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912 Research products, page 1 of 92

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  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Marion Weller-Di Marco; Alexander Fraser;
    Publisher: Association for Computational Linguistics

    This paper studies strategies to model word formation in NMT using rich linguistic information, namely a word segmentation approach that goes beyond splitting into substrings by considering fusional morphology. Our linguistically sound segmentation is combined with a method for target-side inflection to accommodate modeling word formation. The best system variants employ source-side morphological analysis and model complex target-side words, improving over a standard system.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Claudia Felser; Anna Jessen;
    Publisher: MDPI AG
    Country: Germany

    Coordinated subjects often show variable number agreement with the finite verb, but linguistic approaches to this phenomenon have rarely been informed by systematically collected data. We report the results from three experiments investigating German speakers' agreement preferences with complex subjects joined by the correlative conjunctions sowohl horizontal ellipsis als auch ('both horizontal ellipsis and'), weder horizontal ellipsis noch ('neither horizontal ellipsis nor') or entweder horizontal ellipsis oder ('either horizontal ellipsis or'). We examine to what extent conjunction type and a conjunct's relative proximity to the verb affect the acceptability and processibility of singular vs. plural agreement. Experiment 1 was an untimed acceptability rating task, Experiment 2 a timed sentence completion task, and Experiment 3 was a self-paced reading task. Taken together, our results show that number agreement with correlative coordination in German is primarily determined by a default constraint triggering plural agreement, which interacts with linear order and semantic factors. Semantic differences between conjunctions only affected speakers' agreement preferences in the absence of processing pressure but not their initial agreement computation. The combined results from our offline and online experimental measures of German speakers' agreement preferences suggest that the constraints under investigation do not only differ in their relative weighting but also in their relative timing during agreement computation.

  • Publication . Other literature type . Article . 2017
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Michael Haslam; R. Adriana Hernandez-Aguilar; Tomos Proffitt; Adrián Arroyo; Tiago Falótico; Dorothy M. Fragaszy; Michael D. Gumert; John W.K. Harris; Michael A. Huffman; Ammie K. Kalan; +12 more
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Countries: Italy, United Kingdom, United Kingdom, Switzerland
    Project: EC | PRIMARCH (283959)

    Since its inception, archaeology has traditionally focused exclusively on humans and our direct ancestors. However, recent years have seen archaeological techniques applied to material evidence left behind by non-human animals. Here, we review advances made by the most prominent field investigating past non-human tool use: primate archaeology. This field combines survey of wild primate activity areas with ethological observations, excavations and analyses that allow the reconstruction of past primate behaviour. Because the order Primates includes humans, new insights into the behavioural evolution of apes and monkeys also can be used to better interrogate the record of early tool use in our own, hominin, lineage. This work has recently doubled the set of primate lineages with an excavated archaeological record, adding Old World macaques and New World capuchin monkeys to chimpanzees and humans, and it has shown that tool selection and transport, and discrete site formation, are universal among wild stone-tool-using primates. It has also revealed that wild capuchins regularly break stone tools in a way that can make them difficult to distinguish from simple early hominin tools. Ultimately, this research opens up opportunities for the development of a broader animal archaeology, marking the end of archaeology’s anthropocentric era.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Clara D. Martin; Monika Molnar; Manuel Carreiras;
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Country: Spain
    Project: EC | BILITERACY (295362), EC | ATHEME (613465)

    Published: 13 May 2016 The present study investigated the proactive nature of the human brain in language perception. Specifically, we examined whether early proficient bilinguals can use interlocutor identity as a cue for language prediction, using an event-related potentials (ERP) paradigm. Participants were first familiarized, through video segments, with six novel interlocutors who were either monolingual or bilingual. Then, the participants completed an audio-visual lexical decision task in which all the interlocutors uttered words and pseudo-words. Critically, the speech onset started about 350 ms after the beginning of the video. ERP waves between the onset of the visual presentation of the interlocutors and the onset of their speech significantly differed for trials where the language was not predictable (bilingual interlocutors) and trials where the language was predictable (monolingual interlocutors), revealing that visual interlocutor identity can in fact function as a cue for language prediction, even before the onset of the auditory-linguistic signal. This research was funded by the Severo Ochoa program grant SEV-2015-0490, a grant from the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (PSI2012-31448), from FP7/2007-2013 Cooperation grant agreement 613465-AThEME and an ERC grant from the European Research Council (ERC-2011-ADG-295362) to M.C. We thank Antonio Ibañez for his work in stimulus preparation.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Jose Manuel Gomez-Perez; Raul Ortega;
    Publisher: Association for Computational Linguistics
    Project: EC | ELG (825627)

