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  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Shannon Croft; Gilliane F. Monnier; Anita Radini; Aimée Little; Nicky Milner;
    Publisher: Council for British Archaeology
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: EC | POSTGLACIAL (283938)

    A modern burial experiment was devised to test microscopic residue survival in acidic peat and slightly acidic clay soils at the Early Mesolithic site of Star Carr (North Yorkshire, UK), and at nearby control location. The experiment addresses concerns regarding the applicability of residue analysis in varied burial environments, and particularly in highly acidic archaeological conditions. Flint flakes (n= 78, including blank controls) were used on twelve plant, animal, and mineral materials to create residues and then buried. The residues were examined 1 month and 11 months after burial. An unburied reference collection containing the same twelve residue types in a fresh state was compared to the buried residues to assess diagenesis. The residue types that survived across all burial conditions and time intervals were: softwood tissue, tree resin, bird feathers, squirrel hair, and red ochre.\ud \ud During microscopic analysis, it became clear that many residues lack diagnostic traits, and thus an assessment of the extent to which each residue can be identified was conducted. The degree to which residues were able to be identified was further investigated with a variable pressure scanning electron microscope (SEM). SEM images of the reference residues were compared to the reflected VLM micrographs of the same residues, which improved characterisation in some cases. Residues were grouped into three categories (diagnostic, distinctive, and non-distinctive) within a visual characterisation guide. Our in situ microscopic analyses indicated that few residue types have diagnostic traits that allow them to be identified unambiguously, and thus further characterisation techniques are often required.

  • Open Access
    Project: EC | EUROEVOL (249390)

    The datasets described in this paper comprises the animal bone data collected as part of the Cultural Evolution of Neolithic Europe project (EUROEVOL), led by Professor Stephen Shennan, UCL, representing the largest collection of animal bone data for the European Neolithic ( Figure 1 ) with >3 million NISP counts and >36,000 biometric measurements. This is one of three datasets resulting from the EUROEVOL project; the other two comprising the core spatial and temporal structure of the project, including all radiocarbon dates (EUROEVOL Dataset 1) and archaeobotanical data (EUROEVOL Dataset 3) - http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/1469811/ .

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    JL Catala-Carrasco; Manuel de la Fuente; Pablo Valdivia;
    Country: Netherlands
    Project: EC | CRIC (645666)

    The articles presented in this issue constitute the second part of the special issue devoted to analyzing the links between culture, crisis, and renewal as part of the research project “Cultural Na...

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Pierre Lison; Geert-Jan M. Kruijff;
    Publisher: IEEE
    Project: EC | COGX (215181)

    The use of deep parsers in spoken dialogue systems is usually subject to strong performance requirements. This is particularly the case in human-robot interaction, where the computing resources are limited and must be shared by many components in parallel. A real-time dialogue system must be capable of responding quickly to any given utterance, even in the presence of noisy, ambiguous or distorted input. The parser must therefore ensure that the number of analyses remains bounded at every processing step. The paper presents a practical approach to addressing this issue in the context of deep parsers designed for spoken dialogue. The approach is based on a word lattice parser combined with a statistical model for parse selection. Each word lattice is parsed incrementally, word by word, and a discriminative model is applied at each incremental step to prune the set of resulting partial analyses. The model incorporates a wide range of linguistic and contextual features and can be trained with a simple perceptron. The approach is fully implemented as part of a spoken dialogue system for human-robot interaction. Evaluation results on a Wizard-of-Oz test suite demonstrate significant improvements in parsing time.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Juan Carlos Fernandez-Diaz; Anna S. Cohen;
    Country: United States
    Project: EC | CALI (639828)

    As a response to Hurricane Mitch and the resulting widespread loss of life and destruction of Honduran infrastructure in 1998, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) conducted the first wide-area airborne lidar topographic mapping project in Central America. The survey was executed by the Bureau of Economic Geology at the University of Texas at Austin (BEG) in 2000, and it was intended to cover 240 square kilometers distributed among 15 flood-prone communities throughout Honduras. The original data processing produced basic digital elevation models at 1.5-meter grid spacing which were used as inputs for hydrological modeling. The USGS published the results in a series of technical reports in 2002. The authors became interested in this dataset in 2013 while searching for geospatial data that would provide additional context and comparative references for an archaeological lidar project conducted in 2012 in the Honduran Mosquitia. After multiple requests to representatives from the USGS and BEG, we found various types of processed data in personal and institutional archives, culminating in the identification of 8-mm magnetic tapes that contained the original point clouds. Point clouds for the 15 communities plus a test area centered on the Maya site of Copán were recovered from the tapes (16 areas totaling 700 km2). These point clouds have been reprocessed by the authors using contemporary software and methods into higher resolution and fidelity products. Within these new products, we have identified and mapped multiple archaeological sites in proximity to modern cities, many of which are not part of the official Honduran site registry. Besides improving our understanding of ancient Honduras, our experiences dealing with issues of data management and access, ethics, and international collaboration have been informative. This paper summarizes our experiences in the hope that they will contribute to the discussion and development of best practices for handling geospatial datasets of archaeological value.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Michele Martini;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: EC | NHNME (837727)

