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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    JL Catala-Carrasco; Manuel de la Fuente; Pablo Valdivia;
    Country: Netherlands
    Project: EC | CRIC (645666)

    The articles presented in this issue constitute the second part of the special issue devoted to analyzing the links between culture, crisis, and renewal as part of the research project “Cultural Na...

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Emmanuel Discamps; Sandrine Costamagno;
    Publisher: Elsevier
    Countries: Norway, France
    Project: EC | TRACSYMBOLS (249587)

    International audience; Mortality profiles have figured prominently among tools used by zooarchaeologists to investigate relationships between hominids and prey species. Their analysis and interpretation have been considerably influenced by M.C. Stiner's approach based on ternary diagrams. Part of this method included the demarcation of "zones" in ternary diagrams identifying specific mortality patterns (e.g. attritional, catastrophic, prime-dominated, etc.). Since its introduction some twenty-five years ago, this zoning has, however, received little critical attention. Mathematical modelling as well as a reassessment of the ecological data used to define these zones reveal several problems that may bias interpretations of mortality profiles on ternary diagrams.Here we propose new, mathematically supported definitions for the zoning of ternary diagrams combined with species-specific age class boundaries based on ethological and ontological data for seven of the most common hominid prey (bison, red deer, reindeer, horse, zebras, African buffalo and common eland). We advocate for the use of new areas (JPO, JOP, O and P zones) that produce more valid interpretations of the relative abundance of juveniles, prime and old adults in an assemblage. These results contribute to the improvement of the commonly used method of mortality profile analysis first advanced by M.C. Stiner. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Aoife Daly; Marta Domínguez-Delmás; Wendy van Duivenvoorde;
    Country: Netherlands
    Project: EC | FORSEADISCOVERY (607545), ARC | Linkage Projects - Grant ... (LP130100137), EC | TIMBER (677152)

    Ocean-going ships were key to rising maritime economies of the Early Modern period, and understanding how they were built is critical to grasp the challenges faced by shipwrights and merchant seafarers. Shipwreck timbers hold material evidence of the dynamic interplay of wood supplies, craftmanship, and evolving ship designs that helped shape the Early Modern world. Here we present the results of dendroarchaeological research carried out on Batavia���s wreck timbers, currently on display at the Western Australian Shipwrecks Museum in Fremantle. Built in Amsterdam in 1628 CE and wrecked on its maiden voyage in June 1629 CE in Western Australian waters, Batavia epitomises Dutch East India Company (Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie, or VOC) shipbuilding. In the 17th century, the VOC grew to become the first multinational trading enterprise, prompting the rise of the stock market and modern capitalism. Oak (Quercus sp.) was the preferred material for shipbuilding in northern and western Europe, and maritime nations struggled to ensure sufficient supplies to meet their needs and sustain their ever-growing mercantile fleets and networks. Our research illustrates the compatibility of dendrochronological studies with musealisation of shipwreck assemblages, and the results demonstrate that the VOC successfully coped with timber shortages in the early 17th century through diversification of timber sources (mainly Baltic region, L��beck hinterland in northern Germany, and Lower Saxony in northwest Germany), allocation of sourcing regions to specific timber products (hull planks from the Baltic and L��beck, framing elements from Lower Saxony), and skillful woodworking craftmanship (sapwood was removed from all timber elements). These strategies, combined with an innovative hull design and the use of wind-powered sawmills, allowed the Dutch to produce unprecedented numbers of ocean-going ships for long-distance voyaging and interregional trade in Asia, proving key to their success in 17th-century world trade. Funding: WvD LP130100137 Australian Research Council https://www.arc.gov.au/ No MD-D 607545 FP7 People Programme (Marie Curie Actions) https://ec.europa.eu/research/mariecurieactions/ 016.Veni.195.502 Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek https://www.nwo.nl/en AD 677152 European Research Council https://erc.europa.eu/

  • Publication . Article . 2016
    English
    Authors: 
    Anna Marmodoro; Ben T. Page;
    Project: EC | K4U (667526)

    Thomas Aquinas sees a sharp metaphysical distinction between artifacts and substances, but does not offer any explicit account of it. We argue that for Aquinas the contribution that an artisan makes to the generation of an artifact compromises the causal responsibility of the form of that artifact for what the artifact is; hence it compromises the metaphysical unity of the artifact to that of an accidental unity. By contrast, the metaphysical unity of a substance is achieved by a process of generation whereby the substantial form is solely responsible for what each part and the whole of a substance are. This, we submit, is where the metaphysical difference between artifacts and substances lies for Aquinas. Here we offer on behalf of Aquinas a novel account of the causal process of generation of substances, in terms of descending forms, and we bring out its explanatory merits by contrasting it to other existing accounts in the literature.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Carla Lancelotti; Stefano Biagetti;
    Country: Spain
    Project: EC | RAINDROPS (759800)

