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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Judith Beier; Nils Anthes; Joachim Wahl; Katerina Harvati;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: EC | CROSSROADS (724703)

    Objectives: This study characterizes patterns of cranial trauma prevalence in a large sample of Upper Paleolithic (UP) fossil specimens (40,000–10,000 BP). Materials and Methods: Our sample comprised 234 individual crania (specimens), representing 1,285 cranial bones (skeletal elements), from 101 Eurasian UP sites. We used generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) to assess trauma prevalence in relation to age-at-death, sex, anatomical distribution, and between pre- and post-Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) samples, while accounting for skeletal preservation. Results: Models predicted a mean cranial trauma prevalence of 0.07 (95% CI 0.003–0.19) at the level of skeletal elements, and of 0.26 (95% CI 0.08–0.48) at the level of specimens, each when 76–100% complete. Trauma prevalence increased with skeletal preservation. Across specimen and skeletal element datasets, trauma prevalence tended to be higher for males, and was consistently higher in the old age group. We found no time-specific trauma prevalence patterns for the two sexes or age cohorts when comparing samples from before and after the LGM. Samples showed higher trauma prevalence in the vault than in the face, with vault remains being affected predominantly in males. Discussion: Cranial trauma prevalence in UP humans falls within the variation described for Mesolithic and Neolithic samples. According to our current dataset, UP males and females were exposed to slightly different injury risks and trauma distributions, potentially due to different activities or behaviors, yet both sexes exhibit more trauma among the old. Environmental stressors associated with climatic changes of the LGM are not reflected in cranial trauma prevalence. To analyze trauma in incomplete skeletal remains we propose GLMMs as an informative alternative to crude frequency calculations.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Michele Martini;
    Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: EC | NHNME (837727)

    In the last decade, macro religious institutions have undergone a process of digitalization that enabled them to incorporate Internet Communication Technologies in their organizational infrastructure. Stemming from digital religion scholarship, the research presented in this paper relate to a study of the philosophy and functioning of an innovative Catholic media enterprise called Christian Media Center (CMC). Based in Israel and the Occupied Palestinian Territories, the CMC was established through the cooperation between the long-standing Franciscan Order and the technology-savvy Brazilian community of Canção Nova. Accordingly, this paper asks: which forms of interdenominational negotiation are involved in the functioning of the CMC? Drawing on interviews conducted during three years, this research will outline the process of internal negotiation required by the development of this Catholic new media project and propose possible directions for future research. This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement No 837727

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Juan Carlos Fernandez-Diaz; Anna S. Cohen;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: United States
    Project: EC | CALI (639828)

    As a response to Hurricane Mitch and the resulting widespread loss of life and destruction of Honduran infrastructure in 1998, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) conducted the first wide-area airborne lidar topographic mapping project in Central America. The survey was executed by the Bureau of Economic Geology at the University of Texas at Austin (BEG) in 2000, and it was intended to cover 240 square kilometers distributed among 15 flood-prone communities throughout Honduras. The original data processing produced basic digital elevation models at 1.5-meter grid spacing which were used as inputs for hydrological modeling. The USGS published the results in a series of technical reports in 2002. The authors became interested in this dataset in 2013 while searching for geospatial data that would provide additional context and comparative references for an archaeological lidar project conducted in 2012 in the Honduran Mosquitia. After multiple requests to representatives from the USGS and BEG, we found various types of processed data in personal and institutional archives, culminating in the identification of 8-mm magnetic tapes that contained the original point clouds. Point clouds for the 15 communities plus a test area centered on the Maya site of Copan were recovered from the tapes (16 areas totaling 700 km2). These point clouds have been reprocessed by the authors using contemporary software and methods into higher resolution and fidelity products. Within these new products, we have identified and mapped multiple archaeological sites in proximity to modern cities, many of which are not part of the official Honduran site registry. Besides improving our understanding of ancient Honduras, our experiences dealing with issues of data management and access, ethics, and international collaboration have been informative. This paper summarizes our experiences in the hope that they will contribute to the discussion and development of best practices for handling geospatial datasets of archaeological value.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Aoife Daly; Marta Domínguez-Delmás; Wendy van Duivenvoorde;
    Country: Netherlands
    Project: EC | TIMBER (677152), ARC | Linkage Projects - Grant ... (LP130100137)

