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  • Authors: Sahar, F. H. (Fadli); Setiartiti, L. (Lilies);

    This research aims at analyzing Factors that affect the society to not use coins as a transaction medium in Pulau Morotai Regency. The subjects of this research consist of people who reside in Pulau Morotai. The variables in this research consist of the dependent variable (coins) and independent variables (inflation, society perception, and the efficiency of coins). The samples consist of 100 respondents selected using simple random sampling. The analysis method uses multiple linear regression. Based on the analysis, it shows that inflation, society's perception, and coins efficiency affect the use of coins. Partially, inflation and society perception affect the use of coins, while coins efficiency does not significantly affect the use of coins.

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  • Authors: Rouw, R. F. (Randy);

    Tujuan penulisan ini adalah membuktikan bahwa kepercayaan Rahab terwujud melalui setiap tindakan Rahab dalam Yosua 2:1-24. Penulis surat Ibrani dan Yakobus mengungkapkan bahwa setiap tindakan Rahab menunjukkan kepercayaannya kepada Allah, namun dalam narasi Yosua 2 tidak ada keterangan yang jelas apakah benar setiap tindakan Rahab mewujudkan kepercayaannya kepada Allah bangsa Israel. Sebagai kesimpulan, Rahab memang memiliki latar belakang non-Israel, namun hal itu tidak menutup anugerah keselamatan untuk dinikmatinya. Rahab membuktikan kesungguhannya untuk percaya dan berserah kepada Allah bangsa Israel melalui setiap tindakannya demi menolong umat Allah. Dalam meneliti narasi Yosua 2:1-24, penulis menggunakan prinsip-prinsip umum dalam hermeneutik. Selain itu, penulis juga meneliti narasi Yosua 2 dengan menggunakan metode penafsiran narasi terkait genre dari Yosua 2:1-24 adalah narasi. The purpose of this writing is to prove that Rahab's belief is manifested through every act of Rahab in Joshua 2: 1-24. The writers of Hebrews and James reveal that every act of Rahab shows her belief in God, but in Joshua's narrative there is no clear explanation of whether it is true that every act of Rahab embodies her belief in the God of Israel. Rahab does have a non-Israelite background, but that fact does not exclude her from the enjoyment of the grace of salvation. Rahab proves her sincerity to believe and surrender to the God of Israel through her every action to help the people of God.

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  • Authors: HERA KUSTILAWATI;

    Berdasarkan observasi yang dilakukan pada siswa kelas V SDN Babatan 1 Surabaya, ditemukan permasalahan dalam pembelajaran seni rupa khususnya materi menggambar bentuk. Siswa mengalami kesulitan dalam menggambar bentuk serta penggunaan teknik yang tidak sesuai sehingga hasil belajar siswa menjadi dibawah standar ketuntatasan minimal. Berkaitan dengan masalah tersebut maka penelitian ini memperkenalkan teknik perspektif untuk meningkatkan hasil belajar menggambar bentuk geometris. Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan penelitian tindakan kelas (PTK), yang dilaksanakan dalam dua siklus. Setiap siklus terdiri dari empat tahap yaitu perencanaan, pelaksanaan, pengamatan, dan refleksi. Teknik pengumpulan data yang digunakan yaitu dengan pengamatan, dan tes. Data yang telah terkumpul dianalisis dengan menggunakan teknik analisis kuantitatif. Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan penelitian deskriptif kuantitatif. Subjek dalam penelitian ini adalah siswa kelas V SDN Babatan 1 Surabaya yang berjumlah 27 siswa. Teknik pengumpulan data diperoleh dengan menggunakan tes dan observasi. Aktivitas guru meningkat dari siklus I 74,1% dan siklus II 87,4%. Aktivitas siswa selama proses pembelajaran pada siklus I 73,3% dan siklus II 87,7%. Data hasil belajar siswa siklus I 66,6%, dan siklus II 88,8%. Dari hasil data di atas dapat disimpulkan bahwa pengenalan teknik perspektif dapat meningkatkan hasil belajar menggambar bentuk pada siswa kelas V pada mata pelajaran seni rupa di SDN Babatan 1 Surabaya. Kata kunci: Menggambar bentuk, Teknik Perspektif, Seni Rupa. Absrtact: Based on observations made at the fifth grade students of SDN Babatan 1 Surabaya, found problems in learning art especially drawing material form. Students having difficulty in drawing form and the use of inappropriate techniques so that student learning outcomes to be below the standard minimum completeness. In connection with the issue, this study introduces perspective techniques to improve learning outcomes to draw geometric shapes. This study uses the design of classroom action research (CAR), which is conducted in two cycles. Each cycle consists of four stages: planning, implementation, observation, and reflection. Data collection techniques used were the observations, and tests. Collected data were analyzed using quantitative analysis techniques. This study uses descriptive quantitative research design. Subjects in this study were fifth grade students of SDN Swipe 1 Surabaya consisting of 27 students. Techniques of data collection obtained by using tests and observation. Teacher activity increased 74.1% from the first cycle and second cycle of 87.4%. Activities of students during the learning process in the first cycle and second cycle 73.3% 87.7%. Student learning outcomes data first cycle 66.6%, and 88.8% the second cycle. From the results of the above data it can be concluded that the introduction of techniques to improve learning outcomes perspective drawing shapes in class V at art subjects in SDN Babatan 1 Surabaya.