    In the last decade, macro religious institutions have undergone a process of digitalization that enabled them to incorporate Internet Communication Technologies in their organizational infrastructure. Stemming from digital religion scholarship, the research presented in this paper relate to a study of the philosophy and functioning of an innovative Catholic media enterprise called Christian Media Center (CMC). Based in Israel and the Occupied Palestinian Territories, the CMC was established through the cooperation between the long-standing Franciscan Order and the technology-savvy Brazilian community of Canção Nova. Accordingly, this paper asks: which forms of interdenominational negotiation are involved in the functioning of the CMC? Drawing on interviews conducted during three years, this research will outline the process of internal negotiation required by the development of this Catholic new media project and propose possible directions for future research. This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement No 837727

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Emmanuel Discamps; Sandrine Costamagno;
    Publisher: Elsevier
    Countries: Norway, France
    Project: EC | TRACSYMBOLS (249587)

    International audience; Mortality profiles have figured prominently among tools used by zooarchaeologists to investigate relationships between hominids and prey species. Their analysis and interpretation have been considerably influenced by M.C. Stiner's approach based on ternary diagrams. Part of this method included the demarcation of "zones" in ternary diagrams identifying specific mortality patterns (e.g. attritional, catastrophic, prime-dominated, etc.). Since its introduction some twenty-five years ago, this zoning has, however, received little critical attention. Mathematical modelling as well as a reassessment of the ecological data used to define these zones reveal several problems that may bias interpretations of mortality profiles on ternary diagrams.Here we propose new, mathematically supported definitions for the zoning of ternary diagrams combined with species-specific age class boundaries based on ethological and ontological data for seven of the most common hominid prey (bison, red deer, reindeer, horse, zebras, African buffalo and common eland). We advocate for the use of new areas (JPO, JOP, O and P zones) that produce more valid interpretations of the relative abundance of juveniles, prime and old adults in an assemblage. These results contribute to the improvement of the commonly used method of mortality profile analysis first advanced by M.C. Stiner. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Aoife Daly; Marta Domínguez-Delmás; Wendy van Duivenvoorde;
    Country: Netherlands
    Project: EC | FORSEADISCOVERY (607545), ARC | Linkage Projects - Grant ... (LP130100137), EC | TIMBER (677152)

    Ocean-going ships were key to rising maritime economies of the Early Modern period, and understanding how they were built is critical to grasp the challenges faced by shipwrights and merchant seafarers. Shipwreck timbers hold material evidence of the dynamic interplay of wood supplies, craftmanship, and evolving ship designs that helped shape the Early Modern world. Here we present the results of dendroarchaeological research carried out on Batavia���s wreck timbers, currently on display at the Western Australian Shipwrecks Museum in Fremantle. Built in Amsterdam in 1628 CE and wrecked on its maiden voyage in June 1629 CE in Western Australian waters, Batavia epitomises Dutch East India Company (Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie, or VOC) shipbuilding. In the 17th century, the VOC grew to become the first multinational trading enterprise, prompting the rise of the stock market and modern capitalism. Oak (Quercus sp.) was the preferred material for shipbuilding in northern and western Europe, and maritime nations struggled to ensure sufficient supplies to meet their needs and sustain their ever-growing mercantile fleets and networks. Our research illustrates the compatibility of dendrochronological studies with musealisation of shipwreck assemblages, and the results demonstrate that the VOC successfully coped with timber shortages in the early 17th century through diversification of timber sources (mainly Baltic region, L��beck hinterland in northern Germany, and Lower Saxony in northwest Germany), allocation of sourcing regions to specific timber products (hull planks from the Baltic and L��beck, framing elements from Lower Saxony), and skillful woodworking craftmanship (sapwood was removed from all timber elements). These strategies, combined with an innovative hull design and the use of wind-powered sawmills, allowed the Dutch to produce unprecedented numbers of ocean-going ships for long-distance voyaging and interregional trade in Asia, proving key to their success in 17th-century world trade. Funding: WvD LP130100137 Australian Research Council https://www.arc.gov.au/ No MD-D 607545 FP7 People Programme (Marie Curie Actions) https://ec.europa.eu/research/mariecurieactions/ 016.Veni.195.502 Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek https://www.nwo.nl/en AD 677152 European Research Council https://erc.europa.eu/

