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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Raijmakers, L;

    Plasmodium vivax (Pv) malaria is a human infecting blood parasite distributed widely across both tropical and temperate regions. In order to increase the understanding of past dynamics influencing its current distribution, this thesis explores its origins, spread and evolutionary past through diversity and evolution of the mitochondrial genome. Exploring several different factors that would have affected its dispersal, including mosquito vector species and geographic distance, the main focus of Chapter 2 is on understanding when and with which past human migrations it spread across the continents of the Eastern Hemisphere. A special emphasis on the Melanesian region is included in Chapter 3, which shows considerable diversity in human populations and cultures, and has high incidence of all four species of human infecting malarias (P. vivax, P. falciparum, P. malariae, P. ovale). Although previous publications indicated an especially high level of diversity in Pv mitochondrial genomes in Melanesia; in this study it is shown to be a sampling artefact due to denser sampling. In both chapters a novel cross-disciplinary data comparison is undertaken, matching Pv mitochondrial genome phylogeny and population genetics with modern human mitochondrial genome data, human and hominid archaeological data, archaeological data from human commensal species and phylogenetic data from human associated diseases. Results indicate that not only the current Melanesian Pv but also the Pv strains found across the Asian continent to the east of India were likely introduced by the first wave of anatomically modern humans (Homo sapiens) to leave Africa. The strong patterning seen across this eastern region has ostensibly been shaped not only by relatively stable human populations for the last several thousand years, but is also associated with a strong regional heterogeneity of mosquito vector species and clades. In contrast, the present study confirms previously observed homology in Pv mitochondrial genetics from India to the west. Presumably the homology is due to increased human population movement and contact between the western regions, as well as greater overlap in mosquito vector species across the region, as shown in this study. Even so, with the addition of data from new sites across the western half of the Eastern Hemisphere, including samples from central and western Asia, there is a detection of low levels of population diversity. Lastly, Chapter 4 gives an overview of the applications of different genetic markers used in malaria research over time, reviewing the continued value of using mitochondrial DNA, on its own and in combination with other available genetic data – in an age of whole genome sequencing.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Oxford University Re...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Oxford University Re...arrow_drop_down
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Beaven, Bradley John;
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ De Montfort Universi...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ De Montfort Universi...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Bunyan, A; Bunyan, Alix;

    This thesis situates the life and work of Virginia Woolf in a socio-literary history of writing by, and attitudes towards, children. It explores late-Victorian middle-class children's lives, and the relationships between parents and children during the period. Although Darwinian ideals had begun to influence parents earlier in the century, it was not until the 1870s that they seem to have become prevalent in middle-class families. Through an examination of the expansion of evolutionary and developmental stage theories in the late Victorian years, the thesis puts forth the theory that middle-class adults of the period saw children as containing adult potential. It makes a study of how this view affected middle-class family life, child rearing, and children's culture during the period. It particularly investigates linguistic developmental theory and its effect on reading and writing education, and late-Victorian ideas of children's sexual development and the need for sexual education. The thesis examines how such theories led to changes in writing by children during the period, exploring nineteenth-century works by children, and focusing on the home manuscript magazine genre. It questions the late-Victorian belief that children wrote spontaneously and "naturally." It situates the juvenile writings of the Stephen children (of whom Woolf was one), using these texts as typical products of the late-nineteenth-century middle-class familial and cultural context that the thesis examines. This study allows me to propose a critical definition of late-nineteenth-century children's home magazine writing. The thesis goes on to argue that Woolf, while recognizing herself as a product of the late-Victorian middle classes and retaining some of the authorial qualities evident in her family's juvenile works, rebelled against the late- Victorian evolutionist-developmentalist view of childhood, and helped to create a new language in the process.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Oxford University Re...arrow_drop_down
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Atherton, Christopher John; Barton, Thomas; Basney, Jim; Broeder, Daan; +36 Authors

    The authors also acknowledge the support and collaboration of many other colleagues in their respective institutes, research communities and IT Infrastructures, together with the funding received by these from many different sources. These include but are not limited to the following: (i) The Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG) project is a global collaboration of more than 170 computing centres in 43 countries, linking up national and international grid infrastructures. Funding is acknowledged from many national funding bodies and we acknowledge the support of several operational infrastructures including EGI, OSG and NDGF/NeIC. (ii) EGI acknowledges the funding and support received from the European Commission and the many National Grid Initiatives and other members. EOSC-hub receives funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 777536. (iii) The work leading to these results has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under Grant Agreement No. 730941 (AARC2). (iv) Work on the development of ESGF's identity management system has been supported by The UK Natural Environment Research Council and funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration through projects IS-ENES (grant agreement no 228203) and IS-ENES2 (grant agreement no 312979). (v) Ludek Matyska and Michal Prochazka acknowledge funding from the RI ELIXIR CZ project funded by MEYS Czech Republic No. LM2015047. (vi) Scott Koranda acknowledges support provided by the United States National Science Foundation under Grant No. PHY-1700765. (vii) GÉANT Association on behalf of the GN4 Phase 2 project (GN4-2).The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under Grant Agreement No. 731122(GN4-2). (viii) ELIXIR acknowledges support from Research Infrastructure programme of Horizon 2020 grant No 676559 EXCELERATE. (ix) CORBEL life science cluster acknowledges support from Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 654248. (x) Mirjam van Daalen acknowledges that the research leading to this result has been supported by the project CALIPSOplus under the Grant Agreement 730872 from the EU Framework Programme for Research and Innovation HORIZON 2020. (xi) EISCAT is an international association supported by research organisations in China (CRIRP), Finland (SA), Japan (NIPR), Norway (NFR), Sweden (VR), and the United Kingdom (NERC). This white-paper expresses common requirements of Research Communities seeking to leverage Identity Federation for Authentication and Authorisation. Recommendations are made to Stakeholders to guide the future evolution of Federated Identity Management in a direction that better satisfies research use cases. The authors represent research communities, Research Services, Infrastructures, Identity Federations and Interfederations, with a joint motivation to ease collaboration for distributed researchers. The content has been edited collaboratively by the Federated Identity Management for Research (FIM4R) Community, with input sought at conferences and meetings in Europe, Asia and North America.

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    https://doi.org/10.5445/ir/100...
    Other literature type . 2018
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    https://zenodo.org/record/1307...
    Article . 2018
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    Article . 2018
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  • Authors: De Groot, Joanna;

    This thesis explored the possibilities of regional history as a basis for understanding the development of society in Iran in the nineteenth century. It begins by defining some conceptual problems needing dis- cussion in order to embark on such a history. The choice of a regional society as the unit of study, and the selection of Kennan in particular are examined. The problem of source material is dealt with by a survey of the sources used in the study of nineteenth century Kennan. The emergence of the region as a geographical and historical entity is then summarised in order to clarify its identity as it appeared by the nineteenth century. The central section of the thesis is an examina- tion of the important aspects of material life in Kerman. The rural sector is discussed first as being dominant in economy and society, with a survey of crop production being followed by examination of rural technology and society, and then a discussion of landlord-cultivator relations. The urban sector is then analysed in terms of a survey of craft production and then of social organisation. A separate chapter examines the sphere of circulation linking urban and rural sectors, looking at urban-rural contacts especially as articulated by landlord- peasant relations, and also at the links between Kennan and other regions, and with international markets. There is an appendix on the special case of pastoral ism and nomadism. The last section of the thesis uses the understanding of society which has emerged in an analysis of politics. Discussion of useful definitions of this term is followed by examination of various levels of political life, and more specifically of the decade 1905-1915. Finally conclusions are drawn about the contribution of this regional study to better under- standing of history arid society in Iran,

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    Authors: Roberts, T; Das, N;

    This thesis examines how the commedia dell’arte manifested in the English imagination in the period 1571-1611. This form of professional, semi-improvised performance practice emerged from Italy in the mid-sixteenth century to capture the hearts of audiences across Europe and introduce regional dramaturgies to the literary and theatrical innovations of the Cinquecento. There are frequent references to the masked stock characters and extemporising routines of the arte in extant English print, and scholars have often found parallels between the dramas and performance practices of English playwrights and Italian practitioners. However, these studies are complicated by the lack of direct exposure to the arte in performance. The Italians made only a handful of visits to England in the 1570s, after which they would not set foot on English soil again for over twenty years. Utilising methods from contemporary transcultural theory, this thesis approaches the commedia dell’arte as a culturally porous theatrical apparatus of constituent parts that became disentangled from the whole during their migratory journey. These constituent parts were transferred at different rates, at different times and through different means, and as such were adapted and repurposed to the demands of specific cultural and political moments along the way. In other words, the commedia dell’arte did not pass into the English imagination all at once, a direct exchange from one culture to another through sustained exposure to Italian performance, but rather percolated through a series of piecemeal translations and appropriations. As such, this thesis contends that the commedia dell’arte found in extant print and manuscript records in the period has little resemblance to or bearing on the activities of the Italian practitioners on the continent. Rather, it was highly situated and syncretic, constructed by writers and dramatists to interrogate and reflect anxieties over difference, belonging, and what it meant to be English.

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    Authors: Rees, T; Rees, Timothy John;

    This thesis analyses rural social and political conflict in the province of Badajoz (Extremadura) during the Spanish Second Republic of 1931 to 1936. It takes a broad approach to social and political change in a province typical of southern Spain, but focusses particularly on the under-explored role of powerful agrarian elites opposed to the reforms introduced by the new liberal-democratic regime. The study begins with two complementary chapters covering the period 1870-1930; they consider the evolution of the autocratic rural order presided over by the elite and discuss the growth of the challenge to agrian power from organised rural labour. In the following chapters covering in detail the period 1931 to 1936 the partial transformat ion of the rural order that accompanied the transition to the Republic, the subsequent processes of social and political struggle, and the polarisation that followed are documented. A final epilogue considers the Civil War as a rural counter-revolution that involved the resurgence of agrarian autocracy in Badajoz. The thesis draws on a wide range of primary materials, from archives and printed sources to memoirs, and utilizes the relevant secondary literature. In general the study forms part of a movement to reach a deeper understanding of social and political change during the Republic and in particular offers new perspectives on the contribution of the 'agrarian question' to the breakdown of the regime and the origins of the Civil War.

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    Authors: Song, R; Song, Robert;

    A study of Christian interpretations of liberalism is important for social theology for two reasons: first, liberalism is the dominant political ideology of modernity, and (especially in the form "liberal democracy") is the most prominent form of public self-definition in the West, its claims often being taken to be self-evidently true. Second, liberalism is historically indebted to Christianity, and the two are susceptible of mutual confusion. A critical theological analysis of liberalism is necessary to ensure the authentically Christian nature of contemporary political theology. This analysis is conducted principally through a discussion of the criticisms of liberalism made by three Christian thinkers of the twentieth century, the American Reinhold Niebuhr (1892-1971), the French Jacques Maritain (1882-1973), and the Canadian George Grant (1918-1988). After an introductory chapter, chapter two presents an interpretation of liberalism, mapping the historical contours and varieties of liberalism from five liberal writers, and elaborating a loose framework of the conceptual structure of liberal thought. Chapter three examines Reinhold Niebuhr's criticisms of liberalism's alleged facile progressivism and optimistic conceptions of human nature and reason, and chapter four looks at George Grant's claim that John Rawls' liberal theory fails to provide the ontological affirmations necessary to defend human beings and liberal values against the dynamics of technology. Jacques Maritain's account of pluralism and the ideal of the secular state, and the contribution he can make to the current debate between liberals and communitarians, are the subjects of chapter five, while chapter six attempts to secure some theological purchase on the issues of Bills of Rights, judicial review, and the constitutional restraint of democratic majorities, with special reference to the British context. In the concluding chapter it is argued that the liberal account of justice is impossible to realize, and that central insights must be borrowed from the Augustinian tradition.

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    Authors: Matthews, Roger; Matthews, Wendy; Rasheed Raheem, Kamal; Richardson, Amy;

    ­The Eastern Fertile Crescent region of western Iran and eastern Iraq hosted major developments in the transition from hunting and gathering to more sedentary agricultural lifestyles through the Early Neolithic period, 10,000-7000 BC. Within the scope of the Central Zagros Archaeological Project, excavations have been conducted at two Early Neolithic sites in the Kurdistan region of Iraq: Bestansur and Shimshara, as well as survey in the region of the Epipalaeolithic site of Zarzi since 2012. Bestansur represents an early stage in the transition to sedentary, agricultural life, where the inhabitants pursued a biodiverse strategy of hunting, gathering, herding and cultivating, maximising the new opportunities afforded by the warmer climate of the Early Holocene. They also constructed a substantial settlement of mudbrick, including a major building with a minimum of 78 human individuals buried under its floor in association with hundreds of beads. ­ These buildings and human remains provide new insights into social relations, mortuary practices, demography, diet, health and disease during the early stages of sedentarisation. ­ The material culture of Bestansur and Shimshara is rich in imported items such as obsidian, carnelian and sea-shells, indicating the extent to which Early Neolithic communities were networked across the Eastern Fertile Crescent and beyond along routes that later became the Silk Roads. This volume includes final reports by a large-scale interdisciplinary team on a wealth of new data from excavations at Bestansur and Shimshara, through application of state-of-the-art scientific techniques, integrated ecological and social approaches and sustainability studies. ­ The net result is to re-emphasise the enormous significance of the Eastern Fertile Crescent in one of the most important episodes in human history: the Neolithic transition.

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    Authors: Hind, J;

    Surprisingly, clean mains water has only been universally available to the population of Oxfordshire since the second half of the 20th century. This thesis explores the different methods by which water was obtained between the end of the medieval period and the establishment of the contemporary water companies; it shows how archaeological remains can inform understanding of how different groups lived and interacted during that period. It attempts for the first time to catalogue water supply features within the county, having 910 entries to date. Patterns emerging from the data have been used to suggest themes for further study. Statistics and GIS mapping have demonstrated that the availability and quality of water, including the incidence of early holy and healing wells, are dominated firstly by geology and then by differences between the social classes and between urban and rural areas. Themes explored include the relationship between water and disease, whether water supplies differ between ‘open’ and ‘closed’ parishes, the evolution of holy wells into spas, water in leisure activities, its association with memorials and changing attitudes to hygiene. The thesis also examines the various designation systems in place for protecting historic monuments, the level of recording of water features on local and national lists of monuments and how appropriate this framework is for helping the conservation of a valuable resource.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Raijmakers, L;

    Plasmodium vivax (Pv) malaria is a human infecting blood parasite distributed widely across both tropical and temperate regions. In order to increase the understanding of past dynamics influencing its current distribution, this thesis explores its origins, spread and evolutionary past through diversity and evolution of the mitochondrial genome. Exploring several different factors that would have affected its dispersal, including mosquito vector species and geographic distance, the main focus of Chapter 2 is on understanding when and with which past human migrations it spread across the continents of the Eastern Hemisphere. A special emphasis on the Melanesian region is included in Chapter 3, which shows considerable diversity in human populations and cultures, and has high incidence of all four species of human infecting malarias (P. vivax, P. falciparum, P. malariae, P. ovale). Although previous publications indicated an especially high level of diversity in Pv mitochondrial genomes in Melanesia; in this study it is shown to be a sampling artefact due to denser sampling. In both chapters a novel cross-disciplinary data comparison is undertaken, matching Pv mitochondrial genome phylogeny and population genetics with modern human mitochondrial genome data, human and hominid archaeological data, archaeological data from human commensal species and phylogenetic data from human associated diseases. Results indicate that not only the current Melanesian Pv but also the Pv strains found across the Asian continent to the east of India were likely introduced by the first wave of anatomically modern humans (Homo sapiens) to leave Africa. The strong patterning seen across this eastern region has ostensibly been shaped not only by relatively stable human populations for the last several thousand years, but is also associated with a strong regional heterogeneity of mosquito vector species and clades. In contrast, the present study confirms previously observed homology in Pv mitochondrial genetics from India to the west. Presumably the homology is due to increased human population movement and contact between the western regions, as well as greater overlap in mosquito vector species across the region, as shown in this study. Even so, with the addition of data from new sites across the western half of the Eastern Hemisphere, including samples from central and western Asia, there is a detection of low levels of population diversity. Lastly, Chapter 4 gives an overview of the applications of different genetic markers used in malaria research over time, reviewing the continued value of using mitochondrial DNA, on its own and in combination with other available genetic data – in an age of whole genome sequencing.

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    Authors: Beaven, Bradley John;
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    Authors: Bunyan, A; Bunyan, Alix;

    This thesis situates the life and work of Virginia Woolf in a socio-literary history of writing by, and attitudes towards, children. It explores late-Victorian middle-class children's lives, and the relationships between parents and children during the period. Although Darwinian ideals had begun to influence parents earlier in the century, it was not until the 1870s that they seem to have become prevalent in middle-class families. Through an examination of the expansion of evolutionary and developmental stage theories in the late Victorian years, the thesis puts forth the theory that middle-class adults of the period saw children as containing adult potential. It makes a study of how this view affected middle-class family life, child rearing, and children's culture during the period. It particularly investigates linguistic developmental theory and its effect on reading and writing education, and late-Victorian ideas of children's sexual development and the need for sexual education. The thesis examines how such theories led to changes in writing by children during the period, exploring nineteenth-century works by children, and focusing on the home manuscript magazine genre. It questions the late-Victorian belief that children wrote spontaneously and "naturally." It situates the juvenile writings of the Stephen children (of whom Woolf was one), using these texts as typical products of the late-nineteenth-century middle-class familial and cultural context that the thesis examines. This study allows me to propose a critical definition of late-nineteenth-century children's home magazine writing. The thesis goes on to argue that Woolf, while recognizing herself as a product of the late-Victorian middle classes and retaining some of the authorial qualities evident in her family's juvenile works, rebelled against the late- Victorian evolutionist-developmentalist view of childhood, and helped to create a new language in the process.

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    Authors: Atherton, Christopher John; Barton, Thomas; Basney, Jim; Broeder, Daan; +36 Authors

    The authors also acknowledge the support and collaboration of many other colleagues in their respective institutes, research communities and IT Infrastructures, together with the funding received by these from many different sources. These include but are not limited to the following: (i) The Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG) project is a global collaboration of more than 170 computing centres in 43 countries, linking up national and international grid infrastructures. Funding is acknowledged from many national funding bodies and we acknowledge the support of several operational infrastructures including EGI, OSG and NDGF/NeIC. (ii) EGI acknowledges the funding and support received from the European Commission and the many National Grid Initiatives and other members. EOSC-hub receives funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 777536. (iii) The work leading to these results has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under Grant Agreement No. 730941 (AARC2). (iv) Work on the development of ESGF's identity management system has been supported by The UK Natural Environment Research Council and funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration through projects IS-ENES (grant agreement no 228203) and IS-ENES2 (grant agreement no 312979). (v) Ludek Matyska and Michal Prochazka acknowledge funding from the RI ELIXIR CZ project funded by MEYS Czech Republic No. LM2015047. (vi) Scott Koranda acknowledges support provided by the United States National Science Foundation under Grant No. PHY-1700765. (vii) GÉANT Association on behalf of the GN4 Phase 2 project (GN4-2).The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under Grant Agreement No. 731122(GN4-2). (viii) ELIXIR acknowledges support from Research Infrastructure programme of Horizon 2020 grant No 676559 EXCELERATE. (ix) CORBEL life science cluster acknowledges support from Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 654248. (x) Mirjam van Daalen acknowledges that the research leading to this result has been supported by the project CALIPSOplus under the Grant Agreement 730872 from the EU Framework Programme for Research and Innovation HORIZON 2020. (xi) EISCAT is an international association supported by research organisations in China (CRIRP), Finland (SA), Japan (NIPR), Norway (NFR), Sweden (VR), and the United Kingdom (NERC). This white-paper expresses common requirements of Research Communities seeking to leverage Identity Federation for Authentication and Authorisation. Recommendations are made to Stakeholders to guide the future evolution of Federated Identity Management in a direction that better satisfies research use cases. The authors represent research communities, Research Services, Infrastructures, Identity Federations and Interfederations, with a joint motivation to ease collaboration for distributed researchers. The content has been edited collaboratively by the Federated Identity Management for Research (FIM4R) Community, with input sought at conferences and meetings in Europe, Asia and North America.

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    https://doi.org/10.5445/ir/100...
    Other literature type . 2018
    License: CC BY
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  • Authors: De Groot, Joanna;

    This thesis explored the possibilities of regional history as a basis for understanding the development of society in Iran in the nineteenth century. It begins by defining some conceptual problems needing dis- cussion in order to embark on such a history. The choice of a regional society as the unit of study, and the selection of Kennan in particular are examined. The problem of source material is dealt with by a survey of the sources used in the study of nineteenth century Kennan. The emergence of the region as a geographical and historical entity is then summarised in order to clarify its identity as it appeared by the nineteenth century. The central section of the thesis is an examina- tion of the important aspects of material life in Kerman. The rural sector is discussed first as being dominant in economy and society, with a survey of crop production being followed by examination of rural technology and society, and then a discussion of landlord-cultivator relations. The urban sector is then analysed in terms of a survey of craft production and then of social organisation. A separate chapter examines the sphere of circulation linking urban and rural sectors, looking at urban-rural contacts especially as articulated by landlord- peasant relations, and also at the links between Kennan and other regions, and with international markets. There is an appendix on the special case of pastoral ism and nomadism. The last section of the thesis uses the understanding of society which has emerged in an analysis of politics. Discussion of useful definitions of this term is followed by examination of various levels of political life, and more specifically of the decade 1905-1915. Finally conclusions are drawn about the contribution of this regional study to better under- standing of history arid society in Iran,

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    Authors: Roberts, T; Das, N;

    This thesis examines how the commedia dell’arte manifested in the English imagination in the period 1571-1611. This form of professional, semi-improvised performance practice emerged from Italy in the mid-sixteenth century to capture the hearts of audiences across Europe and introduce regional dramaturgies to the literary and theatrical innovations of the Cinquecento. There are frequent references to the masked stock characters and extemporising routines of the arte in extant English print, and scholars have often found parallels between the dramas and performance practices of English playwrights and Italian practitioners. However, these studies are complicated by the lack of direct exposure to the arte in performance. The Italians made only a handful of visits to England in the 1570s, after which they would not set foot on English soil again for over twenty years. Utilising methods from contemporary transcultural theory, this thesis approaches the commedia dell’arte as a culturally porous theatrical apparatus of constituent parts that became disentangled from the whole during their migratory journey. These constituent parts were transferred at different rates, at different times and through different means, and as such were adapted and repurposed to the demands of specific cultural and political moments along the way. In other words, the commedia dell’arte did not pass into the English imagination all at once, a direct exchange from one culture to another through sustained exposure to Italian performance, but rather percolated through a series of piecemeal translations and appropriations. As such, this thesis contends that the commedia dell’arte found in extant print and manuscript records in the period has little resemblance to or bearing on the activities of the Italian practitioners on the continent. Rather, it was highly situated and syncretic, constructed by writers and dramatists to interrogate and reflect anxieties over difference, belonging, and what it meant to be English.

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    Authors: Rees, T; Rees, Timothy John;

    This thesis analyses rural social and political conflict in the province of Badajoz (Extremadura) during the Spanish Second Republic of 1931 to 1936. It takes a broad approach to social and political change in a province typical of southern Spain, but focusses particularly on the under-explored role of powerful agrarian elites opposed to the reforms introduced by the new liberal-democratic regime. The study begins with two complementary chapters covering the period 1870-1930; they consider the evolution of the autocratic rural order presided over by the elite and discuss the growth of the challenge to agrian power from organised rural labour. In the following chapters covering in detail the period 1931 to 1936 the partial transformat ion of the rural order that accompanied the transition to the Republic, the subsequent processes of social and political struggle, and the polarisation that followed are documented. A final epilogue considers the Civil War as a rural counter-revolution that involved the resurgence of agrarian autocracy in Badajoz. The thesis draws on a wide range of primary materials, from archives and printed sources to memoirs, and utilizes the relevant secondary literature. In general the study forms part of a movement to reach a deeper understanding of social and political change during the Republic and in particular offers new perspectives on the contribution of the 'agrarian question' to the breakdown of the regime and the origins of the Civil War.

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