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  • Authors: Abiriyi, N. (Nathan); Kwasu, K. J. (Katung);

    The present research article examines the myriad ways that the Dikan ritual performance among the Bajju people of Kaduna State, Northern West, Nigeria, is celebrated. The Dikan ritual performance in its current enactment can be gleamed as a cultural space for the remembrance of the essence and cultural identity of the Bajju tribe, in a world under the threat of rapid globalization, socio-cultural, and historical changes; which is made more prevalent by the exerting force of technology, popular culture, and postmodern elements demonstrated through various social media platforms and news outlets. The study begins by highlighting the background of Dikan ritual performance in Kajju from the precolonial to postcolonial Northern Nigeria. It espouses on the nature and structure of this ritual and its relevance to the Bajju people. It then makes recommendations on ways of sustaining this practice, to save it from extinction.

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  • Authors: Mishra, R. S. (R);

    चंदनखेड़ा ग्राम इ.स. 1619 से इ.स. 1704 तक चांदागड के गोंडराजाओं के शासनकाल मे प्रसिद्ध था। यह परगना वरोरा से 28 किलोमीटर पर स्थित है। वर्तमान में चंदनखेड़ा ग्राम भद्रावती तहसील से 24 किलोमीटर पर है। मान्यता प्राप्त भारतीय नक्शे में चंदनखेड़ा यह ग्राम वर्तमान मे मौजूद है और समुद्र तट से 207 मीटर ऊंचाई पर है। इ.स. 1619 से इ.स. 1704 के समय चांदागड के गोंडराजा बिरशहा आत्राम इनके चचेरे भाई गोविंदशहा इन्हें चंदनखेड़ा ग्राम एवं आसपास के 30-40 मैल परीघ क्षेत्र के भूमि पर जमींदार के तौर पर नियुक्त किया गया था। गोंड राजा बिरशहा इनके अपने दामाद के साथ पारिवारिक समस्याओं के कारण युद्ध हुआ। उनके जमाई देवगढ़ के राजपुत्र दुर्गपाल शाह थे। इन्हीं के साथ गोंड राजा बिरशहा का युद्ध हुआ इसमे जमाई दुर्गपाल शाह मारे गए। उनका सर काट कर राजा बिरशहा ने मां काली कंकाली देवी को दिए वचन के अनुसार अर्पित किया। उसी की प्रतिकृति पत्थर से बनाकर मंदिर के ऊपर स्थापित की गई है। इसी वजह से देवगढ़ के राजा बख्त बुलंद शाह ने अपने शूरवीर सरदार हीरामन को गुप्तचर बनाकर चांदागढ़ मे राजा बिरशहा का खून करने भेजा। उसके बाद इ.स. 1704 से अंग्रेजों का राज्य चांदागढ़ से समाप्त होने तक इन दोनों घरानों में मनस्वी दुश्मनी चलती रही।

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  • Authors: Odiljonovich, M. A. (Mahmudov);

    The article provides information about the events of the historical past, works dedicated to historical figures living in the recent or distant past, portrait compositions, works of Uzbek portrait painters. You can find information about some of the works from the historical past in world literature.

