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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: El Ayari, Sarra; Zribi-Hertz, Anne; Soare, Elena;

    Enregistrement de l'histoire de l'âne de Nasreddin Hodja en russe

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NAKALA; CoCoONarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    NAKALA; CoCoON
    Sound . 2018
    License: CC BY NC SA
    Data sources: Datacite; CoCoON
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      NAKALA; CoCoON
      Sound . 2018
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  • Authors: Terbish, Baasanjav;

    Sanj talks about the history of the Torghuts in Kalmykia. According to him, there are several versions of the etymology of the ethnonym Torghut. In the view of the French scholar Paul Pelliot, it derives from the Turkic verb ‘tur’ (to stand) + the plural suffix. The Secret History of Mongols writes that in the beginning turgak kishg, who were Chingis Khan’s bodyguards during the day, consisted of 80 men. After 1206, their number grew to ten thousand. The bodyguards were divided into three groups, including turgak (day guards), keptyul (night guards) and khorchin (bowmen). Apart from providing personal security to the Khan, these guards also served as policemen. In other words, the ethnonym Torghut derives from the word turgak. The contemporary Torghut, however, are not the same as the historical Torghuts. The Torghuts joined the Oirats, which was a feeble union of tribes, in the 14-15th centuries. When the Mongol Empire was split into five khanates, the Oirats were part of a force that opposed Kublai Khan. Following the collapse of the Yuan Dynasty (founded by Kublai), a civil war broke out among the Mongols. Although, according to the established convention it was only the direct descendants of Chingis Khan who had the right to the throne, the Oirat lords started to challenge the status quo. In the 15-16th centuries in their struggle with the Eastern Mongols, the Oirat union suffered defeat after defeat, which prompted their leaders to call a meeting (chulgan) in order to strengthen the union. Despite internal struggles, the union had a centripetal tendency under the leadership of the lords from the Tsoros clan. Nevertheless, several tribes, or clans, left the union and moved westwards. According to Soviet sources, the first among the Oirats to arrive in the Volga region was the Torghut lord Kho-Urlyuk of the Keryad clan. Recent studies, however, dispute this view and show instead that it was the Khoshud lords who first came to this region. The Derbet lord Dalai Taishi was the next to arrive in the Volga. Various Oirat groups thus settled in the territory of today’s Astrakhan, near the Volga, displacing the indigenous Nogais whom the Russians used as a buffer force against foreign tribes. So, when the Derbets drew the Nogais out of their land, the Russians were not in a position to defend their vassals. The third wave of Oirat arrival took place when the Torghuts headed by Kho-Urlyuk’s older son, Luuzang, came to the Volga. Once settled, Luuzang carried out a policy to attract into his dominion various Turkic tribes, including the Tatars, Nogais and Tomuts. According to Nikita Bichurin, the Tomuts were a mix of Tatars and Bashkirs who had a religion that was also a mix of various religions, including shamanism, Buddhism and Islam. During the Oirat/Kalmyk settlement, half of the Tomuts dissolved among the Oirats, while the other half left for Crimea, becoming the Crimean Tatars. Sanj Khoyt says he wrote an article about hybridization, or ethnic mixing in Kalmykia. According to his research, the Kalmyks mixed with many ethnic groups, including Russians, Kazakhs, and peoples from the Caucasus. Hybridization took place among all social strata, including the aristocracy and ordinary people alike. Ordos (China) is the motherland of the Torghuts. According to available genetic and ethnographic data, they were most likely Eastern Mongols. After joining the Oirat union, the Torghuts, who consisted of Mongol and Turkic tribes, were headed by the Keryad clan. The Torghuts reached the Volga region through Central Asia while incorporating on their way various clans and tribes. Hence their colorful composition. The Torghuts differ from the Derbets both in terms of their dialect and customs. In the Volga region all these groups – the Torghuts, Khoshuds, Zyungar, Khoit, etc. – came to be known under the umbrella term of Kalmyk. Owing to widespread Russification, today the difference among various Kalmyk groups is negligible. With the passage of time, some Kalmyks, especially impoverished individuals, engaged in fishing. Those Kalmyks who lived close to the Volga and the Caspian Sea became good fishermen. Historically, the majority of Kalmyks were Torghuts, which means that the Kalmyk Khanate was in fact a Torghut Khanate. Hence, the Kalmyk Khan Ayuka described himself in his letters as a Torghut Khan. When in 1771 the majority of the Kalmyks, or Torghuts, set out on a return journey to Dzungaria, the number of the Torghuts that remained in Kalmykia diminished accordingly. When the Khanate was abolished by the Russian government as a consequence of this exodus, the Tundutov family of the Choros clan of the Derbet were appointed as representatives of the Russian administration among the Kalmyks. Historically, the Torghuts participated in religious wars. When Kagyu and Gelug schools of Buddhism fought with each other in Tibet, the Oirats supported Gelug, while the Khalkhas, or Mongols, supported Kagyu. It is known that a contingent of Torghut soldiers from the Volga reached Zungaria and Tibet. After their military campaign, they returned home. Sponsored by Arcadia Fund, a charitable fund of Lisbet Rausing and Peter Baldwin.

