This article analyses the practices of violence during strikes in Habsburg Austria from the 1890s until the outbreak of the First World War. As the number of social conflicts rose at the turn of the century, strikes increasingly became one of the main sites of public violence in Austrian society, alongside demonstrations. Violent confrontations between strikers, strike-breakers, and the state forces protecting them frequently occurred. The first section discusses the state repression used to quell internal unrest and its consequences on the rule of law. The following sections explore the micro-dynamics of strikebreaking within the larger context of the reaction against Social Democracy in the period. Especially after the successful mobilization for suffrage reform in 1905–906, employers and other propertied classes saw strikers as part of a general threat. The Czech and German nationalist workers’ movements can also be reassessed through the lens of these social conflicts, rather than only as manifestations of radical nationalism. Strikes are here analysed as one case study addressing current debates in the historiography on the Habsburg Empire: first on the implementation of the rule of law on the ground in Habsburg Austria, then on the impact of democratization in the decades before 1914.
In this paper an adaptation of the FLORIS approach is considered that models the wind flow and power production within a wind farm. In preparation to the use of this model for wind farm control, this paper considers the problem of its calibration and validation with the use of experimental observations. The model parameters are first identified based on measurements performed on an isolated scaled wind turbine operated in a boundary layer wind tunnel in various wind-misalignment conditions. Next, the wind farm model is verified with results of experimental tests conducted on three interacting scaled wind turbines. Although some differences in the estimated absolute power are observed, the model appears to be capable of identifying with good accuracy the wind turbine misalignment angles that, by deflecting the wake, lead to maximum power for the investigated layouts.
Jayde Hirniak; Eugene I. Smith; Racheal Johnsen; Minghua Ren; Jamie Hodgkins; Caley M. Orr; Fabio Negrino; Julien Riel-Salvatore; Shelby Fitch; Christopher E. Miller; +8 more
Jayde Hirniak; Eugene I. Smith; Racheal Johnsen; Minghua Ren; Jamie Hodgkins; Caley M. Orr; Fabio Negrino; Julien Riel-Salvatore; Shelby Fitch; Christopher E. Miller; Andrea Zerboni; Guido S. Mariani; Jacob A. Harris; Claudine Gravel-Miguel; David S. Strait; Marco Peresani; Stefano Benazzi; Curtis W. Marean;
Chemical characterization of cryptotephra is critical for temporally linking archaeological sites. Here, we describe cryptotephra investigations of two Middle–Upper Paleolithic sites from north‐west Italy, Arma Veirana and Riparo Bombrini. Cryptotephra are present as small (<100 µm) rhyolitic glass shards at both sites, with geochemical signatures rare for volcanoes in the Mediterranean region. Two chemically distinct shard populations are present at Arma Veirana (P1 and P2). P1 is a high silica rhyolite (>75 wt.%) with low FeO (<1 wt.%) and a K2O/ Na2O > 1 and P2 is also a high silica rhyolite (>75 wt.%) but with higher FeO (2.33–2.65 wt.%). Shards at Riparo Bombrini (P3) are of the same composition as P1 shards at Arma Veirana, providing a distinct link between deposits at both sites. Geochemical characteristics suggest three possible sources for P1 and P3: eruptions from Lipari Island (56–37.7 ka) in Italy, the Acigöl volcanic field (200–20 ka) in Turkey and the Miocene Kirka‐Phrigian caldera (18 Ma) in Turkey. Eruptions from Lipari Island are the most likely source for P1,3 cryptotephra. This study highlights how cryptotephra can benefit archaeology, by providing a direct link between Arma Veirana and Riparo Bombrini as well as other deposits throughout the Mediterranean.
Publisher: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Project: EC | VEiL (656337)
Automated detection of landscape patterns on Remote Sensing imagery has seen virtually little or no development in the archaeological domain, notwithstanding the fact that large portion of cultural landscapes worldwide are characterized by land engineering applications. The current extraordinary availability of remotely sensed images makes it now urgent to envision and develop automatic methods that can simplify their inspection and the extraction of relevant information from them, as the quantity of information is no longer manageable by traditional “human” visual interpretation. This paper expands on the development of automatic methods for the detection of target landscape features—represented by field system patterns—in very high spatial resolution images, within the framework of an archaeological project focused on the landscape engineering embedded in Roman cadasters. The targets of interest consist of a variety of similarly oriented objects of diverse nature (such as roads, drainage channels, etc.) concurring to demark the current landscape organization, which reflects the one imposed by Romans over two millennia ago. The proposed workflow exploits the textural and shape properties of real-world elements forming the field patterns using multiscale analysis of dominant oriented response filters. Trials showed that this approach provides accurate localization of target linear objects and alignments signaled by a wide range of physical entities with very different characteristics.
One of the main problems of the current Digital Libraries (DLs) is the limitation of the informative services offered to the user who aims at discovering the resources of the DL by queries in natural language. Indeed, all DLs provide simple search functionalities that return a ranked list of their resources. No semantic relation among the returned objects is usually reported that could help the user to obtain a more complete knowledge on the subject of the search. The introduction of the Semantic Web, and in particular of the Linked Data, has the potential of improving the search functionalities of DLs. In this context, the long-term aim of this thesis has been to introduce the narrative as new first-class search functionality. As output of a query, the envisaged new search functionality should not only return a list of objects but it should also present one or more narratives, composed of events that are linked to the objects of the existing libraries (e.g. Europeana) and are endowed with a set of semantic relations connecting these events into a meaningful semantic network. As a necessary step towards this direction, the thesis presents an ontology for representing narratives, along with a tool for the construction of narratives based on the ontology. Moreover, it has used to the tool for evaluating the ontology in the context of an experiment centred on the biography of the Italian poet Dante Alighieri, the major Italian poet of the late Middle Ages. More specifically: - An overview of the related works developed in the Semantic Web field and in Narratology, and especially in its sub branch named Computational Narratology was reported. The basic principles of Narratology and Computational Narratology have been reviewed along with the study of the Artificial Intelligence literature, especially of the Event Calculus theory, in order to identify the formal components of narratives. - A conceptualization of narratives has been developed, based on notions derived from narratology and Artificial Intelligence. According to this conceptualization, a narrative consists of a fabula, i.e. the events of a story in chronologically ordered, and several narrations of this fabula (plots), linked to the fabula by an event association relation. A mathematical expression of the conceptualization has been given, in order to provide a characterization of the conceptualization as clear and as precise as possible, also to be used as a basis for the subsequent development of an ontology of narratives, encoded in OWL. The proposed conceptualization has been validated by expressing it into an existing ontology, the CIDOC CRM, and by endowing it with provenance knowledge, also expressed in a derivation of the CRM, named CRMinf. This expression has been used in the validation experiment, consisting in the modelling a narrative of the biography of Dante Alighieri, provided by a biographer who has scientifically supported this research. - The population of the created ontology has been performed by means of a semiautomatic approach implemented by a tool for the construction of narratives which obey the ontology. This tool retrieves and assigns URIs to the instances of the classes of the ontology using Wikidata as external resource and also facilitates the construction and contextualization of events, and their linking to form the fabulae of narratives. - Finally, a qualitative validation of the developed ontology has been carried out. This validation has regarded the evaluation of: (i) the representational adequacy of the ontology by a Dante Alighieri's expert; (ii) the effectiveness of the narrative building tool; (iii) the satisfaction of the users' requirements defined at the beginning of the study. To prove the last point, initial requirements representing pre-requisites of this work have been satisfied by demonstrating that a SPARQL query can be always built to extract the requested information from the knowledge base embodying the narrative.
Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . 2020
Publisher: TU Delft Open Faculty of Architecture and the Built Environement, Delft University of Technology
Project: EC | ROCK (730280)
ROCK considers cultural heritage as an engine for sustainable growth in European cities. The approach proposed by the project implies dismantling the specialist idea of cultural heritage understood exclusively in terms of conservation. Cultural heritage - especially in its public and unused or underused spaces - is seen, instead, as an incremental and ever-changing repository of value that can drive both spatial and behavioral change. This change occurs in ROCK through incremental experiments based on a continuous exchange between local practices, administrative action and cognitive reflection, giving shape to a research-action-research methodology.
Abstract Thanks to increasing efforts towards 3D digitisation in the Cultural Heritage domain, we are seeing increasing interest in computer graphics tools that can concretely support innovative curatorial and documentation systems that fully exploit the potential of digital data beyond rendering and visualisation that are today commonplace. At the same time, this trend calls for robust and automatic methods for 3D data ingestion, able to prepare the 3D models for the variety of operations that could be applied to the digital twins of artefacts. In this work, we present a 3D data ingestion procedure based on a fully automatic pipeline that cleans meshes from reconstruction defects and provides a suite of resolutions by down-sampling the meshes while preserving the geometric details and a method to transfer 3D annotations across model resolutions.
In visual word identification, readers automatically access word internal information: they recognize orthographically embedded words (e.g., HAT in THAT) and are sensitive to morphological structure (DEAL-ER, BASKET-BALL). The exact mechanisms that govern these processes, however, are not well established yet - how is this information used? What is the role of affixes in this process? To address these questions, we tested the activation of meaning of embedded word stems in the presence or absence of a morphological structure using two semantic categorization tasks in Italian. Participants made category decisions on words (e.g., is CARROT a type of food?). Some no-answers (is CORNER a type of food?) contained category-congruent embedded word stems (i.e., CORN-). Moreover, the embedded stems could be accompanied by a pseudo-suffix (-er in CORNER) or a non-morphological ending (-ce in PEACE) - this allowed gauging the role of pseudo-suffixes in stem activation. The analyses of accuracy and response times revealed that words were harder to reject as members of a category when they contained an embedded word stem that was indeed category-congruent. Critically, this was the case regardless of the presence or absence of a pseudo-suffix. These findings provide evidence that the lexical identification system activates the meaning of embedded word stems when the task requires semantic information. This study brings together research on orthographic neighbors and morphological processing, yielding results that have important implications for models of visual word processing.
The arrival of Modern Humans (MHs) in Europe between 50 ka and 36 ka coincides with significant changes in human behaviour, regarding the production of tools, the exploitation of resources and the systematic use of ornaments and colouring substances. The emergence of the so-called modern behaviours is usually associated with MHs, although in these last decades findings relating to symbolic thinking of pre-Sapiens groups have been claimed. In this paper we present a synthesis of the Italian evidence concerning bone manufacturing and the use of ornaments and pigments in the time span encompassing the demise of Neandertals and their replacement by MHs. Current data show that Mousterian bone tools are mostly obtained from bone fragments used as is. Conversely an organized production of fine shaped bone tools is characteristic of the Uluzzian and the Protoaurignacian, when the complexity inherent in the manufacturing processes suggests that bone artefacts are not to be considered as expedient resources. Some traces of symbolic activities are associated to Neandertals in Northern Italy. Ornaments (mostly tusk shells) and pigments used for decorative purposes are well recorded during the Uluzzian. Their features and distribution witness to an intriguing cultural homogeneity within this technocomplex. The Protoaurignacian is characterized by a wider archaeological evidence, consisting of personal ornaments (mostly pierced gastropods), pigments and artistic items.