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  • Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage
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  • Restricted English
    Authors: 
    Benson, A;
    Country: Netherlands

    Large-scale and abrupt climate oscillations in the Northern Hemisphere, such as Heinrich Stadials and Dansgaard-Oeschger events, during the last glacial period have long been substantiated by marine and ice core records. Their effects on the continental setting however, specifically the Iberian Peninsula, are more ambiguous, as terrestrial records are sparse and / or discontinuous. The Iberian Peninsula is a key site for proposed late survival of Neanderthals in Europe and replacement by H. Sapiens. Many researchers have used marine records to suggest that the climatic fluctuations of Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS-3), specifically Heinrich Stadial 4 (HS-4), caused Neanderthal extinction ~38 ka. To further investigate the climatic aspect of Neanderthal demise, more local climate archives need to be employed. Our sites are situated on the Atlantic coast and central Portugal and should be sensitive to marine responses, such as sea surface temperature (SST) or source water composition. We employ speleothem based palaeoclimate reconstruction from two Portuguese sites with three specimens from Gruta Figueira Brava (Arrabida, Portugal) and two specimens from Almonda (Torres Novas, Portugal), spanning 68-22 ka. We create a high-resolution multi-proxy terrestrial palaeoclimate record that allows us to explore this time interval for extremes in climate transition / fluctuation. We find the transitional boundary between MIS-4 and MIS-3 via stable isotope and trace element data and identify dry phases of reduced precipitation coinciding with Heinrich Stadials. However, no extreme aridity events can be observed. We suggest that for our coastal site, moisture availability is unlikely to have played a major role in Neanderthal extinction during MIS-3.

  • English
    Authors: 
    VICHI, Alessandra; CARUSO, Francesco; GIANNICI, Francesco; MAGUREGUI, Maite; Th��a DE SEAUVE;
    Publisher: European Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    The blackening of red cinnabar pigment is a major problem of conservation for the artworks containing it. To explain the black color, different hypotheses have been proposed, but none of them has been fully confirmed. This proposal aims to identify the newly formed black phases, comparing the results in model fresco paintings subjected to accelerated weathering experiments and the ones in blackened cinnabar fresco painting samples from the Archaeological Park of Pompeii. The possible presence of additional Hg-Cl and Hg-S-Cl species, not easily detectable by conventional laboratory techniques, will be also confirmed. The resulting information will allow refining the understanding of the chemical reactivity leading to the darkening of cinnabar, contributing to develop appropriate conservation protocols to preserve this precious pigment. To achieve these objectives, a combination of ��XRF, Cl and S K-edge ��XANES and Hg L3 edge ��XANES in HERFD mode is crucial.

  • English
    Authors: 
    CRISTIANO RIMINESI; SUZUKI, Maria Amelia;
    Publisher: European Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    This proposal aims at implementing a new access route to the ESRF structural analysis capacities for the Heritage Science community. The upgrade to the ESRF-EBS was the triggering element to propose a single block allocation group (BAG). After discussion with multiple interested research teams, it was decided to target two complementary analytical configurations at the ESRF: High angular resolution XRD (ID22) and High lateral resolution XRD (ID13). The combination of these two beamlines generates precious clues on the origin, processing and degradation of historical materials. The new analytical capacities of the EBS, combined with an optimized access route is expected to increase the output of the Cultural Heritage community, to reinforce a scientific network of expert users structured around the ESRF, and to initiate new European collaborations in Heritage Science.

  • English
    Authors: 
    DUMAZET, Alexandra; MECQUENEM, Clément DE; THERON, Coline; CHALMIN, Emilie; BEAUVOIT, Emmie; CLERICI, Ermanno AVRANOVICH; TORTOSA, Francesc ALBERT; Iryn BIJKER; DALECKY, Lauren; MONICO, Letizia; +4 more
    Publisher: European Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    This proposal aims at implementing a new access route to the ESRF structural analysis capacities for the Heritage Science community. The upgrade to the ESRF-EBS was the triggering element to propose a single block allocation group (BAG). After discussion with multiple interested research teams, it was decided to target two complementary analytical configurations at the ESRF: High angular resolution XRD (ID22) and High lateral resolution XRD (ID13). The combination of these two beamlines generates precious clues on the origin, processing and degradation of historical materials. The new analytical capacities of the EBS, combined with an optimized access route is expected to increase the output of the Cultural Heritage community, to reinforce a scientific network of expert users structured around the ESRF, and to initiate new European collaborations in Heritage Science.

  • English
    Authors: 
    MOURO, Elouan; VANMEERT, Frederik; SANYOVA, Janka; JANSSENS, Koen;
    Publisher: European Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    Recently we have found Zn-containing paint in several Van Eyck paintings (15th c.) such as The Ghent Altarpiece, The Arnolfini Marriage and in Jan and Margaret Van Eyck’s portraits. Since Zn is not normally part of 15th c. artists’ pigments, its presence is highly unusual. We propose to examine by μ-XRF and μ-XANES at the Zn and S K edges, 5 original paint micro samples taken from paintings by Jan Van Eyck. Zn is present here in dark (brown-red) or red layers/areas that are either on the surface or buried below other paint; the latter can be visualized using macroscopic XRF. The Zn compound(s) are amorphous and not easily identified by μ-XRPD or conventional Raman microscopy.SEM and FTIR evidence suggest that the original Zn compound added to the paint may have been similar to K2Zn(SO4)2.6H2O or to goslarite (ZnSO4.7H2O), the source of white vitriol, a well-known oil-drying (i.e. secondary fatty acid cross-linking) agent in the 15th century.

