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  • Open Access
    Project: EC | EUROEVOL (249390)

    The datasets described in this paper comprises the animal bone data collected as part of the Cultural Evolution of Neolithic Europe project (EUROEVOL), led by Professor Stephen Shennan, UCL, representing the largest collection of animal bone data for the European Neolithic ( Figure 1 ) with >3 million NISP counts and >36,000 biometric measurements. This is one of three datasets resulting from the EUROEVOL project; the other two comprising the core spatial and temporal structure of the project, including all radiocarbon dates (EUROEVOL Dataset 1) and archaeobotanical data (EUROEVOL Dataset 3) - http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/1469811/ .

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Emmanuel Discamps; Sandrine Costamagno;
    Countries: Norway, France
    Project: EC | TRACSYMBOLS (249587)

    International audience; Mortality profiles have figured prominently among tools used by zooarchaeologists to investigate relationships between hominids and prey species. Their analysis and interpretation have been considerably influenced by M.C. Stiner's approach based on ternary diagrams. Part of this method included the demarcation of "zones" in ternary diagrams identifying specific mortality patterns (e.g. attritional, catastrophic, prime-dominated, etc.). Since its introduction some twenty-five years ago, this zoning has, however, received little critical attention. Mathematical modelling as well as a reassessment of the ecological data used to define these zones reveal several problems that may bias interpretations of mortality profiles on ternary diagrams.Here we propose new, mathematically supported definitions for the zoning of ternary diagrams combined with species-specific age class boundaries based on ethological and ontological data for seven of the most common hominid prey (bison, red deer, reindeer, horse, zebras, African buffalo and common eland). We advocate for the use of new areas (JPO, JOP, O and P zones) that produce more valid interpretations of the relative abundance of juveniles, prime and old adults in an assemblage. These results contribute to the improvement of the commonly used method of mortality profile analysis first advanced by M.C. Stiner. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Judith Beier; Nils Anthes; Joachim Wahl; Katerina Harvati;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: EC | CROSSROADS (724703)

    Objectives: This study characterizes patterns of cranial trauma prevalence in a large sample of Upper Paleolithic (UP) fossil specimens (40,000–10,000 BP). Materials and Methods: Our sample comprised 234 individual crania (specimens), representing 1,285 cranial bones (skeletal elements), from 101 Eurasian UP sites. We used generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) to assess trauma prevalence in relation to age-at-death, sex, anatomical distribution, and between pre- and post-Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) samples, while accounting for skeletal preservation. Results: Models predicted a mean cranial trauma prevalence of 0.07 (95% CI 0.003–0.19) at the level of skeletal elements, and of 0.26 (95% CI 0.08–0.48) at the level of specimens, each when 76–100% complete. Trauma prevalence increased with skeletal preservation. Across specimen and skeletal element datasets, trauma prevalence tended to be higher for males, and was consistently higher in the old age group. We found no time-specific trauma prevalence patterns for the two sexes or age cohorts when comparing samples from before and after the LGM. Samples showed higher trauma prevalence in the vault than in the face, with vault remains being affected predominantly in males. Discussion: Cranial trauma prevalence in UP humans falls within the variation described for Mesolithic and Neolithic samples. According to our current dataset, UP males and females were exposed to slightly different injury risks and trauma distributions, potentially due to different activities or behaviors, yet both sexes exhibit more trauma among the old. Environmental stressors associated with climatic changes of the LGM are not reflected in cranial trauma prevalence. To analyze trauma in incomplete skeletal remains we propose GLMMs as an informative alternative to crude frequency calculations.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Shannon Croft; Gilliane F. Monnier; Anita Radini; Aimée Little; Nicky Milner;
    Publisher: Council for British Archaeology
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: EC | POSTGLACIAL (283938)