  • Publication . Article . 2016
    English
    Authors: 
    Anna Marmodoro; Ben T. Page;
    Project: EC | K4U (667526)

    Thomas Aquinas sees a sharp metaphysical distinction between artifacts and substances, but does not offer any explicit account of it. We argue that for Aquinas the contribution that an artisan makes to the generation of an artifact compromises the causal responsibility of the form of that artifact for what the artifact is; hence it compromises the metaphysical unity of the artifact to that of an accidental unity. By contrast, the metaphysical unity of a substance is achieved by a process of generation whereby the substantial form is solely responsible for what each part and the whole of a substance are. This, we submit, is where the metaphysical difference between artifacts and substances lies for Aquinas. Here we offer on behalf of Aquinas a novel account of the causal process of generation of substances, in terms of descending forms, and we bring out its explanatory merits by contrasting it to other existing accounts in the literature.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Carla Lancelotti; Stefano Biagetti;
    Country: Spain
    Project: EC | RAINDROPS (759800)

    The reconstruction of land use practices in hyper-arid Saharan Africa is often hampered by the accuracy of the available tools and by unconscious biases that see these areas as marginal and inhospitable. Considered that this has been for a long time the living space of pastoral mobile communities, new research is showing that agriculture might have been more important in these areas than previously thought. In this paper, after a review of present-day land use strategies in Saharan Africa, we show how ethnographic and ethnoarchaeological data can offer us a different point of view and help in better defining land use and food production strategies in this area. Ultimately, these insights can be integrated into the ongoing efforts to reconstruct past land use globally. This research and the APC were funded by the European Research Council, grant number ERC-Stg-2017 759800, RAINDROPS project.

Advanced search in Research products
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
The following results are related to Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
3,016 Research products, page 1 of 302
  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Shannon Croft; Gilliane F. Monnier; Anita Radini; Aimée Little; Nicky Milner;
    Publisher: Council for British Archaeology
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: EC | POSTGLACIAL (283938)

    A modern burial experiment was devised to test microscopic residue survival in acidic peat and slightly acidic clay soils at the Early Mesolithic site of Star Carr (North Yorkshire, UK), and at nearby control location. The experiment addresses concerns regarding the applicability of residue analysis in varied burial environments, and particularly in highly acidic archaeological conditions. Flint flakes (n= 78, including blank controls) were used on twelve plant, animal, and mineral materials to create residues and then buried. The residues were examined 1 month and 11 months after burial. An unburied reference collection containing the same twelve residue types in a fresh state was compared to the buried residues to assess diagenesis. The residue types that survived across all burial conditions and time intervals were: softwood tissue, tree resin, bird feathers, squirrel hair, and red ochre.\ud \ud During microscopic analysis, it became clear that many residues lack diagnostic traits, and thus an assessment of the extent to which each residue can be identified was conducted. The degree to which residues were able to be identified was further investigated with a variable pressure scanning electron microscope (SEM). SEM images of the reference residues were compared to the reflected VLM micrographs of the same residues, which improved characterisation in some cases. Residues were grouped into three categories (diagnostic, distinctive, and non-distinctive) within a visual characterisation guide. Our in situ microscopic analyses indicated that few residue types have diagnostic traits that allow them to be identified unambiguously, and thus further characterisation techniques are often required.

  • Open Access
    Project: EC | EUROEVOL (249390)

    The datasets described in this paper comprises the animal bone data collected as part of the Cultural Evolution of Neolithic Europe project (EUROEVOL), led by Professor Stephen Shennan, UCL, representing the largest collection of animal bone data for the European Neolithic ( Figure 1 ) with >3 million NISP counts and >36,000 biometric measurements. This is one of three datasets resulting from the EUROEVOL project; the other two comprising the core spatial and temporal structure of the project, including all radiocarbon dates (EUROEVOL Dataset 1) and archaeobotanical data (EUROEVOL Dataset 3) - http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/1469811/ .