    Ocean-going ships were key to rising maritime economies of the Early Modern period, and understanding how they were built is critical to grasp the challenges faced by shipwrights and merchant seafarers. Shipwreck timbers hold material evidence of the dynamic interplay of wood supplies, craftmanship, and evolving ship designs that helped shape the Early Modern world. Here we present the results of dendroarchaeological research carried out on Batavia’s wreck timbers, currently on display at the Western Australian Shipwrecks Museum in Fremantle. Built in Amsterdam in 1628 CE and wrecked on its maiden voyage in June 1629 CE in Western Australian waters, Batavia epitomises Dutch East India Company (Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie, or VOC) shipbuilding. In the 17th century, the VOC grew to become the first multinational trading enterprise, prompting the rise of the stock market and modern capitalism. Oak (Quercus sp.) was the preferred material for shipbuilding in northern and western Europe, and maritime nations struggled to ensure sufficient supplies to meet their needs and sustain their ever-growing mercantile fleets and networks. Our research illustrates the compatibility of dendrochronological studies with musealisation of shipwreck assemblages, and the results demonstrate that the VOC successfully coped with timber shortages in the early 17th century through diversification of timber sources (mainly Baltic region, Lübeck hinterland in northern Germany, and Lower Saxony in northwest Germany), allocation of sourcing regions to specific timber products (hull planks from the Baltic and Lübeck, framing elements from Lower Saxony), and skillful woodworking craftmanship (sapwood was removed from all timber elements). These strategies, combined with an innovative hull design and the use of wind-powered sawmills, allowed the Dutch to produce unprecedented numbers of ocean-going ships for long-distance voyaging and interregional trade in Asia, proving key to their success in 17th-century world trade.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Langley, TR;
    Publisher: Informa UK Limited
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: EC | ImpAncCit (693418)

    The idea of citizenship (politeuma) was a useful way for the Cappadocian Fathers to talk about identity, and thus about belonging. A prestigious and long-running discourse in Christian and non-Christian culture, it was connected to notions of loyalty to a homeland (patris) or city (polis), and to membership in a community (politeia). These could be both temporal and local on the one hand, and spiritual and universal on the other. Both implied certain differing relationships between the individual and the community, and thus could be causes of tension. In the writings of the Cappadocian Fathers, these concepts assumed markedly antagonistic aspects. Although the phenomenon of martyr cults went some way towards marrying these two concepts of citizenship, they could also throw up tensions between local and universal themselves, indicating that this divergence remained a significant tension for the Cappadocians, and within fourth-century Greek Christianity more generally.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Eline M.J. Schotsmans; Roland Wessling; W. Alan McClue; Andrew Wilson; Howell G. M. Edwards; J. Denton;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Country: France
    Project: EC | ArchFarm (794891)

    Abstract The Murambi Genocide Memorial Centre is one of the major centres in Rwanda that commemorate the 1994 Rwandan genocide. Seventeen months after the genocide, about 1000 excavated human remains were put on display in Murambi Technical School. Repeated efforts were made to desiccate the human remains with lime for educational reasons. The aim of this study was to assess their state of preservation and understand the extent of degradation of the tissue. Limed soft tissue samples from four individuals were examined with light and electron microscopy, and subjected to histological analysis. Raman spectroscopy at 785 nm and 1064 nm provided information about the impact of environmental conditions on the extent of deterioration to these samples, the presence of organics and the conversion of the associated lime from calcium hydroxide to calcium carbonate. While visual degradation of the bodies in Murambi has been reported, this study confirms deterioration at a microscopic and molecular level. Both histology and Raman spectroscopic analysis revealed that the limed bodies in Murambi were deteriorating at the time the samples were collected. The results of this study will inform future decisions regarding the long-term conservation of those human remains.