    A modern burial experiment was devised to test microscopic residue survival in acidic peat and slightly acidic clay soils at the Early Mesolithic site of Star Carr (North Yorkshire, UK), and at nearby control location. The experiment addresses concerns regarding the applicability of residue analysis in varied burial environments, and particularly in highly acidic archaeological conditions. Flint flakes (n= 78, including blank controls) were used on twelve plant, animal, and mineral materials to create residues and then buried. The residues were examined 1 month and 11 months after burial. An unburied reference collection containing the same twelve residue types in a fresh state was compared to the buried residues to assess diagenesis. The residue types that survived across all burial conditions and time intervals were: softwood tissue, tree resin, bird feathers, squirrel hair, and red ochre.\ud \ud During microscopic analysis, it became clear that many residues lack diagnostic traits, and thus an assessment of the extent to which each residue can be identified was conducted. The degree to which residues were able to be identified was further investigated with a variable pressure scanning electron microscope (SEM). SEM images of the reference residues were compared to the reflected VLM micrographs of the same residues, which improved characterisation in some cases. Residues were grouped into three categories (diagnostic, distinctive, and non-distinctive) within a visual characterisation guide. Our in situ microscopic analyses indicated that few residue types have diagnostic traits that allow them to be identified unambiguously, and thus further characterisation techniques are often required.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Michele Martini;
    Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: EC | NHNME (837727)

    In the last decade, macro religious institutions have undergone a process of digitalization that enabled them to incorporate Internet Communication Technologies in their organizational infrastructure. Stemming from digital religion scholarship, the research presented in this paper relate to a study of the philosophy and functioning of an innovative Catholic media enterprise called Christian Media Center (CMC). Based in Israel and the Occupied Palestinian Territories, the CMC was established through the cooperation between the long-standing Franciscan Order and the technology-savvy Brazilian community of Canção Nova. Accordingly, this paper asks: which forms of interdenominational negotiation are involved in the functioning of the CMC? Drawing on interviews conducted during three years, this research will outline the process of internal negotiation required by the development of this Catholic new media project and propose possible directions for future research. This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement No 837727

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Juan Carlos Fernandez-Diaz; Anna S. Cohen;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: United States
    Project: EC | CALI (639828)

    As a response to Hurricane Mitch and the resulting widespread loss of life and destruction of Honduran infrastructure in 1998, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) conducted the first wide-area airborne lidar topographic mapping project in Central America. The survey was executed by the Bureau of Economic Geology at the University of Texas at Austin (BEG) in 2000, and it was intended to cover 240 square kilometers distributed among 15 flood-prone communities throughout Honduras. The original data processing produced basic digital elevation models at 1.5-meter grid spacing which were used as inputs for hydrological modeling. The USGS published the results in a series of technical reports in 2002. The authors became interested in this dataset in 2013 while searching for geospatial data that would provide additional context and comparative references for an archaeological lidar project conducted in 2012 in the Honduran Mosquitia. After multiple requests to representatives from the USGS and BEG, we found various types of processed data in personal and institutional archives, culminating in the identification of 8-mm magnetic tapes that contained the original point clouds. Point clouds for the 15 communities plus a test area centered on the Maya site of Copan were recovered from the tapes (16 areas totaling 700 km2). These point clouds have been reprocessed by the authors using contemporary software and methods into higher resolution and fidelity products. Within these new products, we have identified and mapped multiple archaeological sites in proximity to modern cities, many of which are not part of the official Honduran site registry. Besides improving our understanding of ancient Honduras, our experiences dealing with issues of data management and access, ethics, and international collaboration have been informative. This paper summarizes our experiences in the hope that they will contribute to the discussion and development of best practices for handling geospatial datasets of archaeological value.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Aoife Daly; Marta Domínguez-Delmás; Wendy van Duivenvoorde;
    Country: Netherlands
    Project: EC | TIMBER (677152), ARC | Linkage Projects - Grant ... (LP130100137)

