Abstract Through primary sources, coming mainly from CPDOC (FGV) and the Public Archive of São Paulo, this article seeks to analyze the policies of book promotion during the Estado Novo (“New State”, 1937-1945), a period in which the State invested in the creation of the category of “books of the Nation”, founding the National Book Institute. The three sections of the Institute (the Encyclopedia and Dictionary Section, the Libraries Section, and the Publications Section) will be analyzed in order to understand if the instruments developed during the period to promote reading were coherent with its objectives and if they were strictly related to the ideology of the regime. We also seek to understand its successes, failures and inconsistencies. By this means, the article intends to comprehend the policy of promoting books and reading, identifying, especially, the role of intellectuals in public policies.
This article is a study of mourning among Shi'a Muslims during the COVID-19 pandemic through a call-in talk show called #IAMHUSSEINI. By analyzing the discourses of callers and presenters and locating them within a visual context of the television studio, this article shows how the viewership of #IAMHUSSEINI constitutes a televisual majlis (Arabic: ‘assembly') composed of more than passive asynchronous consumption and resembling what Patrick Eisenlohr refers to as ‘atmospheres'. This article argues that the COVID-19 pandemic drove #IAMHUSSEINI to recalibrate to expectations of a spatially proximate ritual, rather than sustaining a ‘natively digital' aesthetic, repurposing Richard Rogers' approach to digital methods. This change brought about a tacit understanding of the televisual majlis among #IAMHUSSEINI's viewers. This article therefore posits a difference between ‘spatial intercorporeality', in which bodies are mediated by spatial proximity, and ‘functional intercorporeality’, in which they are mediated by the material preconditions of a shared activity.
Abstract In a knowledge-based economy, initiatives based on the Creative Economy framework are supposed to promote regional economic diversification in developing countries. In Brazil, policy initiatives have focused on those activities with a view to design public policies oriented to reducing socio-economic and regional inequalities, as well as spreading those activities throughout the territory, especially towards less favored regions. Based on the Brazilian experience, this article discusses whether the pre-existing regional distribution of various types of creative activities favors or hinders the reduction of regional inequalities as a result of a policy focused on promoting creative activities and what actions could be adopted to achieve this result. Specifically, the paper discusses whether this expansion can promote an effective reduction of regional inequalities in terms of the number and quality of jobs and wage levels associated with those activities. The analysis suggests that the regional decentralization of creative activities towards less developed regions has been relatively limited in Brazil, as the more developed regions have remained more specialized in trades with higher digital and technological content, while the less developed regions have remained relatively more specialized in activities related to the cultural heritage. To reduce this imbalance, the support of local institutions and S&T infrastructure related to creative activities appears to be very important, which points out to the relevance of comprehensive policies well-adapted to very diverse local realities. This effort should have the impact of new digital-based technologies converge with the strengthening of economic potential of local and regional cultural heritage, by enhancing professional qualification of workers devoted to those activities.
ABSTRACT In this article we propose a discussion about the use by the historian of a kind of document very little studied until now: the theater programs. Our study is based on the analysis of about 200 programs of performances that took place in the Municipal Theater of São Paulo between 1911 and 1922, an iconic theater and a monument of an era marked by a great economic development of the city and a fast urban growing. By the analysis of the physical and visual aspects of the programs, and their contents also, we propose an interpretation of the meaning of the theater in this new modernity that reaches this city where the vestiges of the colonial past are disappearing quickly.
ABSTRACT This paper consists of the study of Correio Braziliense reports about Itamaraty Palace during the period between 1960 and 1970. The analysis aims to understand the construction of ideas around this palace from its architectural conception to its effective use. Besides presenting part of the mapping of the facts about the palace project, the purpose of this article is to analyze the elaboration of narratives related to the idea of beauty, the palace nomenclature, the importance of the transfer of headquarters of the Ministry of Foreign Relations to Brasilia and the internal configuration of the palace. Creating a memory and discourse that persist today.
Abstract The advent of cyber power in inter-state competition is frequently addressed in academic literature skewed towards global powers, commonly overlooking regional powers. The article addresses this gap by investigating how cyber power is conceived and implemented by Brazilian Governmental actors. It draws on the analysis of primary data concerning Brazil’s policy documentation and institutional framework. The article begins with a broader view of cyber power and investigates its relationship with cyber defense and security, illuminating the current Brazilian understanding of cyber power as an operational tool within the military sphere.
Abstract Introduction The Burch procedure (1961) was considered the gold standard treatment for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) before the midurethral slings (MUSs) were introduced, in 2001. Objective This historical perspective of the Burch’s timeline can encourage urogynecological surgeons to master the Burch technique as one of the options for surgical treatment of SUI. Search Strategy and Selection Criteria A bibliographic search was performed in the PubMed and National Library of Medicine (NIH) databases with the terms Burch colposuspension AND history AND stress urinary incontinence in the last 20 years. The original article by Burch (1961) was included. The references were read by three authors. The exclusion criterion was studies in non-English languages. Biomedical Library Special Collections were included as historical relevant search. Data Collection, Analysis and Main Results Some modifications of the technique have been made since the Burch procedure was first described. The interest in this technique has been increasing due to the negative publicity associated with vaginal synthetic mesh products. Twenty-nine relevant articles were included in the present review article, and numerous trials have compared Burch colposuspension with MUS. Conclusion This historical perspective enables the scientific community to review a standardized technique for SUI. Burch colposuspension should be considered an appropriate surgical treatment for women with SUI, and an option in urogynecological training programs worldwide.
Perfetti (2007) proposed that the quality of lexical representations affects reading. We investigated the role of lexical quality in decoding. Eighty-four adults read aloud words and pseudowords with dense and sparse neighbourhoods in a masked form-priming experiment. Individual-difference measures of language and cognitive processes were collected and entered into a principal component analysis (PCA). Compared to a non-overlapping control prime, we observed greater facilitatory form-priming for word targets with sparse neighbourhoods than those with dense neighbourhoods. A PCA component related to orthographic precision affected form-priming: people with low orthographic precision showed greater facilitation for words with sparse neighbourhoods, primed by pseudowords, than those with dense neighbourhoods. People with high orthographic precision demonstrated the converse, only when primed by words. For pseudoword reading, word primes facilitated more than pseudoword primes in people with low orthographic precision. People with high orthographic precision showed the opposite pattern.
Abstract Brazilian writer and musicologist Mário de Andrade (1893-1945) and Cuban writer and anthropologist Fernando Ortiz (1881-1969) are important references in the study of cultures of African origin in their respective countries. The two intellectuals shared an interest in the relations between music and sorcery in Afro-American conceptions and rituals, as suggested by their field observations and bibliographic references. This essay explores common characteristics and contrasts in their approaches to the theme and suggests that the debate should not be limited to the history of ideas, since it echoes contemporary theories on “speech acts”, performativity, and aesthetic agency.