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    Film . 2018
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  • В статье рассмотрены актуальные проблемы сохранения исторического образа города. Одна из важных задач при сохранении объектов культурного наследия – создание комфортной городской среды, которая гармонично сочетает в себе исторические архитектурные здания и сооружения и современную застройку. Выявлены проблемы сочетания старой и новой застройки, гармоничное использование специфических черт той или иной эпохи в новаторской концептуальной архитектуре, а также влияние принятых решений на капитализацию объектов городской среды, относится к важнейшим проблемам, стоящим перед современным архитектором. Исследованы вопросы сохранения историко-культурной среды. Структурированы направления восстановления, сохранения и преобразования городской среды. O. A. Popova. PROBLEMS OF PRESERVING THE HISTORICAL IMAGE OF THE CITY AND PRESERVATION OF ITS ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE

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  • В статье рассматривается участие Кубы во Второй мировой войне, ее сотрудничество с США; раскрывается вклад кубинских военных в борьбу с немецкими подлодками в Карибском море и по сопровождению морских конвоев; освещается борьба со шпионажем на острове, участие кубинцев в снабжение союзников товарами по леднлизу и кампания солидарности с Советским Союзом. Kharichkova, L.V. Cuba's participation in World War II

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Churyumov, Anton;

    Sanal says that the Mongolist Boris Vladimirtsov wrote extensively on the social structure of the Mongols and Turks. According to Vladimirtsov, the Mongolian nomadic society developed according to its inner laws. Although many nomadic peoples did not go through feudalism, both the Mongols and Turks went through this stage. Sanal says that people in Kalmykia often complain that they have lost their culture, forgotten their tribal affiliations, etc. But according to him, this is inevitable if one looks at the larger picture of how primitive/tribal societies develop into nations. Primitive or tribal societies can be characterized by an equal division of plunder or property among their members. For example, when the Mongols conquered other countries, in the behavior of their warriors one can discern the remnants of their primitive societal structure. After taking a town, the Mongol warriors were given three days to plunder. Those who continued plundering after three days, were punished by death.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Apolloarrow_drop_down
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    Apollo
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      Apollo
      Other ORP type . 2016
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  • Authors: Kolobova, Kseniya; Krajcarz, Maciej; Baumann, Malvina; Shalagina, Alëna; +7 Authors

    Chagyrskaya cave is a key-site of the Middle Paleolithic Sibiryachikha Facies in Gorny Altai. During the field season of 2018, field work was focused upon the central chamber; the total excavation square was two square meters. The cultural layers of Chagyrskaya cave have yielded new numerous assemblages of stone artefacts, paleontological and paleoanthropological materials. The study area is characterized by a high degree of carnivore activity. During the field works, new stratigraphic and sedimentologic data from the lithological layers of Chagyrskaya cave have been obtained. Numerous bone tools, such as retouchers, intermediate tools, points with rounded tips and pressure tools are the unique findings for the regional Middle Paleolithic. The lithic assemblage contains a significant number of tools and is typical for the Middle Paleolithic Sibiryachikha assemblages in Gorny Altai.

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  • Статья посвящена одному из тысяч предметов истории и искусства, которые утратили музеи на территории Беларуси в годы Великой Отечественной войны. На основе различных источников прослеживается судьба скульптуры «Три грации» в годы оккупации. Уточняется внешний облик культурной ценности и ее состояние. Pankov, Yu. V. "Three Graces" from the Gomel Museum. The artifact that disappeared during the year of occupation

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  • В данной статье рассмотрена проблема поиска новых путей развития культуры памяти событий Великой Отечественной войны. Проанализированы особенности информационного освещения истории войны на сайтах государственных учреждений общего среднего образования г. Минска. Выявлена и обоснована необходимость более широкого задействования сети Интернет в качестве канала передачи историко-культурного наследия. Priborovich, A. A. Elements of the culture of memory of the events of the Great Patriotic War on the pages of websites of schools and gymnasiums in Minsk

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  • В статье рассматриваются проблемы определения социальной базы и наиболее характерные черты английского пуританизма, его влияние на английскую культуру. Автор также рассмотрел и суммировал взгляды современных британских историков на эти проблемы. YEROKHIN V. N. Social Basis and Cultural Influence of Puritanism in England during Reformation Period

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  • Shchavlinsky, N. B. Heroism of the workers of the Soviet rear during the Great Patriotic War

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: El Ayari, Sarra; Zribi-Hertz, Anne; Soare, Elena;