    Ocean-going ships were key to rising maritime economies of the Early Modern period, and understanding how they were built is critical to grasp the challenges faced by shipwrights and merchant seafarers. Shipwreck timbers hold material evidence of the dynamic interplay of wood supplies, craftmanship, and evolving ship designs that helped shape the Early Modern world. Here we present the results of dendroarchaeological research carried out on Batavia’s wreck timbers, currently on display at the Western Australian Shipwrecks Museum in Fremantle. Built in Amsterdam in 1628 CE and wrecked on its maiden voyage in June 1629 CE in Western Australian waters, Batavia epitomises Dutch East India Company (Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie, or VOC) shipbuilding. In the 17th century, the VOC grew to become the first multinational trading enterprise, prompting the rise of the stock market and modern capitalism. Oak (Quercus sp.) was the preferred material for shipbuilding in northern and western Europe, and maritime nations struggled to ensure sufficient supplies to meet their needs and sustain their ever-growing mercantile fleets and networks. Our research illustrates the compatibility of dendrochronological studies with musealisation of shipwreck assemblages, and the results demonstrate that the VOC successfully coped with timber shortages in the early 17th century through diversification of timber sources (mainly Baltic region, Lübeck hinterland in northern Germany, and Lower Saxony in northwest Germany), allocation of sourcing regions to specific timber products (hull planks from the Baltic and Lübeck, framing elements from Lower Saxony), and skillful woodworking craftmanship (sapwood was removed from all timber elements). These strategies, combined with an innovative hull design and the use of wind-powered sawmills, allowed the Dutch to produce unprecedented numbers of ocean-going ships for long-distance voyaging and interregional trade in Asia, proving key to their success in 17th-century world trade.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    JL Catala-Carrasco; Manuel de la Fuente; Pablo Valdivia;
    Country: Netherlands
    Project: EC | CRIC (645666)

    The articles presented in this issue constitute the second part of the special issue devoted to analyzing the links between culture, crisis, and renewal as part of the research project “Cultural Na...

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jemma Field;
    Publisher: Edinburgh University Press
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: EC | Mapping Anna (706198)

    This article analyses and transcribes an inventory of the wardrobe goods of Anna of Denmark, queen consort of Scotland and England, which was compiled in 1608, and annotated up to and including 1611. The inventory reveals the types of goods that Anna owned, the movement of garments between residences, her involvement in the politicized custom of gift exchange and the concept of her appearance as a point of diplomacy. Arguing that Anna's visual appearance was considered and strategic, it further discredits her narrow and largely negative historiography, which has routinely cast her as a recklessly indulgent and fanciful queen. Anna's tactical visual emulation of Queen Elizabeth I (1533–1603), pointed use of recognizable pieces of inherited jewellery and politically significant colours of dress are discussed.

  • Publication . Other literature type . Article . 2017
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Michael Haslam; R. Adriana Hernandez-Aguilar; Tomos Proffitt; Adrián Arroyo; Tiago Falótico; Dorothy M. Fragaszy; Michael D. Gumert; John W.K. Harris; Michael A. Huffman; Ammie K. Kalan; +12 more
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Countries: Italy, United Kingdom, United Kingdom, Switzerland
    Project: EC | PRIMARCH (283959)

    Since its inception, archaeology has traditionally focused exclusively on humans and our direct ancestors. However, recent years have seen archaeological techniques applied to material evidence left behind by non-human animals. Here, we review advances made by the most prominent field investigating past non-human tool use: primate archaeology. This field combines survey of wild primate activity areas with ethological observations, excavations and analyses that allow the reconstruction of past primate behaviour. Because the order Primates includes humans, new insights into the behavioural evolution of apes and monkeys also can be used to better interrogate the record of early tool use in our own, hominin, lineage. This work has recently doubled the set of primate lineages with an excavated archaeological record, adding Old World macaques and New World capuchin monkeys to chimpanzees and humans, and it has shown that tool selection and transport, and discrete site formation, are universal among wild stone-tool-using primates. It has also revealed that wild capuchins regularly break stone tools in a way that can make them difficult to distinguish from simple early hominin tools. Ultimately, this research opens up opportunities for the development of a broader animal archaeology, marking the end of archaeology’s anthropocentric era.