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . 2020
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Freitas, Joana Gaspar de;
    Publisher: University of Westminster Press
    Country: Portugal
    Project: EC | DUNES (802918)

    Submitted by Ana Marcelino (dunesproject@letras.ulisboa.pt) on 2020-06-01T13:36:46Z No. of bitstreams: 1 4-231-1-PB.pdf: 467976 bytes, checksum: f6cfe3caee688021cfc1d33a6524d62e (MD5) Approved for entry into archive by Manuel Moreno (manuelmoreno@campus.ul.pt) on 2020-06-01T13:55:11Z (GMT) No. of bitstreams: 1 4-231-1-PB.pdf: 467976 bytes, checksum: f6cfe3caee688021cfc1d33a6524d62e (MD5) Made available in DSpace on 2020-06-01T14:03:37Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 4-231-1-PB.pdf: 467976 bytes, checksum: f6cfe3caee688021cfc1d33a6524d62e (MD5) Previous issue date: 2020-05-27 info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Daniela Reggio; Daniela Saviello; Massimo Lazzari; Daniela Iacopino;
    Publisher: Elsevier
    Country: Ireland
    Project: EC | NANORESTART (646063)

    Plastic materials are increasingly becoming part of private and public collections worldwide, either as design objects or artistic sculptures. The preservation of these highly degradable materials requires novel analytical approaches able to reveal their chemical composition to inform the tailoring of appropriate conservation procedures. In this work Raman spectroscopy and Surface-enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) were proposed as methods for the characterization of ABS-based contemporary and historical LEGO® objects. Twenty-three objects of twelve different colors were analyzed by handheld and benchtop Raman instrumentation. In all cases clear identification of the constituent polymer matrices (ABS, polycarbonate, poly(methyl metacrylate)) was obtained. In addition, identification of major color components was achieved, such as copper phthalocyanines in green and blue objects. Low cost handheld instrumentation provided acceptable sensitivity towards polymers and coloring media, and was found suitable for initial screening of the objects. Benchtop Raman was used to confirm and further extend identification, as well as for building background information. Finally, SERS sensitivity was found comparable to the sensitivity achieved by benchtop Raman instrumentation. However, the associated minimally-invasive sampling method made SERS a valid alternative to direct Raman spectroscopy for the analysis of immovable and/or large-sized objects. Overall, this work represents the first systematic investigation on the potential of Raman and SERS spectroscopies as methods for minimal invasive and/or in situ analysis of historical and contemporary plastic objects.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Claire Morelon;
    Publisher: SAGE Publications Ltd
    Country: Italy
    Project: EC | PREWArAs (677199)

    This article analyses the practices of violence during strikes in Habsburg Austria from the 1890s until the outbreak of the First World War. As the number of social conflicts rose at the turn of the century, strikes increasingly became one of the main sites of public violence in Austrian society, alongside demonstrations. Violent confrontations between strikers, strike-breakers, and the state forces protecting them frequently occurred. The first section discusses the state repression used to quell internal unrest and its consequences on the rule of law. The following sections explore the micro-dynamics of strikebreaking within the larger context of the reaction against Social Democracy in the period. Especially after the successful mobilization for suffrage reform in 1905–906, employers and other propertied classes saw strikers as part of a general threat. The Czech and German nationalist workers’ movements can also be reassessed through the lens of these social conflicts, rather than only as manifestations of radical nationalism. Strikes are here analysed as one case study addressing current debates in the historiography on the Habsburg Empire: first on the implementation of the rule of law on the ground in Habsburg Austria, then on the impact of democratization in the decades before 1914.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Anna Scius-Bertrand; Michael Jungo; Beat Wolf; Andreas Fischer; Marc Bui;
    Publisher: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
    Project: EC | VIETNAMICA (833933)

    The current state of the art for automatic transcription of historical manuscripts is typically limited by the requirement of human-annotated learning samples, which are are necessary to train specific machine learning models for specific languages and scripts. Transcription alignment is a simpler task that aims to find a correspondence between text in the scanned image and its existing Unicode counterpart, a correspondence which can then be used as training data. The alignment task can be approached with heuristic methods dedicated to certain types of manuscripts, or with weakly trained systems reducing the required amount of annotations. In this article, we propose a novel learning-based alignment method based on fully convolutional object detection that does not require any human annotation at all. Instead, the object detection system is initially trained on synthetic printed pages using a font and then adapted to the real manuscripts by means of self-training. On a dataset of historical Vietnamese handwriting, we demonstrate the feasibility of annotation-free alignment as well as the positive impact of self-training on the character detection accuracy, reaching a detection accuracy of 96.4% with a YOLOv5m model without using any human annotation.