    Enregistrement de l'histoire de l'âne de Nasreddin Hodja en russe

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NAKALA; CoCoONarrow_drop_down
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    NAKALA; CoCoON
    Sound . 2018
    License: CC BY NC SA
    Data sources: Datacite; CoCoON
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      Sound . 2018
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  • Authors: Terbish, Baasanjav;

    Sanj talks about the history of the Torghuts in Kalmykia. According to him, there are several versions of the etymology of the ethnonym Torghut. In the view of the French scholar Paul Pelliot, it derives from the Turkic verb ‘tur’ (to stand) + the plural suffix. The Secret History of Mongols writes that in the beginning turgak kishg, who were Chingis Khan’s bodyguards during the day, consisted of 80 men. After 1206, their number grew to ten thousand. The bodyguards were divided into three groups, including turgak (day guards), keptyul (night guards) and khorchin (bowmen). Apart from providing personal security to the Khan, these guards also served as policemen. In other words, the ethnonym Torghut derives from the word turgak. The contemporary Torghut, however, are not the same as the historical Torghuts. The Torghuts joined the Oirats, which was a feeble union of tribes, in the 14-15th centuries. When the Mongol Empire was split into five khanates, the Oirats were part of a force that opposed Kublai Khan. Following the collapse of the Yuan Dynasty (founded by Kublai), a civil war broke out among the Mongols. Although, according to the established convention it was only the direct descendants of Chingis Khan who had the right to the throne, the Oirat lords started to challenge the status quo. In the 15-16th centuries in their struggle with the Eastern Mongols, the Oirat union suffered defeat after defeat, which prompted their leaders to call a meeting (chulgan) in order to strengthen the union. Despite internal struggles, the union had a centripetal tendency under the leadership of the lords from the Tsoros clan. Nevertheless, several tribes, or clans, left the union and moved westwards. According to Soviet sources, the first among the Oirats to arrive in the Volga region was the Torghut lord Kho-Urlyuk of the Keryad clan. Recent studies, however, dispute this view and show instead that it was the Khoshud lords who first came to this region. The Derbet lord Dalai Taishi was the next to arrive in the Volga. Various Oirat groups thus settled in the territory of today’s Astrakhan, near the Volga, displacing the indigenous Nogais whom the Russians used as a buffer force against foreign tribes. So, when the Derbets drew the Nogais out of their land, the Russians were not in a position to defend their vassals. The third wave of Oirat arrival took place when the Torghuts headed by Kho-Urlyuk’s older son, Luuzang, came to the Volga. Once settled, Luuzang carried out a policy to attract into his dominion various Turkic tribes, including the Tatars, Nogais and Tomuts. According to Nikita Bichurin, the Tomuts were a mix of Tatars and Bashkirs who had a religion that was also a mix of various religions, including shamanism, Buddhism and Islam. During the Oirat/Kalmyk settlement, half of the Tomuts dissolved among the Oirats, while the other half left for Crimea, becoming the Crimean Tatars. Sanj Khoyt says he wrote an article about hybridization, or ethnic mixing in Kalmykia. According to his research, the Kalmyks mixed with many ethnic groups, including Russians, Kazakhs, and peoples from the Caucasus. Hybridization took place among all social strata, including the aristocracy and ordinary people alike. Ordos (China) is the motherland of the Torghuts. According to available genetic and ethnographic data, they were most likely Eastern Mongols. After joining the Oirat union, the Torghuts, who consisted of Mongol and Turkic tribes, were headed by the Keryad clan. The Torghuts reached the Volga region through Central Asia while incorporating on their way various clans and tribes. Hence their colorful composition. The Torghuts differ from the Derbets both in terms of their dialect and customs. In the Volga region all these groups – the Torghuts, Khoshuds, Zyungar, Khoit, etc. – came to be known under the umbrella term of Kalmyk. Owing to widespread Russification, today the difference among various Kalmyk groups is negligible. With the passage of time, some Kalmyks, especially impoverished individuals, engaged in fishing. Those Kalmyks who lived close to the Volga and the Caspian Sea became good fishermen. Historically, the majority of Kalmyks were Torghuts, which means that the Kalmyk Khanate was in fact a Torghut Khanate. Hence, the Kalmyk Khan Ayuka described himself in his letters as a Torghut Khan. When in 1771 the majority of the Kalmyks, or Torghuts, set out on a return journey to Dzungaria, the number of the Torghuts that remained in Kalmykia diminished accordingly. When the Khanate was abolished by the Russian government as a consequence of this exodus, the Tundutov family of the Choros clan of the Derbet were appointed as representatives of the Russian administration among the Kalmyks. Historically, the Torghuts participated in religious wars. When Kagyu and Gelug schools of Buddhism fought with each other in Tibet, the Oirats supported Gelug, while the Khalkhas, or Mongols, supported Kagyu. It is known that a contingent of Torghut soldiers from the Volga reached Zungaria and Tibet. After their military campaign, they returned home. Sponsored by Arcadia Fund, a charitable fund of Lisbet Rausing and Peter Baldwin.