Advanced search in Research products
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
The following results are related to Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
2,551 Research products, page 1 of 256
  • Open Access
    Project: EC | EUROEVOL (249390)

    The datasets described in this paper comprises the animal bone data collected as part of the Cultural Evolution of Neolithic Europe project (EUROEVOL), led by Professor Stephen Shennan, UCL, representing the largest collection of animal bone data for the European Neolithic ( Figure 1 ) with >3 million NISP counts and >36,000 biometric measurements. This is one of three datasets resulting from the EUROEVOL project; the other two comprising the core spatial and temporal structure of the project, including all radiocarbon dates (EUROEVOL Dataset 1) and archaeobotanical data (EUROEVOL Dataset 3) - http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/1469811/ .

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Emmanuel Discamps; Sandrine Costamagno;
    Countries: Norway, France
    Project: EC | TRACSYMBOLS (249587)

    International audience; Mortality profiles have figured prominently among tools used by zooarchaeologists to investigate relationships between hominids and prey species. Their analysis and interpretation have been considerably influenced by M.C. Stiner's approach based on ternary diagrams. Part of this method included the demarcation of "zones" in ternary diagrams identifying specific mortality patterns (e.g. attritional, catastrophic, prime-dominated, etc.). Since its introduction some twenty-five years ago, this zoning has, however, received little critical attention. Mathematical modelling as well as a reassessment of the ecological data used to define these zones reveal several problems that may bias interpretations of mortality profiles on ternary diagrams.Here we propose new, mathematically supported definitions for the zoning of ternary diagrams combined with species-specific age class boundaries based on ethological and ontological data for seven of the most common hominid prey (bison, red deer, reindeer, horse, zebras, African buffalo and common eland). We advocate for the use of new areas (JPO, JOP, O and P zones) that produce more valid interpretations of the relative abundance of juveniles, prime and old adults in an assemblage. These results contribute to the improvement of the commonly used method of mortality profile analysis first advanced by M.C. Stiner. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Judith Beier; Nils Anthes; Joachim Wahl; Katerina Harvati;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: EC | CROSSROADS (724703)

    Objectives: This study characterizes patterns of cranial trauma prevalence in a large sample of Upper Paleolithic (UP) fossil specimens (40,000–10,000 BP). Materials and Methods: Our sample comprised 234 individual crania (specimens), representing 1,285 cranial bones (skeletal elements), from 101 Eurasian UP sites. We used generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) to assess trauma prevalence in relation to age-at-death, sex, anatomical distribution, and between pre- and post-Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) samples, while accounting for skeletal preservation. Results: Models predicted a mean cranial trauma prevalence of 0.07 (95% CI 0.003–0.19) at the level of skeletal elements, and of 0.26 (95% CI 0.08–0.48) at the level of specimens, each when 76–100% complete. Trauma prevalence increased with skeletal preservation. Across specimen and skeletal element datasets, trauma prevalence tended to be higher for males, and was consistently higher in the old age group. We found no time-specific trauma prevalence patterns for the two sexes or age cohorts when comparing samples from before and after the LGM. Samples showed higher trauma prevalence in the vault than in the face, with vault remains being affected predominantly in males. Discussion: Cranial trauma prevalence in UP humans falls within the variation described for Mesolithic and Neolithic samples. According to our current dataset, UP males and females were exposed to slightly different injury risks and trauma distributions, potentially due to different activities or behaviors, yet both sexes exhibit more trauma among the old. Environmental stressors associated with climatic changes of the LGM are not reflected in cranial trauma prevalence. To analyze trauma in incomplete skeletal remains we propose GLMMs as an informative alternative to crude frequency calculations.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Shannon Croft; Gilliane F. Monnier; Anita Radini; Aimée Little; Nicky Milner;
    Publisher: Council for British Archaeology
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: EC | POSTGLACIAL (283938)

