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9 Research products, page 1 of 1

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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Lotta Vikström; Helena Haage; Erling Häggström Lundevaller;
    Publisher: International Instititute of Social History
    Country: Sweden
    Project: EC | DISLIFE (647125), EC | DISLIFE (647125)

    Historically, little is known about whether and to what extent disabled people found work and formed families. To fill this gap, this study analyses the life course trajectories of both disabled and non-disabled individuals, between the ages of 15 and 33, from the Sundsvall region in Sweden during the nineteenth century. Having access to micro-data that report disabilities in a population of 8,874 individuals from the parish registers digitised by the Demographic Data Base, Umeå University, we employ sequence analysis on a series of events that are expected to occur in life of young adults: getting a job, marrying and becoming a parent, while also taking into account out-migration and death. Through this method we obtain a holistic picture of the life course of disabled people. Main findings show that their trajectories did not include work or family to the same extent as those of non-disabled people. Secondary findings concerning migration and mortality indicate that the disabled rarely out-migrated from the region, and they suffered from premature deaths. To our knowledge this is the first study to employ sequence analysis on a substantially large number of cases to provide demographic evidence of how disability shaped human trajectories in the past during an extended period of life. Accordingly, we detail our motivation for this method, describe our analytical approach, and discuss the advantages and disadvantages associated with sequence analysis for our case study.

  • Publication . Article . 2017
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    David Lunn; Julia Byl;
    Publisher: Informa UK Limited
    Project: EC | MUSTECIO (263643)

    This is the first treatment of a hitherto unknown text, a hybrid lithograph-manuscript from 1864 called the Syair Tabut, or ‘Poem of the tomb effigies’, by Encik Ali. The only known copy of the Sya...

  • Publication . Article . Conference object . Preprint . 2018 . Embargo End Date: 01 Apr 2020
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Hardy Hardy; Andreas Vlachos;
    Publisher: Apollo - University of Cambridge Repository
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: EC | SUMMA (688139), EC | SUMMA (688139)

    Recent work on abstractive summarization has made progress with neural encoder-decoder architectures. However, such models are often challenged due to their lack of explicit semantic modeling of the source document and its summary. In this paper, we extend previous work on abstractive summarization using Abstract Meaning Representation (AMR) with a neural language generation stage which we guide using the source document. We demonstrate that this guidance improves summarization results by 7.4 and 10.5 points in ROUGE-2 using gold standard AMR parses and parses obtained from an off-the-shelf parser respectively. We also find that the summarization performance using the latter is 2 ROUGE-2 points higher than that of a well-established neural encoder-decoder approach trained on a larger dataset. Code is available at \url{https://github.com/sheffieldnlp/AMR2Text-summ} Comment: Accepted in EMNLP 2018

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Camil Demetrescu; Andrea Ribichini; Marco Schaerf;
    Publisher: Springer Verlag
    Country: Italy
    Project: EC | SecondHands (643950)

    We investigate the accuracy of how author names are reported in bibliographic records excerpted from four prominent sources: WoS, Scopus, PubMed, and CrossRef. We take as a case study 44,549 publications stored in the internal database of Sapienza University of Rome, one of the largest universities in Europe. While our results indicate generally good accuracy for all bibliographic data sources considered, we highlight a number of issues that undermine the accuracy for certain classes of author names, including compound names and names with diacritics, which are common features to Italian and other Western languages.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Kylie Thomas;
    Country: Netherlands
    Project: EC | FEM-RESIST (838864), EC | FEM-RESIST (838864)

    In his book about his Irish-South African family and his childhood under apartheid, White Boy Running, Christopher Hope writes of the ‘bitter emotion’ that infuses the politics of both Ireland and South Africa. This article considers how the histories of political struggle in both places are intertwined through readings of photographs taken in Ireland and South Africa in the 1970s and 1980s. I draw on these photographs to develop an argument about how affective archives of music, images, and poetry travel across time and space and serve as a conduit for raising awareness about injustice and for forging transnational solidarity. At the same time these photographs provoke a consideration about how Irish identification with the struggle of black South Africans is complicated by the longer history of British colonialism and racism and how solidarity requires both remembering and forgetting. This article also begins to trace the presence and work of South African activists in Ireland who campaigned against apartheid while they were in exile.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Yichi Zhang;
    Publisher: Informa UK Limited
    Project: EC | BROKEX (802070)

