongst households with diverse histories and mobility practices. Millennial-scale reconstructions of precipitation and temperature from tree-ring chronologies, and regional demographic reconstructions informed by settlement, dendrochronological, and radiocarbon data provide insight into the timing and tempo of social change when diverse Ancestral Pueblo communities across the Colorado Plateau of the northern US Southwest adopted a shared set of social, political, culinary, and landscape practices that provided a foundation for early villages and the rise of regional systems. Comparing and contrasting factors involved in the formation of first-wave and second-wave population aggregates within specific regions of the northern US Southwest highlights that early farming societies were diverse and dynamic. In the aggregate, the papers in this dissertation underscore that the development and spread of novel food production strategies and sociopolitical arrangements in early agricultural societies was not mechanistic or strictly economic–the foodways and culinary choices of early farmers were deeply intertwined with the identities of individuals and communities more broadly.

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