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  • Authors: Ahmad, T. (Taufik);

    Pergeseran politik dari rezim Orde Baru ke era reformasi pada dasarnya telah memberi ruang gerak lebih luas kepada eks tapol untuk mereproduksi memori trauma dalam bentuk formal. Jika era Order Baru produksi memori eks tapol hanya dalam lingkunga keluarga, maka di era reformasi mereka mentransmisikan memori ke post-memori dengan cara lebih terbuka. Artikel ini mencoba untuk melihat produksi dan reproduksi memori dengan mengambil kasus dua keluarga eks tahanan politik (Tapol) PKI di Sulawesi Selatan. Dengan menggunakan metodologi sejarah dan menekankan pada proses, studi ini membuktikan bahwa produksi memori tapol diekspresikan melalui catatan-catatan harian, surat-surat, dan sketsa. Memori tersebut kemudian ditransmisikan ke generasi post-memori melalui cerita-cerita keluarga, gambar dan prilaku seharihari. Selanjutnya, generasi post-memori mereproduksi dan menerjemahkan ulang warisan memori tersebut di tengah Perubahan-Perubahan sosial politik. Konteks ini mengindikasikan bahwa pada masa Orde Baru, memori eks tapol hanya menjadi bagian dari domestic memory, kemudian berubah menjadi public memory yang diartikulasikan secara terbuka di era reformasi. Akan tetapi, terdapat cara-cara yang berbeda setiap tapol dalam memproduksi dan mentransmisikan memorinya. Latar belakang eks tapol; Pendidikan, kehidupan keluarga, dan aktivitas di masa lalu, memberi pengaruh signifikan terhadap pilihan-pilihan dalam menentukan model transmisi memori.

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  • Authors: Akkase Teng, Muhammad Bahar;

    Elaborated. The study of the orientalism is very complex (easterm affairs, particularly Islam)which is brought about by the motifs such as religious, scientific, economical, andpolitical matters.The terms orientalists and orientalism appeared in Andalusia (Spain) in the seventhcentury (Hijriah/ Islamic calender) or fourteenth century (AD) . They gnawed Islam byimmersing the moslems into the misieading school of thoughts primarily the younggeneration by turning them away from their religion with the teachings ofmaterialism, and secularism.The orientalism development phases are : (1) the missionary and anti Islamstarted in the sixteenth century (AD) . (2) the studies and distribes were in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, (3) studies and colonialisms were in the nineteenth century andthe first quarter of the tweentieth century (AD). (4) the study and politics were in thesecond half of the nineteenth century (AD). The main objective of the orientalisms is todisclose and reveal the symbolic significances of the profound Islamic Culturalexpressions, in which the Arabic language represents the primary medium.

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  • Authors: Anasbekovnaqizi, J. M. (Jo’rayeva); Madaminovich, X. K. (Xoliqov);

    This article describes the development of civilization in the world and the culture of the oven, the center of the religion of islam says the city of Bukhara Sharif, recognised the practical analysis of the historical development of the The Curse of Zarda'z will be covered.

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  • Authors: Suharto, S. (Suharto);

    Banten after the Second Dutch Military Aggression. The aim of this researh is to expose the phenomenon in Banten Residency after the Dutch occupied the region. There are four steps used in this research, i.e. collecting historical sources (heuristic), critique, interpretation and historiography (writing the history). This research result that the two sides of the civil government did not work well. Not long after Banten was occupied by the Dutch, several prominent Bantenese figures, especially those who were pro-Dutch discussed the future status of the region. The Information Department of Banten Residency who was pro-Dutch offered several alternatives for the people of Banten to choose. The alternatives were: (1) Banten became the 13th province of the Dutch Kingdom; (2) Banten joined the United States of Indonesia as a state or got a special status; (3) Banten indirectly joined the United States of Indonesia. First this region joined the state of Pasundan or the Federal District of Jakarta. If Banten joined the state of Pasundan, there are two options, firstly this district as a residency or secondly, as a state or an exclusive territory. Those alternatives were presented to the People Representative Board of Banten for the people to choose and to appoint a delegation who would present their choice to the Round Table Conference in the Hague (Den Haag). But the body did not follow the aspiration of the representative board. This body just had to wait for the conference decision. Based on the conference decision, Banten remained as a part of the Republic of Indonesia which was a state in the United States of Indonesia.