    Textbook Question Answering is a complex task in the intersection of Machine Comprehension and Visual Question Answering that requires reasoning with multimodal information from text and diagrams. For the first time, this paper taps on the potential of transformer language models and bottom-up and top-down attention to tackle the language and visual understanding challenges this task entails. Rather than training a language-visual transformer from scratch we rely on pre-trained transformers, fine-tuning and ensembling. We add bottom-up and top-down attention to identify regions of interest corresponding to diagram constituents and their relationships, improving the selection of relevant visual information for each question and answer options. Our system ISAAQ reports unprecedented success in all TQA question types, with accuracies of 81.36%, 71.11% and 55.12% on true/false, text-only and diagram multiple choice questions. ISAAQ also demonstrates its broad applicability, obtaining state-of-the-art results in other demanding datasets. Comment: Accepted for publication as a long paper in EMNLP2020

  • Publication . Other literature type . Article . 2017
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Hilary S.Z. Wynne; Linda Wheeldon; Aditi Lahiri;
    Countries: United Kingdom, Norway
    Project: EC | MOR-PHON (695481)

    Abstract Four language production experiments examine how English speakers plan compound words during phonological encoding. The experiments tested production latencies in both delayed and online tasks for English noun-noun compounds (e.g., daytime), adjective-noun phrases (e.g., dark time), and monomorphemic words (e.g., denim). In delayed production, speech onset latencies reflect the total number of prosodic units in the target sentence. In online production, speech latencies reflect the size of the first prosodic unit. Compounds are metrically similar to adjective-noun phrases as they contain two lexical and two prosodic words. However, in Experiments 1 and 2, native English speakers treated the compounds as single prosodic units, indistinguishable from simple words, with RT data statistically different than that of the adjective-noun phrases. Experiments 3 and 4 demonstrate that compounds are also treated as single prosodic units in utterances containing clitics (e.g., dishcloths are clean) as they incorporate the verb into a single phonological word (i.e. dishcloths-are). Taken together, these results suggest that English compounds are planned as single recursive prosodic units. Our data require an adaptation of the classic model of phonological encoding to incorporate a distinction between lexical and postlexical prosodic processes, such that lexical boundaries have consequences for post-lexical phonological encoding.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jana Hasenäcker; Olga Solaja; Davide Crepaldi;
    Country: Italy
    Project: EC | STATLEARN (679010)

    In visual word identification, readers automatically access word internal information: they recognize orthographically embedded words (e.g., HAT in THAT) and are sensitive to morphological structure (DEAL-ER, BASKET-BALL). The exact mechanisms that govern these processes, however, are not well established yet - how is this information used? What is the role of affixes in this process? To address these questions, we tested the activation of meaning of embedded word stems in the presence or absence of a morphological structure using two semantic categorization tasks in Italian. Participants made category decisions on words (e.g., is CARROT a type of food?). Some no-answers (is CORNER a type of food?) contained category-congruent embedded word stems (i.e., CORN-). Moreover, the embedded stems could be accompanied by a pseudo-suffix (-er in CORNER) or a non-morphological ending (-ce in PEACE) - this allowed gauging the role of pseudo-suffixes in stem activation. The analyses of accuracy and response times revealed that words were harder to reject as members of a category when they contained an embedded word stem that was indeed category-congruent. Critically, this was the case regardless of the presence or absence of a pseudo-suffix. These findings provide evidence that the lexical identification system activates the meaning of embedded word stems when the task requires semantic information. This study brings together research on orthographic neighbors and morphological processing, yielding results that have important implications for models of visual word processing.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Evert Van de Vliert; Christian Welzel; Andrey Shcherbak; Ronald Fischer; Amy C. Alexander;
    Publisher: SAGE Publications
    Countries: Germany, Netherlands