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    JL Catala-Carrasco; Manuel de la Fuente; Pablo Valdivia;
    Country: Netherlands
    Project: EC | CRIC (645666)

    The articles presented in this issue constitute the second part of the special issue devoted to analyzing the links between culture, crisis, and renewal as part of the research project “Cultural Na...

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Pierre Lison; Geert-Jan M. Kruijff;
    Publisher: IEEE
    Project: EC | COGX (215181)

    The use of deep parsers in spoken dialogue systems is usually subject to strong performance requirements. This is particularly the case in human-robot interaction, where the computing resources are limited and must be shared by many components in parallel. A real-time dialogue system must be capable of responding quickly to any given utterance, even in the presence of noisy, ambiguous or distorted input. The parser must therefore ensure that the number of analyses remains bounded at every processing step. The paper presents a practical approach to addressing this issue in the context of deep parsers designed for spoken dialogue. The approach is based on a word lattice parser combined with a statistical model for parse selection. Each word lattice is parsed incrementally, word by word, and a discriminative model is applied at each incremental step to prune the set of resulting partial analyses. The model incorporates a wide range of linguistic and contextual features and can be trained with a simple perceptron. The approach is fully implemented as part of a spoken dialogue system for human-robot interaction. Evaluation results on a Wizard-of-Oz test suite demonstrate significant improvements in parsing time.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Juan Carlos Fernandez-Diaz; Anna S. Cohen;
    Country: United States
    Project: EC | CALI (639828)

    As a response to Hurricane Mitch and the resulting widespread loss of life and destruction of Honduran infrastructure in 1998, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) conducted the first wide-area airborne lidar topographic mapping project in Central America. The survey was executed by the Bureau of Economic Geology at the University of Texas at Austin (BEG) in 2000, and it was intended to cover 240 square kilometers distributed among 15 flood-prone communities throughout Honduras. The original data processing produced basic digital elevation models at 1.5-meter grid spacing which were used as inputs for hydrological modeling. The USGS published the results in a series of technical reports in 2002. The authors became interested in this dataset in 2013 while searching for geospatial data that would provide additional context and comparative references for an archaeological lidar project conducted in 2012 in the Honduran Mosquitia. After multiple requests to representatives from the USGS and BEG, we found various types of processed data in personal and institutional archives, culminating in the identification of 8-mm magnetic tapes that contained the original point clouds. Point clouds for the 15 communities plus a test area centered on the Maya site of Copán were recovered from the tapes (16 areas totaling 700 km2). These point clouds have been reprocessed by the authors using contemporary software and methods into higher resolution and fidelity products. Within these new products, we have identified and mapped multiple archaeological sites in proximity to modern cities, many of which are not part of the official Honduran site registry. Besides improving our understanding of ancient Honduras, our experiences dealing with issues of data management and access, ethics, and international collaboration have been informative. This paper summarizes our experiences in the hope that they will contribute to the discussion and development of best practices for handling geospatial datasets of archaeological value.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Michele Martini;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: EC | NHNME (837727)

    In the last decade, macro religious institutions have undergone a process of digitalization that enabled them to incorporate Internet Communication Technologies in their organizational infrastructure. Stemming from digital religion scholarship, the research presented in this paper relate to a study of the philosophy and functioning of an innovative Catholic media enterprise called Christian Media Center (CMC). Based in Israel and the Occupied Palestinian Territories, the CMC was established through the cooperation between the long-standing Franciscan Order and the technology-savvy Brazilian community of Canção Nova. Accordingly, this paper asks: which forms of interdenominational negotiation are involved in the functioning of the CMC? Drawing on interviews conducted during three years, this research will outline the process of internal negotiation required by the development of this Catholic new media project and propose possible directions for future research. This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement No 837727

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Emmanuel Discamps; Sandrine Costamagno;
    Publisher: Elsevier
    Countries: Norway, France
    Project: EC | TRACSYMBOLS (249587)

    International audience; Mortality profiles have figured prominently among tools used by zooarchaeologists to investigate relationships between hominids and prey species. Their analysis and interpretation have been considerably influenced by M.C. Stiner's approach based on ternary diagrams. Part of this method included the demarcation of "zones" in ternary diagrams identifying specific mortality patterns (e.g. attritional, catastrophic, prime-dominated, etc.). Since its introduction some twenty-five years ago, this zoning has, however, received little critical attention. Mathematical modelling as well as a reassessment of the ecological data used to define these zones reveal several problems that may bias interpretations of mortality profiles on ternary diagrams.Here we propose new, mathematically supported definitions for the zoning of ternary diagrams combined with species-specific age class boundaries based on ethological and ontological data for seven of the most common hominid prey (bison, red deer, reindeer, horse, zebras, African buffalo and common eland). We advocate for the use of new areas (JPO, JOP, O and P zones) that produce more valid interpretations of the relative abundance of juveniles, prime and old adults in an assemblage. These results contribute to the improvement of the commonly used method of mortality profile analysis first advanced by M.C. Stiner. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Aoife Daly; Marta Domínguez-Delmás; Wendy van Duivenvoorde;
    Country: Netherlands
    Project: EC | FORSEADISCOVERY (607545), ARC | Linkage Projects - Grant ... (LP130100137), EC | TIMBER (677152)

    Ocean-going ships were key to rising maritime economies of the Early Modern period, and understanding how they were built is critical to grasp the challenges faced by shipwrights and merchant seafarers. Shipwreck timbers hold material evidence of the dynamic interplay of wood supplies, craftmanship, and evolving ship designs that helped shape the Early Modern world. Here we present the results of dendroarchaeological research carried out on Batavia���s wreck timbers, currently on display at the Western Australian Shipwrecks Museum in Fremantle. Built in Amsterdam in 1628 CE and wrecked on its maiden voyage in June 1629 CE in Western Australian waters, Batavia epitomises Dutch East India Company (Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie, or VOC) shipbuilding. In the 17th century, the VOC grew to become the first multinational trading enterprise, prompting the rise of the stock market and modern capitalism. Oak (Quercus sp.) was the preferred material for shipbuilding in northern and western Europe, and maritime nations struggled to ensure sufficient supplies to meet their needs and sustain their ever-growing mercantile fleets and networks. Our research illustrates the compatibility of dendrochronological studies with musealisation of shipwreck assemblages, and the results demonstrate that the VOC successfully coped with timber shortages in the early 17th century through diversification of timber sources (mainly Baltic region, L��beck hinterland in northern Germany, and Lower Saxony in northwest Germany), allocation of sourcing regions to specific timber products (hull planks from the Baltic and L��beck, framing elements from Lower Saxony), and skillful woodworking craftmanship (sapwood was removed from all timber elements). These strategies, combined with an innovative hull design and the use of wind-powered sawmills, allowed the Dutch to produce unprecedented numbers of ocean-going ships for long-distance voyaging and interregional trade in Asia, proving key to their success in 17th-century world trade. Funding: WvD LP130100137 Australian Research Council https://www.arc.gov.au/ No MD-D 607545 FP7 People Programme (Marie Curie Actions) https://ec.europa.eu/research/mariecurieactions/ 016.Veni.195.502 Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek https://www.nwo.nl/en AD 677152 European Research Council https://erc.europa.eu/

  • Publication . Article . 2016
    English
    Authors: 
    Anna Marmodoro; Ben T. Page;
    Project: EC | K4U (667526)

    Thomas Aquinas sees a sharp metaphysical distinction between artifacts and substances, but does not offer any explicit account of it. We argue that for Aquinas the contribution that an artisan makes to the generation of an artifact compromises the causal responsibility of the form of that artifact for what the artifact is; hence it compromises the metaphysical unity of the artifact to that of an accidental unity. By contrast, the metaphysical unity of a substance is achieved by a process of generation whereby the substantial form is solely responsible for what each part and the whole of a substance are. This, we submit, is where the metaphysical difference between artifacts and substances lies for Aquinas. Here we offer on behalf of Aquinas a novel account of the causal process of generation of substances, in terms of descending forms, and we bring out its explanatory merits by contrasting it to other existing accounts in the literature.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Carla Lancelotti; Stefano Biagetti;
    Country: Spain
    Project: EC | RAINDROPS (759800)

    The reconstruction of land use practices in hyper-arid Saharan Africa is often hampered by the accuracy of the available tools and by unconscious biases that see these areas as marginal and inhospitable. Considered that this has been for a long time the living space of pastoral mobile communities, new research is showing that agriculture might have been more important in these areas than previously thought. In this paper, after a review of present-day land use strategies in Saharan Africa, we show how ethnographic and ethnoarchaeological data can offer us a different point of view and help in better defining land use and food production strategies in this area. Ultimately, these insights can be integrated into the ongoing efforts to reconstruct past land use globally. This research and the APC were funded by the European Research Council, grant number ERC-Stg-2017 759800, RAINDROPS project.