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426 Research products
  • Authors: Sahar, F. H. (Fadli); Setiartiti, L. (Lilies);

    This research aims at analyzing Factors that affect the society to not use coins as a transaction medium in Pulau Morotai Regency. The subjects of this research consist of people who reside in Pulau Morotai. The variables in this research consist of the dependent variable (coins) and independent variables (inflation, society perception, and the efficiency of coins). The samples consist of 100 respondents selected using simple random sampling. The analysis method uses multiple linear regression. Based on the analysis, it shows that inflation, society's perception, and coins efficiency affect the use of coins. Partially, inflation and society perception affect the use of coins, while coins efficiency does not significantly affect the use of coins.

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  • Authors: Rouw, R. F. (Randy);

    Tujuan penulisan ini adalah membuktikan bahwa kepercayaan Rahab terwujud melalui setiap tindakan Rahab dalam Yosua 2:1-24. Penulis surat Ibrani dan Yakobus mengungkapkan bahwa setiap tindakan Rahab menunjukkan kepercayaannya kepada Allah, namun dalam narasi Yosua 2 tidak ada keterangan yang jelas apakah benar setiap tindakan Rahab mewujudkan kepercayaannya kepada Allah bangsa Israel. Sebagai kesimpulan, Rahab memang memiliki latar belakang non-Israel, namun hal itu tidak menutup anugerah keselamatan untuk dinikmatinya. Rahab membuktikan kesungguhannya untuk percaya dan berserah kepada Allah bangsa Israel melalui setiap tindakannya demi menolong umat Allah. Dalam meneliti narasi Yosua 2:1-24, penulis menggunakan prinsip-prinsip umum dalam hermeneutik. Selain itu, penulis juga meneliti narasi Yosua 2 dengan menggunakan metode penafsiran narasi terkait genre dari Yosua 2:1-24 adalah narasi. The purpose of this writing is to prove that Rahab's belief is manifested through every act of Rahab in Joshua 2: 1-24. The writers of Hebrews and James reveal that every act of Rahab shows her belief in God, but in Joshua's narrative there is no clear explanation of whether it is true that every act of Rahab embodies her belief in the God of Israel. Rahab does have a non-Israelite background, but that fact does not exclude her from the enjoyment of the grace of salvation. Rahab proves her sincerity to believe and surrender to the God of Israel through her every action to help the people of God.

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  • Authors: HERA KUSTILAWATI;

    Berdasarkan observasi yang dilakukan pada siswa kelas V SDN Babatan 1 Surabaya, ditemukan permasalahan dalam pembelajaran seni rupa khususnya materi menggambar bentuk. Siswa mengalami kesulitan dalam menggambar bentuk serta penggunaan teknik yang tidak sesuai sehingga hasil belajar siswa menjadi dibawah standar ketuntatasan minimal. Berkaitan dengan masalah tersebut maka penelitian ini memperkenalkan teknik perspektif untuk meningkatkan hasil belajar menggambar bentuk geometris. Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan penelitian tindakan kelas (PTK), yang dilaksanakan dalam dua siklus. Setiap siklus terdiri dari empat tahap yaitu perencanaan, pelaksanaan, pengamatan, dan refleksi. Teknik pengumpulan data yang digunakan yaitu dengan pengamatan, dan tes. Data yang telah terkumpul dianalisis dengan menggunakan teknik analisis kuantitatif. Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan penelitian deskriptif kuantitatif. Subjek dalam penelitian ini adalah siswa kelas V SDN Babatan 1 Surabaya yang berjumlah 27 siswa. Teknik pengumpulan data diperoleh dengan menggunakan tes dan observasi. Aktivitas guru meningkat dari siklus I 74,1% dan siklus II 87,4%. Aktivitas siswa selama proses pembelajaran pada siklus I 73,3% dan siklus II 87,7%. Data hasil belajar siswa siklus I 66,6%, dan siklus II 88,8%. Dari hasil data di atas dapat disimpulkan bahwa pengenalan teknik perspektif dapat meningkatkan hasil belajar menggambar bentuk pada siswa kelas V pada mata pelajaran seni rupa di SDN Babatan 1 Surabaya. Kata kunci: Menggambar bentuk, Teknik Perspektif, Seni Rupa. Absrtact: Based on observations made at the fifth grade students of SDN Babatan 1 Surabaya, found problems in learning art especially drawing material form. Students having difficulty in drawing form and the use of inappropriate techniques so that student learning outcomes to be below the standard minimum completeness. In connection with the issue, this study introduces perspective techniques to improve learning outcomes to draw geometric shapes. This study uses the design of classroom action research (CAR), which is conducted in two cycles. Each cycle consists of four stages: planning, implementation, observation, and reflection. Data collection techniques used were the observations, and tests. Collected data were analyzed using quantitative analysis techniques. This study uses descriptive quantitative research design. Subjects in this study were fifth grade students of SDN Swipe 1 Surabaya consisting of 27 students. Techniques of data collection obtained by using tests and observation. Teacher activity increased 74.1% from the first cycle and second cycle of 87.4%. Activities of students during the learning process in the first cycle and second cycle 73.3% 87.7%. Student learning outcomes data first cycle 66.6%, and 88.8% the second cycle. From the results of the above data it can be concluded that the introduction of techniques to improve learning outcomes perspective drawing shapes in class V at art subjects in SDN Babatan 1 Surabaya.