    A modern burial experiment was devised to test microscopic residue survival in acidic peat and slightly acidic clay soils at the Early Mesolithic site of Star Carr (North Yorkshire, UK), and at nearby control location. The experiment addresses concerns regarding the applicability of residue analysis in varied burial environments, and particularly in highly acidic archaeological conditions. Flint flakes (n= 78, including blank controls) were used on twelve plant, animal, and mineral materials to create residues and then buried. The residues were examined 1 month and 11 months after burial. An unburied reference collection containing the same twelve residue types in a fresh state was compared to the buried residues to assess diagenesis. The residue types that survived across all burial conditions and time intervals were: softwood tissue, tree resin, bird feathers, squirrel hair, and red ochre.\ud \ud During microscopic analysis, it became clear that many residues lack diagnostic traits, and thus an assessment of the extent to which each residue can be identified was conducted. The degree to which residues were able to be identified was further investigated with a variable pressure scanning electron microscope (SEM). SEM images of the reference residues were compared to the reflected VLM micrographs of the same residues, which improved characterisation in some cases. Residues were grouped into three categories (diagnostic, distinctive, and non-distinctive) within a visual characterisation guide. Our in situ microscopic analyses indicated that few residue types have diagnostic traits that allow them to be identified unambiguously, and thus further characterisation techniques are often required.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Michele Martini;
    Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: EC | NHNME (837727)

    In the last decade, macro religious institutions have undergone a process of digitalization that enabled them to incorporate Internet Communication Technologies in their organizational infrastructure. Stemming from digital religion scholarship, the research presented in this paper relate to a study of the philosophy and functioning of an innovative Catholic media enterprise called Christian Media Center (CMC). Based in Israel and the Occupied Palestinian Territories, the CMC was established through the cooperation between the long-standing Franciscan Order and the technology-savvy Brazilian community of Canção Nova. Accordingly, this paper asks: which forms of interdenominational negotiation are involved in the functioning of the CMC? Drawing on interviews conducted during three years, this research will outline the process of internal negotiation required by the development of this Catholic new media project and propose possible directions for future research. This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement No 837727

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Juan Carlos Fernandez-Diaz; Anna S. Cohen;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: United States
    Project: EC | CALI (639828)

    As a response to Hurricane Mitch and the resulting widespread loss of life and destruction of Honduran infrastructure in 1998, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) conducted the first wide-area airborne lidar topographic mapping project in Central America. The survey was executed by the Bureau of Economic Geology at the University of Texas at Austin (BEG) in 2000, and it was intended to cover 240 square kilometers distributed among 15 flood-prone communities throughout Honduras. The original data processing produced basic digital elevation models at 1.5-meter grid spacing which were used as inputs for hydrological modeling. The USGS published the results in a series of technical reports in 2002. The authors became interested in this dataset in 2013 while searching for geospatial data that would provide additional context and comparative references for an archaeological lidar project conducted in 2012 in the Honduran Mosquitia. After multiple requests to representatives from the USGS and BEG, we found various types of processed data in personal and institutional archives, culminating in the identification of 8-mm magnetic tapes that contained the original point clouds. Point clouds for the 15 communities plus a test area centered on the Maya site of Copan were recovered from the tapes (16 areas totaling 700 km2). These point clouds have been reprocessed by the authors using contemporary software and methods into higher resolution and fidelity products. Within these new products, we have identified and mapped multiple archaeological sites in proximity to modern cities, many of which are not part of the official Honduran site registry. Besides improving our understanding of ancient Honduras, our experiences dealing with issues of data management and access, ethics, and international collaboration have been informative. This paper summarizes our experiences in the hope that they will contribute to the discussion and development of best practices for handling geospatial datasets of archaeological value.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Aoife Daly; Marta Domínguez-Delmás; Wendy van Duivenvoorde;
    Country: Netherlands
    Project: EC | TIMBER (677152), ARC | Linkage Projects - Grant ... (LP130100137)