    The roots and routes of cultural evolution are still a mystery. Here, we aim to lift a corner of that veil by illuminating the deep origins of encultured freedoms, which evolved through centuries-long processes of learning to pursue and transmit values and practices oriented toward autonomous individual choice. Analyzing a multitude of data sources, we unravel for 108 Old World countries a sequence of cultural evolution reaching from (a) ancient climates suitable for dairy farming to (b) lactose tolerance at the eve of the colonial era to (c) resources that empowered people in the early industrial era to (d) encultured freedoms today. Historically, lactose tolerance peaks under two contrasting conditions: cold winters and cool summers with steady rain versus hot summers and warm winters with extensive dry periods (Study 1). However, only the cold/wet variant of these two conditions links lactose tolerance at the eve of the colonial era to empowering resources in early industrial times, and to encultured freedoms today (Study 2). We interpret these findings as a form of gene-culture coevolution within a novel thermo-hydraulic theory of freedoms.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Leonel Figueiredo de Alencar; Christoph Schwarze;
    Publisher: Pontifícia Universidade Católica de São Paulo - PUC-SP

    ABSTRACT The French clitic pro-form en represents a wide range of heterogeneous constituents: de-PP complements and adjuncts, partitive objects, and prepositionless objects of cardinals. The main goal of this paper is to formalize this relationship computationally in terms of genitive case. This is apparently the first non-transformational counterpart to Kayne (1975)’s unified analysis, which derives en from a deep structure with de by means of syntactic transformations. Transformational grammars are problematic from the parsing perspective. In order to test our analysis automatically on a large amount of data, we implemented it in a computational grammar of French in the Lexical-Functional Grammar (LFG) formalism using the XLE system. This non-transformational framework is particularly fit for expressing systematic relationships between heterogeneous structures and has successfully been used for the implementation of natural language grammars since the 1980s. We tested the implementation on 320 grammatical sentences and on an equal number of ungrammatical examples. It analyzed all grammatical examples and blocked almost 95% of the ungrammatical ones, showing a high empirical adequacy of the grammar. RESUMO A pró-forma clítica en do Francês representa ampla variedade de constituintes heterogêneos: PPs complementos e adjuntos introduzidos por de, objetos partitivos e objetos desprovidos de preposição de numerais cardinais. O objetivo principal deste artigo é formalizar essa relação computacionalmente por meio do caso genitivo. Esta é, aparentemente, a primeira contraparte não-transformacional da análise unificada de Kayne (1975), a qual deriva en de uma estrutura profunda com de por meio de transformações sintáticas. Gramáticas transformacionais são problemáticas sob a perspectiva da análise sintática automática. A fim de testar nossa análise automaticamente em um grande volume de dados, implementamo-la em uma gramática computacional do francês no formalismo da Gramática Léxico-Funcional (LFG) usando o sistema XLE. Esse modelo não-transformacional é especialmente adequado para expressar relações sistemáticas entre estruturas heterogêneas e tem sido usado com sucesso na implementação de gramáticas de línguas naturais desde os anos de 1980. Testamos a implementação em 320 sentenças gramaticais e em igual número de exemplos agramaticais. Foram analisados todos os exemplos gramaticais e bloqueados quase 95% dos agramaticais, mostrando que a gramática possui uma alta adequação empírica.

  • Publication . Conference object . Other literature type . 2020
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Ludusan, Bogdan; Wagner, Petra;
    Publisher: ISCA
    Country: Germany
    Project: EC | HA-HA (799022)

    With laughter research seeing a development in recent years, there is also an increased need in materials having laughter annotations. We examine in this study how one can leverage existing spontaneous speech resources to this goal. We first analyze the process of manual laughter annotation in corpora, by establishing two important parameters of the process: the amount of time required and its inter-rater reliability. Next, we propose a novel semi-automatic tool for laughter annotation, based on a signal-based representation of speech rhythm. We test both annotation approaches on the same recordings, containing German dyadic spontaneous interactions, and employing a larger pool of annotators than previously done. We then compare and discuss the obtained results based on the two aforementioned parameters, highlighting the benefits and costs associated to each approach.