    This article examines a largely unexplored component of China’s classical garden system – the gardens of salt merchants in Tianjin during the Qing Dynasty (1636-1911). Beyond existing works, which tend to focus on imperial and scholar gardens – gardens of the ruling elites – this examination of merchant gardens contributes to garden history by revealing that merchants created gardens to improve their low social status. It further reveals shifts in the functions, architectural design and flora of the gardens which reflects both individual aesthetics and the changing fortunes of Tianjin’s salt merchants in general. Salt merchant gardens in Tianjin initially presented idyllic scenery to create literary-based, self-immersed spaces. Then beginning in the 1720s, they evolved into a showcase of rising merchant power displaying affluence, thereby enabling merchants to improve their social rank. Finally, from the 1840s, salt merchant gardens gradually became extravagant enclosures as the collapse of the established social structure unfolded.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Mercklé, Pierre; Zalc, Claire;
    Publisher: Cambridge University Press (CUP)
    Project: EC | LUBARTWORLD (818843)

    RésumésL’objectif de cet article est de proposer un examen détaillé des apports et des limites de la modélisation en histoire à partir du cas de la Shoah. Il s’appuie sur une enquête qui a permis de reconstituer les « trajectoires de persécution » des 992 Juifs de Lens pendant la Seconde Guerre mondiale, dont 527 seulement ont survécu. 491 ont été arrêtés, 468 ont été déportés et 449 ont été exterminés. Les données prosopographiques sont utilisées ici pour répondre à une question simple : est-il possible de modéliser la persécution ? En d’autres termes, est-il possible de construire une représentation simplifiée mais heuristique des processus causaux complexes qui ont déterminé les chances de survie face à la persécution nazie à partir de données standardisées sur un nombre relativement important d’individus ? L’article discute les apports et les limites d’une succession de méthodes quantifiées : celles qui s’inscrivent dans ce qu’Andrew Abbott appelle le « programme standard » des sciences sociales, ainsi que l’analyse des réseaux et l’analyse séquentielle. Pour chacune d’entre elles, sont plus particulièrement discutées les manières de rendre compte des interactions entre les individus, de l’historicité des comportements et des processus déterminant ces chances de survie. Les tentatives de modélisation à partir de données historiennes apportent ainsi de véritables renouvellements de connaissances, notamment lorsqu’elles sont menées de manière cumulative sur une même enquête. En passant d’une logique de propriétés individuelles à une logique de trajectoires interconnectées, ces approches permettent de mieux comprendre les interactions sociales et locales, et offrent ainsi des perspectives stimulantes pour la microhistoire de l’Holocauste.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Kun Sun; Haitao Liu; Wenxin Xiong;
    Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC
    Project: EC | WIDE (742545), EC | WIDE (742545)

    AbstractScientific writings, as one essential part of human culture, have evolved over centuries into their current form. Knowing how scientific writings evolved is particularly helpful in understanding how trends in scientific culture developed. It also allows us to better understand how scientific culture was interwoven with human culture generally. The availability of massive digitized texts and the progress in computational technologies today provide us with a convenient and credible way to discern the evolutionary patterns in scientific writings by examining the diachronic linguistic changes. The linguistic changes in scientific writings reflect the genre shifts that took place with historical changes in science and scientific writings. This study investigates a general evolutionary linguistic pattern in scientific writings. It does so by merging two credible computational methods: relative entropy; word-embedding concreteness and imageability. It thus creates a novel quantitative methodology and applies this to the examination of diachronic changes in the Philosophical Transactions of Royal Society (PTRS, 1665–1869). The data from two computational approaches can be well mapped to support the argument that this journal followed the evolutionary trend of increasing professionalization and specialization. But it also shows that language use in this journal was greatly influenced by historical events and other socio-cultural factors. This study, as a “culturomic” approach, demonstrates that the linguistic evolutionary patterns in scientific discourse have been interrupted by external factors even though this scientific discourse would likely have cumulatively developed into a professional and specialized genre. The approaches proposed by this study can make a great contribution to full-text analysis in scientometrics.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Alessia Bardi; Paolo Manghi; Franco Zoppi;
    Publisher: Inderscience Enterprises,, [Olney] , Regno Unito
    Country: Italy
    Project: EC | OPENAIREPLUS (283595), EC | OPENAIRE (246686), EC | OPENAIREPLUS (283595), EC | OPENAIRE (246686)

    The Cultural Heritage (CH) community is one of the most active in the realisation of Aggregative Data Infrastructures (ADIs). ADIs provide tools to integrate data sources to form uniform and richer information spaces. The realisation of ADIs for CH must be based on technology capable of coping with complex interoperability issues and sustainability issues. In this paper, we present the D-NET software toolkit framework and services, devised for the realisation of sustainable and customisable ADIs. In particular, we demonstrate the effectiveness of D-NET in the CH scenario by describing its usage in the realisation of a real-case ADI for the EC project Heritage of the People's Europe (HOPE). The HOPE ADI uses D-NET to implement a two-phase metadata conversion methodology that addresses data interoperability issues while facilitating sustainability by encouraging participation of data sources.