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    Apollo
    Film . 2018
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  • В статье рассмотрены актуальные проблемы сохранения исторического образа города. Одна из важных задач при сохранении объектов культурного наследия – создание комфортной городской среды, которая гармонично сочетает в себе исторические архитектурные здания и сооружения и современную застройку. Выявлены проблемы сочетания старой и новой застройки, гармоничное использование специфических черт той или иной эпохи в новаторской концептуальной архитектуре, а также влияние принятых решений на капитализацию объектов городской среды, относится к важнейшим проблемам, стоящим перед современным архитектором. Исследованы вопросы сохранения историко-культурной среды. Структурированы направления восстановления, сохранения и преобразования городской среды. O. A. Popova. PROBLEMS OF PRESERVING THE HISTORICAL IMAGE OF THE CITY AND PRESERVATION OF ITS ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE

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  • В статье рассматривается участие Кубы во Второй мировой войне, ее сотрудничество с США; раскрывается вклад кубинских военных в борьбу с немецкими подлодками в Карибском море и по сопровождению морских конвоев; освещается борьба со шпионажем на острове, участие кубинцев в снабжение союзников товарами по леднлизу и кампания солидарности с Советским Союзом. Kharichkova, L.V. Cuba's participation in World War II

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    Authors: Churyumov, Anton;

    Sanal says that the Mongolist Boris Vladimirtsov wrote extensively on the social structure of the Mongols and Turks. According to Vladimirtsov, the Mongolian nomadic society developed according to its inner laws. Although many nomadic peoples did not go through feudalism, both the Mongols and Turks went through this stage. Sanal says that people in Kalmykia often complain that they have lost their culture, forgotten their tribal affiliations, etc. But according to him, this is inevitable if one looks at the larger picture of how primitive/tribal societies develop into nations. Primitive or tribal societies can be characterized by an equal division of plunder or property among their members. For example, when the Mongols conquered other countries, in the behavior of their warriors one can discern the remnants of their primitive societal structure. After taking a town, the Mongol warriors were given three days to plunder. Those who continued plundering after three days, were punished by death.

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    Apollo
    Other ORP type . 2016
    License: CC BY NC ND
    Data sources: Apollo
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Apolloarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Apollo
      Other ORP type . 2016
      License: CC BY NC ND
      Data sources: Apollo
  • Authors: Kolobova, Kseniya; Krajcarz, Maciej; Baumann, Malvina; Shalagina, Alëna; +7 Authors

    Chagyrskaya cave is a key-site of the Middle Paleolithic Sibiryachikha Facies in Gorny Altai. During the field season of 2018, field work was focused upon the central chamber; the total excavation square was two square meters. The cultural layers of Chagyrskaya cave have yielded new numerous assemblages of stone artefacts, paleontological and paleoanthropological materials. The study area is characterized by a high degree of carnivore activity. During the field works, new stratigraphic and sedimentologic data from the lithological layers of Chagyrskaya cave have been obtained. Numerous bone tools, such as retouchers, intermediate tools, points with rounded tips and pressure tools are the unique findings for the regional Middle Paleolithic. The lithic assemblage contains a significant number of tools and is typical for the Middle Paleolithic Sibiryachikha assemblages in Gorny Altai.

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  • Статья посвящена одному из тысяч предметов истории и искусства, которые утратили музеи на территории Беларуси в годы Великой Отечественной войны. На основе различных источников прослеживается судьба скульптуры «Три грации» в годы оккупации. Уточняется внешний облик культурной ценности и ее состояние. Pankov, Yu. V. "Three Graces" from the Gomel Museum. The artifact that disappeared during the year of occupation

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  • В данной статье рассмотрена проблема поиска новых путей развития культуры памяти событий Великой Отечественной войны. Проанализированы особенности информационного освещения истории войны на сайтах государственных учреждений общего среднего образования г. Минска. Выявлена и обоснована необходимость более широкого задействования сети Интернет в качестве канала передачи историко-культурного наследия. Priborovich, A. A. Elements of the culture of memory of the events of the Great Patriotic War on the pages of websites of schools and gymnasiums in Minsk

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  • В статье рассматриваются проблемы определения социальной базы и наиболее характерные черты английского пуританизма, его влияние на английскую культуру. Автор также рассмотрел и суммировал взгляды современных британских историков на эти проблемы. YEROKHIN V. N. Social Basis and Cultural Influence of Puritanism in England during Reformation Period

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  • Shchavlinsky, N. B. Heroism of the workers of the Soviet rear during the Great Patriotic War

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