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  • Authors: Abiriyi, N. (Nathan); Kwasu, K. J. (Katung);

    The present research article examines the myriad ways that the Dikan ritual performance among the Bajju people of Kaduna State, Northern West, Nigeria, is celebrated. The Dikan ritual performance in its current enactment can be gleamed as a cultural space for the remembrance of the essence and cultural identity of the Bajju tribe, in a world under the threat of rapid globalization, socio-cultural, and historical changes; which is made more prevalent by the exerting force of technology, popular culture, and postmodern elements demonstrated through various social media platforms and news outlets. The study begins by highlighting the background of Dikan ritual performance in Kajju from the precolonial to postcolonial Northern Nigeria. It espouses on the nature and structure of this ritual and its relevance to the Bajju people. It then makes recommendations on ways of sustaining this practice, to save it from extinction.

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  • Authors: Mishra, R. S. (R);

    चंदनखेड़ा ग्राम इ.स. 1619 से इ.स. 1704 तक चांदागड के गोंडराजाओं के शासनकाल मे प्रसिद्ध था। यह परगना वरोरा से 28 किलोमीटर पर स्थित है। वर्तमान में चंदनखेड़ा ग्राम भद्रावती तहसील से 24 किलोमीटर पर है। मान्यता प्राप्त भारतीय नक्शे में चंदनखेड़ा यह ग्राम वर्तमान मे मौजूद है और समुद्र तट से 207 मीटर ऊंचाई पर है। इ.स. 1619 से इ.स. 1704 के समय चांदागड के गोंडराजा बिरशहा आत्राम इनके चचेरे भाई गोविंदशहा इन्हें चंदनखेड़ा ग्राम एवं आसपास के 30-40 मैल परीघ क्षेत्र के भूमि पर जमींदार के तौर पर नियुक्त किया गया था। गोंड राजा बिरशहा इनके अपने दामाद के साथ पारिवारिक समस्याओं के कारण युद्ध हुआ। उनके जमाई देवगढ़ के राजपुत्र दुर्गपाल शाह थे। इन्हीं के साथ गोंड राजा बिरशहा का युद्ध हुआ इसमे जमाई दुर्गपाल शाह मारे गए। उनका सर काट कर राजा बिरशहा ने मां काली कंकाली देवी को दिए वचन के अनुसार अर्पित किया। उसी की प्रतिकृति पत्थर से बनाकर मंदिर के ऊपर स्थापित की गई है। इसी वजह से देवगढ़ के राजा बख्त बुलंद शाह ने अपने शूरवीर सरदार हीरामन को गुप्तचर बनाकर चांदागढ़ मे राजा बिरशहा का खून करने भेजा। उसके बाद इ.स. 1704 से अंग्रेजों का राज्य चांदागढ़ से समाप्त होने तक इन दोनों घरानों में मनस्वी दुश्मनी चलती रही।

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  • Authors: Odiljonovich, M. A. (Mahmudov);

    The article provides information about the events of the historical past, works dedicated to historical figures living in the recent or distant past, portrait compositions, works of Uzbek portrait painters. You can find information about some of the works from the historical past in world literature.

