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109 Research products, page 1 of 11

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  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Beatriz Martínez-Rius;
    Publisher: Wiley
    Country: France
    Project: EC | SALTGIANT (765256)

    International audience; In the 1960s, the growing strategic importance of ocean exploration led the French government to develop greater capacity in marine scientific research, aiming to promote cooperative and diplomatic relations with the leading states in ocean exploration. Devised during Charles de Gaulle's government (1958-1969), the restructuring of French oceanography culminated, in 1967, in the establishment of the state-led Centre National pour l'Exploitation des OcØans (CNEXO). Beyond being intended to control the orientation of marine research at a national level, the CNEXO's mission was to use scientific diplomacy to balance a desire for enhancing international cooperative relations in oceanography with French ambitions to equal the USA's leading capacity to explore the oceans. Its director, the naval officer Yves la Prairie, played a crucial role in articulating scientific, national, and diplomatic interests for France in the oceans.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Qi Han; Florian Heimerl; Joan Codina-Filbà; Steffen Lohmann; Leo Wanner; Thomas Ertl;
    Publisher: Elsevier
    Countries: Spain, Germany
    Project: EC | IPATDOC (606163)

    Patent information is increasingly important for decision makers. Their demand for exploratory trend and competitor analysis poses new challenges with respect to the processing and visualization of patent data. We present PatStream: a highly interactive approach for decision support through patent exploration, which offers a streamgraph-based visualization for trends at different levels of abstraction and facilitates the combined analysis of their various aspects, including patent applicants, IPC distributions and innovativeness. PatStream integrates powerful natural language processing techniques for concept extraction and patent similarity assessment to allow for content-oriented visualization and analysis. This work has been partially supported by the European Commission under the grant number FP7-SME-606163 (iPatDoc), and the German Research Foundation (DFG) as part of the priority program 1335 Scalable Visual Analytics.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Patrick Pétin; Félix Tréguer;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
    Project: EC | netCommons (688768)

    International audience; In the mid-1990s, as the Internet underwent a major wave of growth and commodification, it also became increasingly politicised. In this article, we analyse the process that led to the birth of the digital rights movement in France. Based on archival work and interviews with key protagonists of the movement, this article blends historical, sociological and policy analysis to help explain the politicisation of French “Internet pioneers”. It documents the emergence of alternative Internet service providers, their relationship to other activist groups, and to the wider digital economy. It then shows how the same small group of individuals turned to political advocacy by surveying some of their interactions with policy-makers, focusing in particular on the debate on intermediary liability and freedom of expression. We stress that the particular social trajectories of these digital rights activists confronted with the commodification of the Internet and the power practices of the state converged to create a “perfect storm” that led them to wield exceptional influence on Internet policy in this early phase of development. We also highlight some of the movement’s internal contradictions and explain its waning influence from the early 2000s on. Through this article, we hope to help diversify the historiography of digital activism as well as to contribute to comparative-historical approaches.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Naftali Weinberger; Seamus Bradley;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: EC | IPMRB (792292), EC | IPMRB (792292)

    Philosophical discussions of disagreement typically focus on cases in which the disagreeing agents are aware that they are disagreeing and can pinpoint the proposition that they are disagreeing about. Scientific disagreements are not, in general, like this. Here we consider several case studies of disagreements that do not concern first-order factual claims about the scientific domain in question, but rather boil down to disputes regarding methodology. In such cases, it is often difficult to identify the point of contention in the dispute. Philosophers of science have a useful role to play in pinpointing the source of such disagreements, but must resist the temptation to trace scientific debates to disputes over higher-level philosophical accounts.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Hanna Hodacs;
    Publisher: Cambridge University Press (CUP)
    Project: EC | TRADE (249362)

    AbstractTravelling is an activity closely associated with Carolus Linnaeus (1707–1778) and his circle of students. This article discusses the transformative role of studying nature outdoors (turning novices into naturalists) in eighteenth-century Sweden, using the little-known journeys of Carl Bäck (1760–1776), Sven Anders Hedin (1750–1821) and Johan Lindwall (1743–1796) as examples. On these journeys, through different parts of Sweden in the 1770s, the outdoors was used, simultaneously, as both a classroom and a space for exploration. The article argues that this multifunctional use of the landscape (common within the Linnaean tradition) encouraged a democratization of the consumption of scientific knowledge and also, to some degree, of its production. More generally, the study also addresses issues of how and why science and scientists travel by discussing how botanical knowledge was reproduced and extended ‘on the move’, and what got senior and junior students moving.

  • Publication . Article . 2021
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Mohsen Fazeli-Varzaneh; Ali Ghorbi; Marcel Ausloos; Emanuel Sallinger; Sahar Vahdati;
    Publisher: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
    Project: EC | LAMBDA (809965)

    A “Sleeping Beauty” (SB) in science is a metaphor for a scholarly publication that remains relatively unnoticed by the related communities for a long time; - the publication is “sleeping”. However, suddenly due to the appearance of some phenomenon, such a “forgotten” publication may become a center of scientific attention; - the SB is “awakened”. Currently, there are specific scientific areas for which sleeping beauties (SBs) are awakened. For example, as the world is experiencing the COVID-19 global pandemic (triggered by SARS-CoV-2), publications on coronaviruses appear to be awakened. Thus, one can raise questions of scientific interest: are these publications coronavirus related SBs? Moreover, while much literature exists on other coronaviruses, there seems to be no comprehensive investigation on COVID-19, - in particular in the context of SBs. Nowadays, such SB papers can be even used for sustaining literature reviews and/or scientific claims about COVID-19. In our study, in order to pinpoint pertinent SBs, we use the “beauty score” (B-score) measure. The Activity Index (AI) and the Relative Specialization Index (RSI) are also calculated to compare countries where such SBs appear. Results show that most of these SBs were published previously to the present epidemic time (triggered by SARS-CoV or SARS-CoV-1), and are awakened in 2020. Besides outlining the most important SBs, we show from what countries and institutions they originate, and the most prolific author(s) of such SBs. The citation trend of SBs that have the highest B-score is also discussed.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Dupré, S.; Somsen, Geert; OGKG - Kunstgeschiedenis; LS Kunst, wetenschap en techniek;
    Country: Netherlands
    Project: EC | ARTECHNE (648718), EC | ARTECHNE (648718)

    The new field of the history of knowledge is often presented as a mere expansion of the history of science. We argue that it has a greater ambition. The re-definition of the historiographical domain of the history of knowledge urges us to ask new questions about the boundaries, hierarchies, and mutual constitution of different types of knowledge as well as the role and assessment of failure and ignorance in making knowledge. These issues have pertinence in the current climate where expertise is increasingly questioned and authority seems to lose its ground. Illustrated with examples from recent historiography of the sixteenth to twentieth centuries, we indicate some fruitful new avenues for research in the history of knowledge. Taken together, we hope that they will show that the history of knowledge could build the expertise required by the challenges of twenty-first century knowledge societies, just like the history of science, throughout its development as a discipline in the twentieth century, responded to the demands posed by science and society.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Vlad Pojoga;
    Publisher: ASTRA National Museum Complex
    Project: EC | TRANSHIROL (101001710)

    This study has a two-fold structure, in its first part exploring various models of experimental literature, proposed by researchers such as Gerald Prince and Warren Motte, as well as theoretical attempts to define and analyze experimental literature in Romania. The second part focuses on the quantitative analysis of keywords related to “the experimental” found in literary histories of Romanian literature authored by E. Lovinescu, G. Călinescu, Nicolae Manolescu, and Mihai Iovănel, as well as The General Dictionary of Romanian Literature and The Chronological Dictionary of the Romanian Novel. By simply searching several pointedly chosen terms in the corpus, a cartography of what is considered to be experimental emerges clearly, alongside its relation to the canon, to the dynamics of literary genres, and to the temporal evolution of Romanian literature.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Roberto Cantoni;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
    Project: EC | TEUS (241009)

    By the late-1950s, the Soviet Union acquired a strong position as a world oil exporter, thanks to major discoveries in the Ural-Volga area. The new availability prompted the USSR to greatly increase its exports, especially to West European countries. Such strategy was met with ambivalent reactions, depending on each countryʼs position and status on the world oil scene, as well as on their political and economic needs. In order to transport their oil to strategic areas within the Soviet Union and to Europe, the Soviets devised a project for a colossal pipeline system. This plan caused anxiety at NATO since Russian oil could be wielded as a weapon to weaken the West both militarily and economically. Beside being seen as potentially threatening for the interest of Anglo-American and French oil majors, the considerable amount of cheap oil the pipeline system would carry generated worries about Western Europe becoming dependent on the USSR for its energy. In order to complete the system, however, the Soviets needed considerable amounts of large-diameter steel pipes and equipment, which they had to import from the West. Thus in 1961 the US delegation at NATO proposed a comprehensive embargo of large-diameter pipes in order to delay the systemʼs construction. The proposal met with strong British opposition and a lukewarm attitude by a number of NATO members, and the debate soon came to revolve around 1) the definition of steel pipes as strategic items, and 2) whether a security rationale should be prioritized over an economic one when dealing with the Soviets. In this paper, I argue that the definition of what oil pipes are as technological artifacts, as well as their ultimate content, was ultimately shaped by the NATO debate on the US proposition. What an oil pipe was – or was not – and how it could be used, derived from the struggle to control or suppress commerce with the Soviet Union.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Kim M. Hajek;
    Publisher: SAGE Publications
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: EC | NARRATIVENSCIENCE (694732), EC | NARRATIVENSCIENCE (694732)

    The psychoanalytical case history was in many ways the pivot point of John Forrester’s reflections on case-based reasoning. Yet the Freudian case is not without its own textual forebears. This article closely analyses texts from two earlier case-writing traditions in order to elucidate some of the negotiations by which the case history as a textual form came to articulate the mode of reasoning that we now call ‘thinking in cases’. It reads Eugène Azam’s 1876 observation of Félida X and her ‘double personality’—the case that brought both Azam and Félida to prominence in late 19th-century French science—against a medico-surgical case penned by the Bordeaux physician in the same decade. While the stylistics of Azam’s medical case mirror its epistemic underpinnings in the ‘vertical’ logics of positivist science, the multiple narratives interwoven in Félida’s case grant both Azam and his patient the role of knowledge-making actors in the text. This narrative transformation chimes with the way Azam reasons ‘horizontally’ from particulars to Félida’s singular condition, but sits in tension with his choice to structure the observation along a ‘vertical’ axis. Between the two, we glimpse the emergence of the psychological observation as a mode of writing and thus of thinking in cases.