    The reconstruction of land use practices in hyper-arid Saharan Africa is often hampered by the accuracy of the available tools and by unconscious biases that see these areas as marginal and inhospitable. Considered that this has been for a long time the living space of pastoral mobile communities, new research is showing that agriculture might have been more important in these areas than previously thought. In this paper, after a review of present-day land use strategies in Saharan Africa, we show how ethnographic and ethnoarchaeological data can offer us a different point of view and help in better defining land use and food production strategies in this area. Ultimately, these insights can be integrated into the ongoing efforts to reconstruct past land use globally. This research and the APC were funded by the European Research Council, grant number ERC-Stg-2017 759800, RAINDROPS project.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Judith Beier; Nils Anthes; Joachim Wahl; Katerina Harvati;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: EC | CROSSROADS (724703)

    Objectives: This study characterizes patterns of cranial trauma prevalence in a large sample of Upper Paleolithic (UP) fossil specimens (40,000–10,000 BP). Materials and Methods: Our sample comprised 234 individual crania (specimens), representing 1,285 cranial bones (skeletal elements), from 101 Eurasian UP sites. We used generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) to assess trauma prevalence in relation to age-at-death, sex, anatomical distribution, and between pre- and post-Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) samples, while accounting for skeletal preservation. Results: Models predicted a mean cranial trauma prevalence of 0.07 (95% CI 0.003–0.19) at the level of skeletal elements, and of 0.26 (95% CI 0.08–0.48) at the level of specimens, each when 76–100% complete. Trauma prevalence increased with skeletal preservation. Across specimen and skeletal element datasets, trauma prevalence tended to be higher for males, and was consistently higher in the old age group. We found no time-specific trauma prevalence patterns for the two sexes or age cohorts when comparing samples from before and after the LGM. Samples showed higher trauma prevalence in the vault than in the face, with vault remains being affected predominantly in males. Discussion: Cranial trauma prevalence in UP humans falls within the variation described for Mesolithic and Neolithic samples. According to our current dataset, UP males and females were exposed to slightly different injury risks and trauma distributions, potentially due to different activities or behaviors, yet both sexes exhibit more trauma among the old. Environmental stressors associated with climatic changes of the LGM are not reflected in cranial trauma prevalence. To analyze trauma in incomplete skeletal remains we propose GLMMs as an informative alternative to crude frequency calculations.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Elizabeth J. Reitz; Camilla Speller; Krista McGrath; Michelle Alexander;
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: EC | ORCA (299075)

    Abstract A single turkey ( Meleagris spp.) coracoid was identified from Puerto Real, a Spanish colonial town founded in 1503 on the north coast of Hispaniola and destroyed in 1579. Turkeys are not indigenous to Hispaniola, but wild turkeys were widespread in lands bordering the northern Gulf of Mexico and domestic turkeys were common in parts of Mexico. A wild turkey ( Meleagris gallopavo silvestris ) at Puerto Real might be indirect evidence that wild turkeys were sent to Europe in the early to mid-1500s from the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico. If the Puerto Real individual is a domestic South Mexican turkey ( Meleagris gallopavo gallopavo ), however, this would confirm that domestic turkeys were present in the Caribbean archipelago shortly after 1492. Ancient mitochondrial DNA D-loop analysis confirmed the identification of Meleagris gallopavo , with a haplotype most consistent with a Mesoamerican origin. Isotopic evidence suggested a reliance on C 4 plants, likely maize ( Zea mays ), rather than a typical wild turkey diet high in C 3 plants. Together, the biomolecular evidence suggests this turkey traces its lineage to Mesoamerica, and is part of the larger post-Columbian merger of diverse cultural traditions.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Arianna Traviglia; Andrea Torsello;
    Publisher: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
    Country: Italy
    Project: EC | VEiL (656337)

    Automated detection of landscape patterns on Remote Sensing imagery has seen virtually little or no development in the archaeological domain, notwithstanding the fact that large portion of cultural landscapes worldwide are characterized by land engineering applications. The current extraordinary availability of remotely sensed images makes it now urgent to envision and develop automatic methods that can simplify their inspection and the extraction of relevant information from them, as the quantity of information is no longer manageable by traditional “human” visual interpretation. This paper expands on the development of automatic methods for the detection of target landscape features—represented by field system patterns—in very high spatial resolution images, within the framework of an archaeological project focused on the landscape engineering embedded in Roman cadasters. The targets of interest consist of a variety of similarly oriented objects of diverse nature (such as roads, drainage channels, etc.) concurring to demark the current landscape organization, which reflects the one imposed by Romans over two millennia ago. The proposed workflow exploits the textural and shape properties of real-world elements forming the field patterns using multiscale analysis of dominant oriented response filters. Trials showed that this approach provides accurate localization of target linear objects and alignments signaled by a wide range of physical entities with very different characteristics.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Katerina Douka; Thomas Higham; Christopher A. Bergman;
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: EC | PALAEOCHRON (324139)