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  • Authors: Ahmad, T. (Taufik);

    Pergeseran politik dari rezim Orde Baru ke era reformasi pada dasarnya telah memberi ruang gerak lebih luas kepada eks tapol untuk mereproduksi memori trauma dalam bentuk formal. Jika era Order Baru produksi memori eks tapol hanya dalam lingkunga keluarga, maka di era reformasi mereka mentransmisikan memori ke post-memori dengan cara lebih terbuka. Artikel ini mencoba untuk melihat produksi dan reproduksi memori dengan mengambil kasus dua keluarga eks tahanan politik (Tapol) PKI di Sulawesi Selatan. Dengan menggunakan metodologi sejarah dan menekankan pada proses, studi ini membuktikan bahwa produksi memori tapol diekspresikan melalui catatan-catatan harian, surat-surat, dan sketsa. Memori tersebut kemudian ditransmisikan ke generasi post-memori melalui cerita-cerita keluarga, gambar dan prilaku seharihari. Selanjutnya, generasi post-memori mereproduksi dan menerjemahkan ulang warisan memori tersebut di tengah Perubahan-Perubahan sosial politik. Konteks ini mengindikasikan bahwa pada masa Orde Baru, memori eks tapol hanya menjadi bagian dari domestic memory, kemudian berubah menjadi public memory yang diartikulasikan secara terbuka di era reformasi. Akan tetapi, terdapat cara-cara yang berbeda setiap tapol dalam memproduksi dan mentransmisikan memorinya. Latar belakang eks tapol; Pendidikan, kehidupan keluarga, dan aktivitas di masa lalu, memberi pengaruh signifikan terhadap pilihan-pilihan dalam menentukan model transmisi memori.

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  • Authors: Akkase Teng, Muhammad Bahar;

    Elaborated. The study of the orientalism is very complex (easterm affairs, particularly Islam)which is brought about by the motifs such as religious, scientific, economical, andpolitical matters.The terms orientalists and orientalism appeared in Andalusia (Spain) in the seventhcentury (Hijriah/ Islamic calender) or fourteenth century (AD) . They gnawed Islam byimmersing the moslems into the misieading school of thoughts primarily the younggeneration by turning them away from their religion with the teachings ofmaterialism, and secularism.The orientalism development phases are : (1) the missionary and anti Islamstarted in the sixteenth century (AD) . (2) the studies and distribes were in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, (3) studies and colonialisms were in the nineteenth century andthe first quarter of the tweentieth century (AD). (4) the study and politics were in thesecond half of the nineteenth century (AD). The main objective of the orientalisms is todisclose and reveal the symbolic significances of the profound Islamic Culturalexpressions, in which the Arabic language represents the primary medium.

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  • Authors: Anasbekovnaqizi, J. M. (Jo’rayeva); Madaminovich, X. K. (Xoliqov);

    This article describes the development of civilization in the world and the culture of the oven, the center of the religion of islam says the city of Bukhara Sharif, recognised the practical analysis of the historical development of the The Curse of Zarda'z will be covered.

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  • Authors: Suharto, S. (Suharto);

    Banten after the Second Dutch Military Aggression. The aim of this researh is to expose the phenomenon in Banten Residency after the Dutch occupied the region. There are four steps used in this research, i.e. collecting historical sources (heuristic), critique, interpretation and historiography (writing the history). This research result that the two sides of the civil government did not work well. Not long after Banten was occupied by the Dutch, several prominent Bantenese figures, especially those who were pro-Dutch discussed the future status of the region. The Information Department of Banten Residency who was pro-Dutch offered several alternatives for the people of Banten to choose. The alternatives were: (1) Banten became the 13th province of the Dutch Kingdom; (2) Banten joined the United States of Indonesia as a state or got a special status; (3) Banten indirectly joined the United States of Indonesia. First this region joined the state of Pasundan or the Federal District of Jakarta. If Banten joined the state of Pasundan, there are two options, firstly this district as a residency or secondly, as a state or an exclusive territory. Those alternatives were presented to the People Representative Board of Banten for the people to choose and to appoint a delegation who would present their choice to the Round Table Conference in the Hague (Den Haag). But the body did not follow the aspiration of the representative board. This body just had to wait for the conference decision. Based on the conference decision, Banten remained as a part of the Republic of Indonesia which was a state in the United States of Indonesia.

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