  • English
    Authors: 
    CARUCCI, Amelio; TEDESCO, Consiglia; PIERRI, Giovanni;
    Publisher: European Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    During the 2005 excavation campaign at the Capitolium of Cumae, the first Greek colony on the mainland of Italy, pottery was unearthed. Pottery is considered one of the elements that set off the beginning of the Neolithic Revolution and changed the human beings’ lifestyle from hunting and gathering to agriculture and settlement. The study of the pottery production method is useful to understand the technological level reached by an ancient civilization. One of the most informative aspects is the firing history which includes the heating rate, the maximum temperature reached, the firing duration and the atmosphere in which the ceramic is fired that can be oxidising or reducing. Thanks to different experimental techniques like XRPD, XRF, SEM and FTIR, is possible to estimate the firing history, characterize the raw materials used for the pottery production and, finally, understand if these relics have been fired in the open air or closed kiln.

  • English
    Authors: 
    GHERARDI, Francesca; PAYNTER, Sarah;
    Publisher: European Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    This research aims at studying colouring technologies in Post-Roman glass by correlating the impact of iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) ratios and oxidation states. Some Anglo-Saxon glass vessels exhibit a dichroic character and display different colours despite having a similar chemical composition and concentrations of Fe and Mn oxides. Our goal is to study the colour change by looking at several glass production parameters, by using experimental glasses, that follow the composition of Post-Roman archaeological glass fragments from Tintagel castle (UK). Using bulk and micro Fe and Mn K-edge XANES combined with micro XRF spectroscopy will enable the characterisation of the oxidation state of Fe and Mn in fragments produced using different parameters, and the study of the dichroic character of the archaeological samples. The results will generate a deeper understanding of Fe and Mn interaction and redox reactions during glass production of archaeological glass assemblages of this type.

  • English
    Authors: 
    BEAUVOIT, Emmie;
    Publisher: European Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    This proposal aims at implementing a new access route to the ESRF structural analysis capacities for the Heritage Science community. The upgrade to the ESRF-EBS was the triggering element to propose a single block allocation group (BAG). After discussion with multiple interested research teams, it was decided to target two complementary analytical configurations at the ESRF: High angular resolution XRD (ID22) and High lateral resolution XRD (ID13). The combination of these two beamlines generates precious clues on the origin, processing and degradation of historical materials. The new analytical capacities of the EBS, combined with an optimized access route is expected to increase the output of the Cultural Heritage community, to reinforce a scientific network of expert users structured around the ESRF, and to initiate new European collaborations in Heritage Science.

  • English
    Authors: 
    CARUSO, Francesco; GIANNICI, Francesco; MAGUREGUI, Maite;
    Publisher: European Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    The blackening of red cinnabar pigment is a major problem of conservation for the artworks containing it. To explain the black color, different hypotheses have been proposed, but none of them has been fully confirmed. This proposal aims to identify the newly formed black phases, comparing the results in model fresco paintings subjected to accelerated weathering experiments and the ones in blackened cinnabar fresco painting samples from the Archaeological Park of Pompeii. The possible presence of additional Hg-Cl and Hg-S-Cl species, not easily detectable by conventional laboratory techniques, will be also confirmed. The resulting information will allow refining the understanding of the chemical reactivity leading to the darkening of cinnabar, contributing to develop appropriate conservation protocols to preserve this precious pigment. To achieve these objectives, a combination of µXRF, Cl and S K-edge µXANES and Hg L3 edge µXANES in HERFD mode is crucial.

  • English
    Authors: 
    VITALE, Benedetta; POSSENTI, Elena; CLERICI, Ermanno AVRANOVICH; VANMEERT, Frederik; Fréderique BROERS; FAZLIC, Ida; MONICO, Letizia; SUZUKI, Maria Amelia; COTTE, Marine; GHIRARDELLO, Marta; +2 more
    Publisher: European Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    This proposal aims at implementing a new access route to the ESRF structural analysis capacities for the Heritage Science community. The upgrade to the ESRF-EBS was the triggering element to propose a single block allocation group (BAG). After discussion with multiple interested research teams, it was decided to target two complementary analytical configurations at the ESRF: High angular resolution XRD (ID22) and High lateral resolution XRD (ID13). The combination of these two beamlines generates precious clues on the origin, processing and degradation of historical materials. The new analytical capacities of the EBS, combined with an optimized access route is expected to increase the output of the Cultural Heritage community, to reinforce a scientific network of expert users structured around the ESRF, and to initiate new European collaborations in Heritage Science.