    Bosch et al. (1) report on a series of radiocarbon dates from the site of Ksar Akil, which they model and interpret within a Bayesian statistical approach. They highlight as most significant aspects of this work the indirect dating of “Ethelruda” (>45,900 cal B.P.), the purportedly modern human maxilla found at the interface between Middle and Initial Upper Paleolithic layers, and that of a modern human child, “Egbert” (∼43,000 cal B.P.), from the Early Ahmarian phase. Both estimates are older than those of previous work (2). Although the conventional 14C determinations appear to be accurate, with identical dating methodologies used in the Groningen and Oxford laboratories, the improper application of Bayesian statistics and a poor understanding of the site’s 23-m-long stratigraphy falsify the interpretation of these results and the overall conclusions these authors reach.

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . 2020
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Freitas, Joana Gaspar de;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Country: Portugal
    Project: EC | DUNES (802918)

    Submitted by Ana Marcelino (dunesproject@letras.ulisboa.pt) on 2020-06-01T13:36:46Z No. of bitstreams: 1 4-231-1-PB.pdf: 467976 bytes, checksum: f6cfe3caee688021cfc1d33a6524d62e (MD5) Approved for entry into archive by Manuel Moreno (manuelmoreno@campus.ul.pt) on 2020-06-01T13:55:11Z (GMT) No. of bitstreams: 1 4-231-1-PB.pdf: 467976 bytes, checksum: f6cfe3caee688021cfc1d33a6524d62e (MD5) Made available in DSpace on 2020-06-01T14:03:37Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 4-231-1-PB.pdf: 467976 bytes, checksum: f6cfe3caee688021cfc1d33a6524d62e (MD5) Previous issue date: 2020-05-27 info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion

Advanced search in Research products
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
The following results are related to Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
1,266 Research products, page 1 of 127
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    JL Catala-Carrasco; Manuel de la Fuente; Pablo Valdivia;
    Country: Netherlands
    Project: EC | CRIC (645666)

    The articles presented in this issue constitute the second part of the special issue devoted to analyzing the links between culture, crisis, and renewal as part of the research project “Cultural Na...

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Emmanuel Discamps; Sandrine Costamagno;
    Publisher: Elsevier
    Countries: Norway, France
    Project: EC | TRACSYMBOLS (249587)

    International audience; Mortality profiles have figured prominently among tools used by zooarchaeologists to investigate relationships between hominids and prey species. Their analysis and interpretation have been considerably influenced by M.C. Stiner's approach based on ternary diagrams. Part of this method included the demarcation of "zones" in ternary diagrams identifying specific mortality patterns (e.g. attritional, catastrophic, prime-dominated, etc.). Since its introduction some twenty-five years ago, this zoning has, however, received little critical attention. Mathematical modelling as well as a reassessment of the ecological data used to define these zones reveal several problems that may bias interpretations of mortality profiles on ternary diagrams.Here we propose new, mathematically supported definitions for the zoning of ternary diagrams combined with species-specific age class boundaries based on ethological and ontological data for seven of the most common hominid prey (bison, red deer, reindeer, horse, zebras, African buffalo and common eland). We advocate for the use of new areas (JPO, JOP, O and P zones) that produce more valid interpretations of the relative abundance of juveniles, prime and old adults in an assemblage. These results contribute to the improvement of the commonly used method of mortality profile analysis first advanced by M.C. Stiner. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Aoife Daly; Marta Domínguez-Delmás; Wendy van Duivenvoorde;
    Country: Netherlands
    Project: EC | FORSEADISCOVERY (607545), ARC | Linkage Projects - Grant ... (LP130100137), EC | TIMBER (677152)