Advanced search in Research products
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
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arrow_drop_down
Include:
The following results are related to Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
4,229 Research products, page 1 of 423
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Judith Beier; Nils Anthes; Joachim Wahl; Katerina Harvati;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: EC | CROSSROADS (724703)

    Objectives: This study characterizes patterns of cranial trauma prevalence in a large sample of Upper Paleolithic (UP) fossil specimens (40,000–10,000 BP). Materials and Methods: Our sample comprised 234 individual crania (specimens), representing 1,285 cranial bones (skeletal elements), from 101 Eurasian UP sites. We used generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) to assess trauma prevalence in relation to age-at-death, sex, anatomical distribution, and between pre- and post-Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) samples, while accounting for skeletal preservation. Results: Models predicted a mean cranial trauma prevalence of 0.07 (95% CI 0.003–0.19) at the level of skeletal elements, and of 0.26 (95% CI 0.08–0.48) at the level of specimens, each when 76–100% complete. Trauma prevalence increased with skeletal preservation. Across specimen and skeletal element datasets, trauma prevalence tended to be higher for males, and was consistently higher in the old age group. We found no time-specific trauma prevalence patterns for the two sexes or age cohorts when comparing samples from before and after the LGM. Samples showed higher trauma prevalence in the vault than in the face, with vault remains being affected predominantly in males. Discussion: Cranial trauma prevalence in UP humans falls within the variation described for Mesolithic and Neolithic samples. According to our current dataset, UP males and females were exposed to slightly different injury risks and trauma distributions, potentially due to different activities or behaviors, yet both sexes exhibit more trauma among the old. Environmental stressors associated with climatic changes of the LGM are not reflected in cranial trauma prevalence. To analyze trauma in incomplete skeletal remains we propose GLMMs as an informative alternative to crude frequency calculations.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Michele Martini;
    Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: EC | NHNME (837727)

    In the last decade, macro religious institutions have undergone a process of digitalization that enabled them to incorporate Internet Communication Technologies in their organizational infrastructure. Stemming from digital religion scholarship, the research presented in this paper relate to a study of the philosophy and functioning of an innovative Catholic media enterprise called Christian Media Center (CMC). Based in Israel and the Occupied Palestinian Territories, the CMC was established through the cooperation between the long-standing Franciscan Order and the technology-savvy Brazilian community of Canção Nova. Accordingly, this paper asks: which forms of interdenominational negotiation are involved in the functioning of the CMC? Drawing on interviews conducted during three years, this research will outline the process of internal negotiation required by the development of this Catholic new media project and propose possible directions for future research. This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement No 837727

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Juan Carlos Fernandez-Diaz; Anna S. Cohen;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: United States
    Project: EC | CALI (639828)

    As a response to Hurricane Mitch and the resulting widespread loss of life and destruction of Honduran infrastructure in 1998, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) conducted the first wide-area airborne lidar topographic mapping project in Central America. The survey was executed by the Bureau of Economic Geology at the University of Texas at Austin (BEG) in 2000, and it was intended to cover 240 square kilometers distributed among 15 flood-prone communities throughout Honduras. The original data processing produced basic digital elevation models at 1.5-meter grid spacing which were used as inputs for hydrological modeling. The USGS published the results in a series of technical reports in 2002. The authors became interested in this dataset in 2013 while searching for geospatial data that would provide additional context and comparative references for an archaeological lidar project conducted in 2012 in the Honduran Mosquitia. After multiple requests to representatives from the USGS and BEG, we found various types of processed data in personal and institutional archives, culminating in the identification of 8-mm magnetic tapes that contained the original point clouds. Point clouds for the 15 communities plus a test area centered on the Maya site of Copan were recovered from the tapes (16 areas totaling 700 km2). These point clouds have been reprocessed by the authors using contemporary software and methods into higher resolution and fidelity products. Within these new products, we have identified and mapped multiple archaeological sites in proximity to modern cities, many of which are not part of the official Honduran site registry. Besides improving our understanding of ancient Honduras, our experiences dealing with issues of data management and access, ethics, and international collaboration have been informative. This paper summarizes our experiences in the hope that they will contribute to the discussion and development of best practices for handling geospatial datasets of archaeological value.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Aoife Daly; Marta Domínguez-Delmás; Wendy van Duivenvoorde;
    Country: Netherlands
    Project: EC | TIMBER (677152), ARC | Linkage Projects - Grant ... (LP130100137)

    Ocean-going ships were key to rising maritime economies of the Early Modern period, and understanding how they were built is critical to grasp the challenges faced by shipwrights and merchant seafarers. Shipwreck timbers hold material evidence of the dynamic interplay of wood supplies, craftmanship, and evolving ship designs that helped shape the Early Modern world. Here we present the results of dendroarchaeological research carried out on Batavia’s wreck timbers, currently on display at the Western Australian Shipwrecks Museum in Fremantle. Built in Amsterdam in 1628 CE and wrecked on its maiden voyage in June 1629 CE in Western Australian waters, Batavia epitomises Dutch East India Company (Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie, or VOC) shipbuilding. In the 17th century, the VOC grew to become the first multinational trading enterprise, prompting the rise of the stock market and modern capitalism. Oak (Quercus sp.) was the preferred material for shipbuilding in northern and western Europe, and maritime nations struggled to ensure sufficient supplies to meet their needs and sustain their ever-growing mercantile fleets and networks. Our research illustrates the compatibility of dendrochronological studies with musealisation of shipwreck assemblages, and the results demonstrate that the VOC successfully coped with timber shortages in the early 17th century through diversification of timber sources (mainly Baltic region, Lübeck hinterland in northern Germany, and Lower Saxony in northwest Germany), allocation of sourcing regions to specific timber products (hull planks from the Baltic and Lübeck, framing elements from Lower Saxony), and skillful woodworking craftmanship (sapwood was removed from all timber elements). These strategies, combined with an innovative hull design and the use of wind-powered sawmills, allowed the Dutch to produce unprecedented numbers of ocean-going ships for long-distance voyaging and interregional trade in Asia, proving key to their success in 17th-century world trade.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Langley, TR;
    Publisher: Informa UK Limited
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: EC | ImpAncCit (693418)

    The idea of citizenship (politeuma) was a useful way for the Cappadocian Fathers to talk about identity, and thus about belonging. A prestigious and long-running discourse in Christian and non-Christian culture, it was connected to notions of loyalty to a homeland (patris) or city (polis), and to membership in a community (politeia). These could be both temporal and local on the one hand, and spiritual and universal on the other. Both implied certain differing relationships between the individual and the community, and thus could be causes of tension. In the writings of the Cappadocian Fathers, these concepts assumed markedly antagonistic aspects. Although the phenomenon of martyr cults went some way towards marrying these two concepts of citizenship, they could also throw up tensions between local and universal themselves, indicating that this divergence remained a significant tension for the Cappadocians, and within fourth-century Greek Christianity more generally.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Eline M.J. Schotsmans; Roland Wessling; W. Alan McClue; Andrew Wilson; Howell G. M. Edwards; J. Denton;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Country: France
    Project: EC | ArchFarm (794891)

    Abstract The Murambi Genocide Memorial Centre is one of the major centres in Rwanda that commemorate the 1994 Rwandan genocide. Seventeen months after the genocide, about 1000 excavated human remains were put on display in Murambi Technical School. Repeated efforts were made to desiccate the human remains with lime for educational reasons. The aim of this study was to assess their state of preservation and understand the extent of degradation of the tissue. Limed soft tissue samples from four individuals were examined with light and electron microscopy, and subjected to histological analysis. Raman spectroscopy at 785 nm and 1064 nm provided information about the impact of environmental conditions on the extent of deterioration to these samples, the presence of organics and the conversion of the associated lime from calcium hydroxide to calcium carbonate. While visual degradation of the bodies in Murambi has been reported, this study confirms deterioration at a microscopic and molecular level. Both histology and Raman spectroscopic analysis revealed that the limed bodies in Murambi were deteriorating at the time the samples were collected. The results of this study will inform future decisions regarding the long-term conservation of those human remains.

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . 2020
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Freitas, Joana Gaspar de;
    Publisher: University of Westminster Press
    Country: Portugal
    Project: EC | DUNES (802918)

    Submitted by Ana Marcelino (dunesproject@letras.ulisboa.pt) on 2020-06-01T13:36:46Z No. of bitstreams: 1 4-231-1-PB.pdf: 467976 bytes, checksum: f6cfe3caee688021cfc1d33a6524d62e (MD5) Approved for entry into archive by Manuel Moreno (manuelmoreno@campus.ul.pt) on 2020-06-01T13:55:11Z (GMT) No. of bitstreams: 1 4-231-1-PB.pdf: 467976 bytes, checksum: f6cfe3caee688021cfc1d33a6524d62e (MD5) Made available in DSpace on 2020-06-01T14:03:37Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 4-231-1-PB.pdf: 467976 bytes, checksum: f6cfe3caee688021cfc1d33a6524d62e (MD5) Previous issue date: 2020-05-27 info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Daniela Reggio; Daniela Saviello; Massimo Lazzari; Daniela Iacopino;
    Publisher: Elsevier
    Country: Ireland
    Project: EC | NANORESTART (646063)

    Plastic materials are increasingly becoming part of private and public collections worldwide, either as design objects or artistic sculptures. The preservation of these highly degradable materials requires novel analytical approaches able to reveal their chemical composition to inform the tailoring of appropriate conservation procedures. In this work Raman spectroscopy and Surface-enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) were proposed as methods for the characterization of ABS-based contemporary and historical LEGO® objects. Twenty-three objects of twelve different colors were analyzed by handheld and benchtop Raman instrumentation. In all cases clear identification of the constituent polymer matrices (ABS, polycarbonate, poly(methyl metacrylate)) was obtained. In addition, identification of major color components was achieved, such as copper phthalocyanines in green and blue objects. Low cost handheld instrumentation provided acceptable sensitivity towards polymers and coloring media, and was found suitable for initial screening of the objects. Benchtop Raman was used to confirm and further extend identification, as well as for building background information. Finally, SERS sensitivity was found comparable to the sensitivity achieved by benchtop Raman instrumentation. However, the associated minimally-invasive sampling method made SERS a valid alternative to direct Raman spectroscopy for the analysis of immovable and/or large-sized objects. Overall, this work represents the first systematic investigation on the potential of Raman and SERS spectroscopies as methods for minimal invasive and/or in situ analysis of historical and contemporary plastic objects.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Claire Morelon;
    Publisher: SAGE Publications Ltd
    Country: Italy
    Project: EC | PREWArAs (677199)

    This article analyses the practices of violence during strikes in Habsburg Austria from the 1890s until the outbreak of the First World War. As the number of social conflicts rose at the turn of the century, strikes increasingly became one of the main sites of public violence in Austrian society, alongside demonstrations. Violent confrontations between strikers, strike-breakers, and the state forces protecting them frequently occurred. The first section discusses the state repression used to quell internal unrest and its consequences on the rule of law. The following sections explore the micro-dynamics of strikebreaking within the larger context of the reaction against Social Democracy in the period. Especially after the successful mobilization for suffrage reform in 1905–906, employers and other propertied classes saw strikers as part of a general threat. The Czech and German nationalist workers’ movements can also be reassessed through the lens of these social conflicts, rather than only as manifestations of radical nationalism. Strikes are here analysed as one case study addressing current debates in the historiography on the Habsburg Empire: first on the implementation of the rule of law on the ground in Habsburg Austria, then on the impact of democratization in the decades before 1914.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Anna Scius-Bertrand; Michael Jungo; Beat Wolf; Andreas Fischer; Marc Bui;
    Publisher: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
    Project: EC | VIETNAMICA (833933)

    The current state of the art for automatic transcription of historical manuscripts is typically limited by the requirement of human-annotated learning samples, which are are necessary to train specific machine learning models for specific languages and scripts. Transcription alignment is a simpler task that aims to find a correspondence between text in the scanned image and its existing Unicode counterpart, a correspondence which can then be used as training data. The alignment task can be approached with heuristic methods dedicated to certain types of manuscripts, or with weakly trained systems reducing the required amount of annotations. In this article, we propose a novel learning-based alignment method based on fully convolutional object detection that does not require any human annotation at all. Instead, the object detection system is initially trained on synthetic printed pages using a font and then adapted to the real manuscripts by means of self-training. On a dataset of historical Vietnamese handwriting, we demonstrate the feasibility of annotation-free alignment as well as the positive impact of self-training on the character detection accuracy, reaching a detection accuracy of 96.4% with a YOLOv5m model without using any human annotation.