    Ocean-going ships were key to rising maritime economies of the Early Modern period, and understanding how they were built is critical to grasp the challenges faced by shipwrights and merchant seafarers. Shipwreck timbers hold material evidence of the dynamic interplay of wood supplies, craftmanship, and evolving ship designs that helped shape the Early Modern world. Here we present the results of dendroarchaeological research carried out on Batavia’s wreck timbers, currently on display at the Western Australian Shipwrecks Museum in Fremantle. Built in Amsterdam in 1628 CE and wrecked on its maiden voyage in June 1629 CE in Western Australian waters, Batavia epitomises Dutch East India Company (Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie, or VOC) shipbuilding. In the 17th century, the VOC grew to become the first multinational trading enterprise, prompting the rise of the stock market and modern capitalism. Oak (Quercus sp.) was the preferred material for shipbuilding in northern and western Europe, and maritime nations struggled to ensure sufficient supplies to meet their needs and sustain their ever-growing mercantile fleets and networks. Our research illustrates the compatibility of dendrochronological studies with musealisation of shipwreck assemblages, and the results demonstrate that the VOC successfully coped with timber shortages in the early 17th century through diversification of timber sources (mainly Baltic region, Lübeck hinterland in northern Germany, and Lower Saxony in northwest Germany), allocation of sourcing regions to specific timber products (hull planks from the Baltic and Lübeck, framing elements from Lower Saxony), and skillful woodworking craftmanship (sapwood was removed from all timber elements). These strategies, combined with an innovative hull design and the use of wind-powered sawmills, allowed the Dutch to produce unprecedented numbers of ocean-going ships for long-distance voyaging and interregional trade in Asia, proving key to their success in 17th-century world trade.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    JL Catala-Carrasco; Manuel de la Fuente; Pablo Valdivia;
    Country: Netherlands
    Project: EC | CRIC (645666)

    The articles presented in this issue constitute the second part of the special issue devoted to analyzing the links between culture, crisis, and renewal as part of the research project “Cultural Na...

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jemma Field;
    Publisher: Edinburgh University Press
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: EC | Mapping Anna (706198)

    This article analyses and transcribes an inventory of the wardrobe goods of Anna of Denmark, queen consort of Scotland and England, which was compiled in 1608, and annotated up to and including 1611. The inventory reveals the types of goods that Anna owned, the movement of garments between residences, her involvement in the politicized custom of gift exchange and the concept of her appearance as a point of diplomacy. Arguing that Anna's visual appearance was considered and strategic, it further discredits her narrow and largely negative historiography, which has routinely cast her as a recklessly indulgent and fanciful queen. Anna's tactical visual emulation of Queen Elizabeth I (1533–1603), pointed use of recognizable pieces of inherited jewellery and politically significant colours of dress are discussed.

  • Publication . Other literature type . Article . 2017
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Michael Haslam; R. Adriana Hernandez-Aguilar; Tomos Proffitt; Adrián Arroyo; Tiago Falótico; Dorothy M. Fragaszy; Michael D. Gumert; John W.K. Harris; Michael A. Huffman; Ammie K. Kalan; +12 more
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Countries: Italy, United Kingdom, United Kingdom, Switzerland
    Project: EC | PRIMARCH (283959)

    Since its inception, archaeology has traditionally focused exclusively on humans and our direct ancestors. However, recent years have seen archaeological techniques applied to material evidence left behind by non-human animals. Here, we review advances made by the most prominent field investigating past non-human tool use: primate archaeology. This field combines survey of wild primate activity areas with ethological observations, excavations and analyses that allow the reconstruction of past primate behaviour. Because the order Primates includes humans, new insights into the behavioural evolution of apes and monkeys also can be used to better interrogate the record of early tool use in our own, hominin, lineage. This work has recently doubled the set of primate lineages with an excavated archaeological record, adding Old World macaques and New World capuchin monkeys to chimpanzees and humans, and it has shown that tool selection and transport, and discrete site formation, are universal among wild stone-tool-using primates. It has also revealed that wild capuchins regularly break stone tools in a way that can make them difficult to distinguish from simple early hominin tools. Ultimately, this research opens up opportunities for the development of a broader animal archaeology, marking the end of archaeology’s anthropocentric era.