    Ocean-going ships were key to rising maritime economies of the Early Modern period, and understanding how they were built is critical to grasp the challenges faced by shipwrights and merchant seafarers. Shipwreck timbers hold material evidence of the dynamic interplay of wood supplies, craftmanship, and evolving ship designs that helped shape the Early Modern world. Here we present the results of dendroarchaeological research carried out on Batavia���s wreck timbers, currently on display at the Western Australian Shipwrecks Museum in Fremantle. Built in Amsterdam in 1628 CE and wrecked on its maiden voyage in June 1629 CE in Western Australian waters, Batavia epitomises Dutch East India Company (Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie, or VOC) shipbuilding. In the 17th century, the VOC grew to become the first multinational trading enterprise, prompting the rise of the stock market and modern capitalism. Oak (Quercus sp.) was the preferred material for shipbuilding in northern and western Europe, and maritime nations struggled to ensure sufficient supplies to meet their needs and sustain their ever-growing mercantile fleets and networks. Our research illustrates the compatibility of dendrochronological studies with musealisation of shipwreck assemblages, and the results demonstrate that the VOC successfully coped with timber shortages in the early 17th century through diversification of timber sources (mainly Baltic region, L��beck hinterland in northern Germany, and Lower Saxony in northwest Germany), allocation of sourcing regions to specific timber products (hull planks from the Baltic and L��beck, framing elements from Lower Saxony), and skillful woodworking craftmanship (sapwood was removed from all timber elements). These strategies, combined with an innovative hull design and the use of wind-powered sawmills, allowed the Dutch to produce unprecedented numbers of ocean-going ships for long-distance voyaging and interregional trade in Asia, proving key to their success in 17th-century world trade. Funding: WvD LP130100137 Australian Research Council https://www.arc.gov.au/ No MD-D 607545 FP7 People Programme (Marie Curie Actions) https://ec.europa.eu/research/mariecurieactions/ 016.Veni.195.502 Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek https://www.nwo.nl/en AD 677152 European Research Council https://erc.europa.eu/

  • Publication . Article . 2016
    English
    Authors: 
    Anna Marmodoro; Ben T. Page;
    Project: EC | K4U (667526)

    Thomas Aquinas sees a sharp metaphysical distinction between artifacts and substances, but does not offer any explicit account of it. We argue that for Aquinas the contribution that an artisan makes to the generation of an artifact compromises the causal responsibility of the form of that artifact for what the artifact is; hence it compromises the metaphysical unity of the artifact to that of an accidental unity. By contrast, the metaphysical unity of a substance is achieved by a process of generation whereby the substantial form is solely responsible for what each part and the whole of a substance are. This, we submit, is where the metaphysical difference between artifacts and substances lies for Aquinas. Here we offer on behalf of Aquinas a novel account of the causal process of generation of substances, in terms of descending forms, and we bring out its explanatory merits by contrasting it to other existing accounts in the literature.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Carla Lancelotti; Stefano Biagetti;
    Country: Spain
    Project: EC | RAINDROPS (759800)

    The reconstruction of land use practices in hyper-arid Saharan Africa is often hampered by the accuracy of the available tools and by unconscious biases that see these areas as marginal and inhospitable. Considered that this has been for a long time the living space of pastoral mobile communities, new research is showing that agriculture might have been more important in these areas than previously thought. In this paper, after a review of present-day land use strategies in Saharan Africa, we show how ethnographic and ethnoarchaeological data can offer us a different point of view and help in better defining land use and food production strategies in this area. Ultimately, these insights can be integrated into the ongoing efforts to reconstruct past land use globally. This research and the APC were funded by the European Research Council, grant number ERC-Stg-2017 759800, RAINDROPS project.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Judith Beier; Nils Anthes; Joachim Wahl; Katerina Harvati;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: EC | CROSSROADS (724703)

    Objectives: This study characterizes patterns of cranial trauma prevalence in a large sample of Upper Paleolithic (UP) fossil specimens (40,000–10,000 BP). Materials and Methods: Our sample comprised 234 individual crania (specimens), representing 1,285 cranial bones (skeletal elements), from 101 Eurasian UP sites. We used generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) to assess trauma prevalence in relation to age-at-death, sex, anatomical distribution, and between pre- and post-Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) samples, while accounting for skeletal preservation. Results: Models predicted a mean cranial trauma prevalence of 0.07 (95% CI 0.003–0.19) at the level of skeletal elements, and of 0.26 (95% CI 0.08–0.48) at the level of specimens, each when 76–100% complete. Trauma prevalence increased with skeletal preservation. Across specimen and skeletal element datasets, trauma prevalence tended to be higher for males, and was consistently higher in the old age group. We found no time-specific trauma prevalence patterns for the two sexes or age cohorts when comparing samples from before and after the LGM. Samples showed higher trauma prevalence in the vault than in the face, with vault remains being affected predominantly in males. Discussion: Cranial trauma prevalence in UP humans falls within the variation described for Mesolithic and Neolithic samples. According to our current dataset, UP males and females were exposed to slightly different injury risks and trauma distributions, potentially due to different activities or behaviors, yet both sexes exhibit more trauma among the old. Environmental stressors associated with climatic changes of the LGM are not reflected in cranial trauma prevalence. To analyze trauma in incomplete skeletal remains we propose GLMMs as an informative alternative to crude frequency calculations.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Elizabeth J. Reitz; Camilla Speller; Krista McGrath; Michelle Alexander;
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: EC | ORCA (299075)