Advanced search in Research products
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
The following results are related to Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
912 Research products, page 1 of 92
  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Marion Weller-Di Marco; Alexander Fraser;
    Publisher: Association for Computational Linguistics

    This paper studies strategies to model word formation in NMT using rich linguistic information, namely a word segmentation approach that goes beyond splitting into substrings by considering fusional morphology. Our linguistically sound segmentation is combined with a method for target-side inflection to accommodate modeling word formation. The best system variants employ source-side morphological analysis and model complex target-side words, improving over a standard system.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Claudia Felser; Anna Jessen;
    Publisher: MDPI AG
    Country: Germany

    Coordinated subjects often show variable number agreement with the finite verb, but linguistic approaches to this phenomenon have rarely been informed by systematically collected data. We report the results from three experiments investigating German speakers' agreement preferences with complex subjects joined by the correlative conjunctions sowohl horizontal ellipsis als auch ('both horizontal ellipsis and'), weder horizontal ellipsis noch ('neither horizontal ellipsis nor') or entweder horizontal ellipsis oder ('either horizontal ellipsis or'). We examine to what extent conjunction type and a conjunct's relative proximity to the verb affect the acceptability and processibility of singular vs. plural agreement. Experiment 1 was an untimed acceptability rating task, Experiment 2 a timed sentence completion task, and Experiment 3 was a self-paced reading task. Taken together, our results show that number agreement with correlative coordination in German is primarily determined by a default constraint triggering plural agreement, which interacts with linear order and semantic factors. Semantic differences between conjunctions only affected speakers' agreement preferences in the absence of processing pressure but not their initial agreement computation. The combined results from our offline and online experimental measures of German speakers' agreement preferences suggest that the constraints under investigation do not only differ in their relative weighting but also in their relative timing during agreement computation.

  • Publication . Other literature type . Article . 2017
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Michael Haslam; R. Adriana Hernandez-Aguilar; Tomos Proffitt; Adrián Arroyo; Tiago Falótico; Dorothy M. Fragaszy; Michael D. Gumert; John W.K. Harris; Michael A. Huffman; Ammie K. Kalan; +12 more
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Countries: Italy, United Kingdom, United Kingdom, Switzerland
    Project: EC | PRIMARCH (283959)

    Since its inception, archaeology has traditionally focused exclusively on humans and our direct ancestors. However, recent years have seen archaeological techniques applied to material evidence left behind by non-human animals. Here, we review advances made by the most prominent field investigating past non-human tool use: primate archaeology. This field combines survey of wild primate activity areas with ethological observations, excavations and analyses that allow the reconstruction of past primate behaviour. Because the order Primates includes humans, new insights into the behavioural evolution of apes and monkeys also can be used to better interrogate the record of early tool use in our own, hominin, lineage. This work has recently doubled the set of primate lineages with an excavated archaeological record, adding Old World macaques and New World capuchin monkeys to chimpanzees and humans, and it has shown that tool selection and transport, and discrete site formation, are universal among wild stone-tool-using primates. It has also revealed that wild capuchins regularly break stone tools in a way that can make them difficult to distinguish from simple early hominin tools. Ultimately, this research opens up opportunities for the development of a broader animal archaeology, marking the end of archaeology’s anthropocentric era.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Clara D. Martin; Monika Molnar; Manuel Carreiras;
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Country: Spain
    Project: EC | BILITERACY (295362), EC | ATHEME (613465)

    Published: 13 May 2016 The present study investigated the proactive nature of the human brain in language perception. Specifically, we examined whether early proficient bilinguals can use interlocutor identity as a cue for language prediction, using an event-related potentials (ERP) paradigm. Participants were first familiarized, through video segments, with six novel interlocutors who were either monolingual or bilingual. Then, the participants completed an audio-visual lexical decision task in which all the interlocutors uttered words and pseudo-words. Critically, the speech onset started about 350 ms after the beginning of the video. ERP waves between the onset of the visual presentation of the interlocutors and the onset of their speech significantly differed for trials where the language was not predictable (bilingual interlocutors) and trials where the language was predictable (monolingual interlocutors), revealing that visual interlocutor identity can in fact function as a cue for language prediction, even before the onset of the auditory-linguistic signal. This research was funded by the Severo Ochoa program grant SEV-2015-0490, a grant from the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (PSI2012-31448), from FP7/2007-2013 Cooperation grant agreement 613465-AThEME and an ERC grant from the European Research Council (ERC-2011-ADG-295362) to M.C. We thank Antonio Ibañez for his work in stimulus preparation.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Jose Manuel Gomez-Perez; Raul Ortega;
    Publisher: Association for Computational Linguistics
    Project: EC | ELG (825627)

    Textbook Question Answering is a complex task in the intersection of Machine Comprehension and Visual Question Answering that requires reasoning with multimodal information from text and diagrams. For the first time, this paper taps on the potential of transformer language models and bottom-up and top-down attention to tackle the language and visual understanding challenges this task entails. Rather than training a language-visual transformer from scratch we rely on pre-trained transformers, fine-tuning and ensembling. We add bottom-up and top-down attention to identify regions of interest corresponding to diagram constituents and their relationships, improving the selection of relevant visual information for each question and answer options. Our system ISAAQ reports unprecedented success in all TQA question types, with accuracies of 81.36%, 71.11% and 55.12% on true/false, text-only and diagram multiple choice questions. ISAAQ also demonstrates its broad applicability, obtaining state-of-the-art results in other demanding datasets. Comment: Accepted for publication as a long paper in EMNLP2020

  • Publication . Other literature type . Article . 2017
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Hilary S.Z. Wynne; Linda Wheeldon; Aditi Lahiri;
    Countries: United Kingdom, Norway
    Project: EC | MOR-PHON (695481)

    Abstract Four language production experiments examine how English speakers plan compound words during phonological encoding. The experiments tested production latencies in both delayed and online tasks for English noun-noun compounds (e.g., daytime), adjective-noun phrases (e.g., dark time), and monomorphemic words (e.g., denim). In delayed production, speech onset latencies reflect the total number of prosodic units in the target sentence. In online production, speech latencies reflect the size of the first prosodic unit. Compounds are metrically similar to adjective-noun phrases as they contain two lexical and two prosodic words. However, in Experiments 1 and 2, native English speakers treated the compounds as single prosodic units, indistinguishable from simple words, with RT data statistically different than that of the adjective-noun phrases. Experiments 3 and 4 demonstrate that compounds are also treated as single prosodic units in utterances containing clitics (e.g., dishcloths are clean) as they incorporate the verb into a single phonological word (i.e. dishcloths-are). Taken together, these results suggest that English compounds are planned as single recursive prosodic units. Our data require an adaptation of the classic model of phonological encoding to incorporate a distinction between lexical and postlexical prosodic processes, such that lexical boundaries have consequences for post-lexical phonological encoding.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jana Hasenäcker; Olga Solaja; Davide Crepaldi;
    Country: Italy
    Project: EC | STATLEARN (679010)

    In visual word identification, readers automatically access word internal information: they recognize orthographically embedded words (e.g., HAT in THAT) and are sensitive to morphological structure (DEAL-ER, BASKET-BALL). The exact mechanisms that govern these processes, however, are not well established yet - how is this information used? What is the role of affixes in this process? To address these questions, we tested the activation of meaning of embedded word stems in the presence or absence of a morphological structure using two semantic categorization tasks in Italian. Participants made category decisions on words (e.g., is CARROT a type of food?). Some no-answers (is CORNER a type of food?) contained category-congruent embedded word stems (i.e., CORN-). Moreover, the embedded stems could be accompanied by a pseudo-suffix (-er in CORNER) or a non-morphological ending (-ce in PEACE) - this allowed gauging the role of pseudo-suffixes in stem activation. The analyses of accuracy and response times revealed that words were harder to reject as members of a category when they contained an embedded word stem that was indeed category-congruent. Critically, this was the case regardless of the presence or absence of a pseudo-suffix. These findings provide evidence that the lexical identification system activates the meaning of embedded word stems when the task requires semantic information. This study brings together research on orthographic neighbors and morphological processing, yielding results that have important implications for models of visual word processing.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Evert Van de Vliert; Christian Welzel; Andrey Shcherbak; Ronald Fischer; Amy C. Alexander;
    Publisher: SAGE Publications
    Countries: Germany, Netherlands

    The roots and routes of cultural evolution are still a mystery. Here, we aim to lift a corner of that veil by illuminating the deep origins of encultured freedoms, which evolved through centuries-long processes of learning to pursue and transmit values and practices oriented toward autonomous individual choice. Analyzing a multitude of data sources, we unravel for 108 Old World countries a sequence of cultural evolution reaching from (a) ancient climates suitable for dairy farming to (b) lactose tolerance at the eve of the colonial era to (c) resources that empowered people in the early industrial era to (d) encultured freedoms today. Historically, lactose tolerance peaks under two contrasting conditions: cold winters and cool summers with steady rain versus hot summers and warm winters with extensive dry periods (Study 1). However, only the cold/wet variant of these two conditions links lactose tolerance at the eve of the colonial era to empowering resources in early industrial times, and to encultured freedoms today (Study 2). We interpret these findings as a form of gene-culture coevolution within a novel thermo-hydraulic theory of freedoms.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Leonel Figueiredo de Alencar; Christoph Schwarze;
    Publisher: Pontifícia Universidade Católica de São Paulo - PUC-SP

    ABSTRACT The French clitic pro-form en represents a wide range of heterogeneous constituents: de-PP complements and adjuncts, partitive objects, and prepositionless objects of cardinals. The main goal of this paper is to formalize this relationship computationally in terms of genitive case. This is apparently the first non-transformational counterpart to Kayne (1975)’s unified analysis, which derives en from a deep structure with de by means of syntactic transformations. Transformational grammars are problematic from the parsing perspective. In order to test our analysis automatically on a large amount of data, we implemented it in a computational grammar of French in the Lexical-Functional Grammar (LFG) formalism using the XLE system. This non-transformational framework is particularly fit for expressing systematic relationships between heterogeneous structures and has successfully been used for the implementation of natural language grammars since the 1980s. We tested the implementation on 320 grammatical sentences and on an equal number of ungrammatical examples. It analyzed all grammatical examples and blocked almost 95% of the ungrammatical ones, showing a high empirical adequacy of the grammar. RESUMO A pró-forma clítica en do Francês representa ampla variedade de constituintes heterogêneos: PPs complementos e adjuntos introduzidos por de, objetos partitivos e objetos desprovidos de preposição de numerais cardinais. O objetivo principal deste artigo é formalizar essa relação computacionalmente por meio do caso genitivo. Esta é, aparentemente, a primeira contraparte não-transformacional da análise unificada de Kayne (1975), a qual deriva en de uma estrutura profunda com de por meio de transformações sintáticas. Gramáticas transformacionais são problemáticas sob a perspectiva da análise sintática automática. A fim de testar nossa análise automaticamente em um grande volume de dados, implementamo-la em uma gramática computacional do francês no formalismo da Gramática Léxico-Funcional (LFG) usando o sistema XLE. Esse modelo não-transformacional é especialmente adequado para expressar relações sistemáticas entre estruturas heterogêneas e tem sido usado com sucesso na implementação de gramáticas de línguas naturais desde os anos de 1980. Testamos a implementação em 320 sentenças gramaticais e em igual número de exemplos agramaticais. Foram analisados todos os exemplos gramaticais e bloqueados quase 95% dos agramaticais, mostrando que a gramática possui uma alta adequação empírica.

  • Publication . Conference object . Other literature type . 2020
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Ludusan, Bogdan; Wagner, Petra;
    Publisher: ISCA
    Country: Germany
    Project: EC | HA-HA (799022)

    With laughter research seeing a development in recent years, there is also an increased need in materials having laughter annotations. We examine in this study how one can leverage existing spontaneous speech resources to this goal. We first analyze the process of manual laughter annotation in corpora, by establishing two important parameters of the process: the amount of time required and its inter-rater reliability. Next, we propose a novel semi-automatic tool for laughter annotation, based on a signal-based representation of speech rhythm. We test both annotation approaches on the same recordings, containing German dyadic spontaneous interactions, and employing a larger pool of annotators than previously done. We then compare and discuss the obtained results based on the two aforementioned parameters, highlighting the benefits and costs associated to each approach.