    Abstract A single turkey ( Meleagris spp.) coracoid was identified from Puerto Real, a Spanish colonial town founded in 1503 on the north coast of Hispaniola and destroyed in 1579. Turkeys are not indigenous to Hispaniola, but wild turkeys were widespread in lands bordering the northern Gulf of Mexico and domestic turkeys were common in parts of Mexico. A wild turkey ( Meleagris gallopavo silvestris ) at Puerto Real might be indirect evidence that wild turkeys were sent to Europe in the early to mid-1500s from the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico. If the Puerto Real individual is a domestic South Mexican turkey ( Meleagris gallopavo gallopavo ), however, this would confirm that domestic turkeys were present in the Caribbean archipelago shortly after 1492. Ancient mitochondrial DNA D-loop analysis confirmed the identification of Meleagris gallopavo , with a haplotype most consistent with a Mesoamerican origin. Isotopic evidence suggested a reliance on C 4 plants, likely maize ( Zea mays ), rather than a typical wild turkey diet high in C 3 plants. Together, the biomolecular evidence suggests this turkey traces its lineage to Mesoamerica, and is part of the larger post-Columbian merger of diverse cultural traditions.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Arianna Traviglia; Andrea Torsello;
    Publisher: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
    Country: Italy
    Project: EC | VEiL (656337)

    Automated detection of landscape patterns on Remote Sensing imagery has seen virtually little or no development in the archaeological domain, notwithstanding the fact that large portion of cultural landscapes worldwide are characterized by land engineering applications. The current extraordinary availability of remotely sensed images makes it now urgent to envision and develop automatic methods that can simplify their inspection and the extraction of relevant information from them, as the quantity of information is no longer manageable by traditional “human” visual interpretation. This paper expands on the development of automatic methods for the detection of target landscape features—represented by field system patterns—in very high spatial resolution images, within the framework of an archaeological project focused on the landscape engineering embedded in Roman cadasters. The targets of interest consist of a variety of similarly oriented objects of diverse nature (such as roads, drainage channels, etc.) concurring to demark the current landscape organization, which reflects the one imposed by Romans over two millennia ago. The proposed workflow exploits the textural and shape properties of real-world elements forming the field patterns using multiscale analysis of dominant oriented response filters. Trials showed that this approach provides accurate localization of target linear objects and alignments signaled by a wide range of physical entities with very different characteristics.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Katerina Douka; Thomas Higham; Christopher A. Bergman;
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: EC | PALAEOCHRON (324139)

    Bosch et al. (1) report on a series of radiocarbon dates from the site of Ksar Akil, which they model and interpret within a Bayesian statistical approach. They highlight as most significant aspects of this work the indirect dating of “Ethelruda” (>45,900 cal B.P.), the purportedly modern human maxilla found at the interface between Middle and Initial Upper Paleolithic layers, and that of a modern human child, “Egbert” (∼43,000 cal B.P.), from the Early Ahmarian phase. Both estimates are older than those of previous work (2). Although the conventional 14C determinations appear to be accurate, with identical dating methodologies used in the Groningen and Oxford laboratories, the improper application of Bayesian statistics and a poor understanding of the site’s 23-m-long stratigraphy falsify the interpretation of these results and the overall conclusions these authors reach.

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . 2020
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Freitas, Joana Gaspar de;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Country: Portugal
    Project: EC | DUNES (802918)

    Submitted by Ana Marcelino (dunesproject@letras.ulisboa.pt) on 2020-06-01T13:36:46Z No. of bitstreams: 1 4-231-1-PB.pdf: 467976 bytes, checksum: f6cfe3caee688021cfc1d33a6524d62e (MD5) Approved for entry into archive by Manuel Moreno (manuelmoreno@campus.ul.pt) on 2020-06-01T13:55:11Z (GMT) No. of bitstreams: 1 4-231-1-PB.pdf: 467976 bytes, checksum: f6cfe3caee688021cfc1d33a6524d62e (MD5) Made available in DSpace on 2020-06-01T14:03:37Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 4-231-1-PB.pdf: 467976 bytes, checksum: f6cfe3caee688021cfc1d33a6524d62e (MD5) Previous issue date: 2020-05-27 info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion