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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Hultman, Lars;

    On 20 June 1810 Stockholm was rocked by a full-blown and violent riot. A funeral precession for the recently deceased crown prince Charles August turned into a furious riot which eventually developed into an attack on the entire existing social order. The marshal of the realm, Axel von Fersen, was killed and large crowds fought during the rest of the day regular street battles against military and police forces.This thesis is investigating the causes and consequences of the Fersen riot. By doing so I hope to be able to offer some new perspectives on this, at least in the Swedish context, unique event. Previous research has usually regarded the riot as a more or less isolated phenomenon and has often failed to investigate both root causes and long-term consequences. With the help of five theoretical concepts (see below) and several different sources (police reports from the Police Chamber of Stockholm 1810, trial records of the legal aftermath of the riot, military orders. public print. newspapers, pamphlets and handbills, letters, diaries and memoirs) I have analyzed the situation in Sweden from March 1809 to January 1811. The main result of my investigation is:Taken out of context, the Fersen riot could possibly be regarded as a temporary incident, with neither deeper causes nor significant consequences. My analysis of the dramatic events that preceded and created the conditions for the events of 20 June, together with the discussion of the protracted and shocking aftermath, has shown that the Fersen riot must be regarded as a very decisive event in the last 200 years of Swedish history. The reasons for this are:1. At the end of the year 1810 Sweden is a country in crisis, perhaps on the brink of some kind of subversive social change. Thus, the Fersen riot both explains, and is itself explained by, the bad and miserable state Sweden was perceived to be in.2. The extensive media production and the intense climate of discussion before and after the riot have undoubtedly meant an extensive and thorough learning process. For large parts of the capital´s population this period has meant an intensive course in questions and knowledge about social conditions and social change.3. The election of the heir to the throne came as a surprise to many. I believe that the chain of circumstantial evidence I have formulated makes it quite possible that the election of Bernadotte can be traced directly back to the riot and can be seen as a concession to the strong public opinion in Stockholm.4. And finally, Charles August. How can the grief, frustration and anger caused by his death be explained? Why did he become the object of an intense cult of personality? The only plausible explanation is that the role of the crown prince became the symbol of all hope and all faith in the future in the battered Sweden. Charles August became its face, both alive and dead.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Lund University Publ...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Alexanderson, Helena; Hoffstein, Ellen; Hoffstein, Iris; Peric, Zoran; +1 Authors

    Archaeological investigations have revealed cultural layers with remnants of houses and streets below up to four metres of sand at the southern end of the Falsterbo peninsula in southernmost Sweden. The cultural layers have been dated to the 15th – 16th centuries, based on finds of, for example, coins and ceramics, and interpreted to represent the medieval town Falsterbo. It has been assumed that the houses in this once central part of town, close to the church, were abandoned due to strong sand drift that eventually buried most of the structures. Here we will present results of luminescence dating, portable luminescence analysis and other geological analyses of the sand below, between and above the cultural layers. The lowermost sand is interpreted as beach sand, while all other sand beds – separating and covering the different phases of houses – are interpreted as aeolian sand. Preliminary results suggest a hiatus between the deposition of the beach sand and the first aeolian sand, followed by relatively rapid sand accumulation after final abandonment.

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    Lund University Publications
    Other literature type . 2024
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      Lund University Publications
      Other literature type . 2024
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    Authors: Falk, Julia;

    This dissertation analyses the role that spiritism played in Stockholm, Sweden, during the late 19th century, more specifically between the years 1887–1902. Spiritism was an international movement grounded in the belief that spirits of dead people existed and that it was possible to communicate with them. While spiritism in Sweden was a Christian movement, its followers claimed to be using scientific methods. It is this tension between scientific ambitions on the one hand, and the combined belief in Christianity and spiritism on the other, that is investigated in this dissertation. The source material consists primarily of a spiritistic periodical, notes from spiritistic seances, and three debates about spiritism. The theoretical framework is based on the sociologist Thomas Gieryn's concept of boundary-work, specifically David Hess's extension of it and his concept of the Self and both negative and positive Others. The study concludes that spiritists constructed science as both a positive and a negative Other, meaning that they wanted to be associated with science, while also stressing that they were doing something beyond science. In relation to this image of science as both a positive and a negative Other spiritists could construct their Self as a kind of scientific pioneer. The study also identifies a similar relationship to Christianity: spiritists emphasised their faith in a Christian God, used Christian symbols, and practised Christian rituals, but they also created their own belief system and criticized the church. Their approaches to Christianity and science were not, however, entirely similar. They did not turn to Christian institutions for acceptance, but rather strived to become part of the scientific community. These differences are interpreted as part of a larger shift in social status and position of science and Christianity. This dissertation has also identified a change in how spiritism was depicted in the press by its critics. At the beginning of the period, criticism against spiritism was mostly based on accusations of spiritists being imposters and their critics wanted nothing to do with them. As theories about the unconscious spread, however, the approach towards spiritism changed. Spiritistic phenomenon could now be investigated by scientists who wanted to learn more about the unconscious, even though they did not accept the spiritists explanations that spirits were behind them. By analysing both the spiritists’ relationship to science and Christianity and how spiritism was discussed in the press, this dissertation demonstrates that the belief in spiritism was an integrated part of Stockholm’s cultural landscape in the late 19th century.

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    Authors: Östling, Johan; Larsson Heidenblad, David;

    This Element provides a pedagogical overview of the history of knowledge, including its main currents, distinguishing ideas, and key concepts. However, it is not primarily a state-of-the-art overview but rather an argumentative contribution that seeks to push the field in a certain direction – towards studying knowledge in society and knowledge in people's lives. Hence, the history of knowledge envisioned by the authors is not a rebranding of the history of science and intellectual history, but rather a reinvigoration of social and cultural history. This implies that many different forms of knowledge should be objects of study. By drawing on ongoing research from all across the world dealing with different time periods and problems, the authors demonstrate that the history of knowledge can enrich our understanding of past societies. This title is also available as Open Access on Cambridge Core.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Lund University Publ...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    https://doi.org/10.1017/978100...
    Book . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Cambridge Core User Agreement
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      https://doi.org/10.1017/978100...
      Book . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Wienberg, Jes;

    It is a myth, that the medieval ecclesiastic wall-paintings were whitewashed during the Reformation. The myth lives on, as it is perceived as a simple explanation of the contrast between the white church walls and vaults at e.g. Saint Peter in Malmö and the colorful wall-paintings of the chapel of the vendors there. The myth also finds support in some literature and on webpages, although it has been known since the end of the 19th century, that the tradition of paintings continued after the Reformation, as it is known from the town church of Ronneby 1586, and the tradition first died out in the period 1650–1800. The whitewashing took place over an extended period from the 16th century into the 19th century, when the images had become old, outdated and dirty. In Malmö, however, the images were whitewashed as early as in 1555 and in Halmstad in the 1580s, perhaps because of so-called crypto-calvinistic tendencies.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Lund University Publ...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Wienberg, Jes;

    From the flashy to the humble - Towerless Medieval Churches in DenmarkThe article investigates a special category of medieval churches, the towerless churches. The Danish concept for “kullet”, meaning bald headed are discussed, an inventory of the towerless churches is established for medieval Denmark, the architecture is analyzed in relation to different ideals and studied from social and economic perspectives, with the churches of two Jutish districts as case-studies, home of iconic towerless churches, Hover (fig. 1) and Sædding (fig. 2). The towerless churches are both perceived as a source material and as a heritage worth of protection. Much research has been focused on towers and tower churches (fig. 3), on the aristocracy and their manors. There is and need for an alternative perspective, highlighting the more ordinary churches – the towerless churches.Churches are in Danish called “kullede”, meaning bald headed. A naming of a “bald” church is the first time mentioned in an atlas in 1768 regarding Spørring (fig. 4). They are perceived ad as preserved architectural expression of the original Romanesque churches before Gothization and other changes. They are also described in a romantic sprit together with their landscape. An overview is established showing 339 towerless medieval churches in present-day Denmark, Southern Schleswig with Fehmarn, Scania, Halland and Blekinge (fig. 5). Wooden churches in the 10 and 11th centuries do not seem to have bell towers. The masonry churches of the 11th century none can be said by certainty to be towerless, however research has been conducted in major churches and the first masonry churches might be erected on the initiative of kings, bishops or aristocracy. From the 12th century most churches in Western Denmark were towerless from the beginning, whereas relatively more received a tower in Eastern Denmark, probably as peasant farms dominated in the west, aristocratic manors in the east. During the 15th century up to the Reformation many churches had added a tower, some which were again reduced or taken down e.g. at Mårup (fig. 6), and a few were even added in later periods, making the surviving towerless churches a rarity.The Middle Ages had different ideals for the church architecture as seen in regulations against extravagance also in architecture by the Cistercians, Dominicans and Franciscans. A church might have added a masonry tower, but it was expensive and there were other and cheaper solutions such as a having the bells in a wooden belfry, a small bell cot, spire or ridge turretInspired by the Ystad-project (fig 7) an analysis is conducted in the two Jutish districts with the towerless churches of Hover and Sædding. The architecture of the churches is compared with fees paid by the churches in the 14th Century and 1524–26, the evaluation of the farming in the parish 1682 and the existence of manors. The towerless churches are more frequent, where the taxes of 1524-26 are relatively low, where the parishes are small and poor, and where manors are absent (fig. 8).Towerless churches can partly be viewed as a source material reflecting the social and economic topography of medieval Denmark, partly as a heritage reflecting the first phase of stone building og churches. However, all churches have gone through changes, have had extensions and added e.g. porches, even the iconic churches of Hover and Sædding. If one seeks a “genuine” Romanesque church, as it might look like in the 12th Century, one has to see the church in the open-air-museum Hjerl Hede in Jutland (fig. 9), where a church has been reconstructed around 1950. Added to the article is an appendix with a catalogue of the 339 towerless medieval churches. The towerless churches are dived into two categories, A the genuine and B the illegitimate: the first never had a tower, and the second have a free-standing tower, have once had a tower, it has later been reduced to the roof of the nave, there has been added a bell cot, a spire or a ridge turret. The towerless churches are furthermore divided into Romanesque and Gothic, the latter been written with Italics.

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    Authors: Wu, Pei-Yu; Johansson, Tim; Mangold, Mikael; Sandels, Claes; +1 Authors

    Abstract Exposure to excessive indoor radon causes around 500 lung cancer deaths in Sweden annually. However, until 2020, indoor radon measurements were only conducted in around 16% of Swedish single-family houses and 17% of multifamily houses. It is estimated that approximately 16% of single-family houses exceed the indoor radon reference level of 200 Bq/m3, and the corresponding situation in multifamily houses is unknown. Measuring indoor radon on an urban scale is complicated and costly. Statistical and machine learning, exploiting historical data for pattern identification, provides alternative approaches for assessing indoor radon risk in existing dwellings. By training MARS (Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines) and Random Forest (RF) regression models with the data labels from the radon measurement records in the Swedish Energy Performance Certification registers, property registers, soil maps, and the radiometric grids, the correlations between response and predictive variables can be untangled. The interplay of the key features, including uranium and thorium concentrations, ventilation systems, construction year, basements, and the number of floors, and their impact magnitudes on indoor radon concentrations, are investigated in the study. The regression models tailored for different building classes were developed and evaluated. Despite the data complexity, the RF models can explain 28% of the variance in multifamily houses, 24% in all buildings, and 21% in single-family houses. To improve model fitting, more intricate supervised learning algorithms should be explored in the future. The study outcomes can contribute to prioritizing remediation measures for building stocks suspected of high indoor radon risk.

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    Journal of Physics : Conference Series
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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      Journal of Physics : Conference Series
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Mattsson, Moa; Olofsson, Thomas; Nair, Gireesh;

    Abstract Positive energy districts (PED) are neighborhoods with a net positive energy balance with the main goal to create sustainable districts that contribute to the energy transition. The three pillars energy efficiency, renewable energy, and energy flexibility forms the foundation of PEDs, and ‘Quality of life’ is one of the key principles. Indoor swimming facilities for recreation and sports, also called aquatic centers or swimming halls, are important for healthy lifestyles. They are highly energy-demanding facilities due to the large volumes and strict heating- and ventilation requirements to ensure the health of staff, visitors, and bathers. The large energy consumption indicates good potential to reduce their energy use. One possibility might be to include aquatic centers in PEDs: the district could support the facility with locally produced renewable energy. There are also studies that investigates innovative solutions regarding aquatic centers that might have potential to increase resilience and flexibility in the district. However, one important aspect in studies on energy use in aquatic centers that is often neglected is the presence of disinfection by-products (DBP), which are found in the air and water of chlorinated swimming pools. Several DBPs can lead to health issues, such as asthma, eye irritation, and even cancer. There are often conflicting goals in studies on swimming halls. The connection between DBP and energy is currently missing, and it could lead to projects compromising health over energy savings. Based on a literature review, this study highlights the research gap between DBPs and energy use in swimming facilities. A suggestion is also presented to integrate swimming halls into PEDs with the aim of increasing possibilities for a healthy lifestyle, supporting the aquatic center’s energy demand with renewable energy, and exploring new solutions for flexibility and resilience in the district.

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    Journal of Physics : Conference Series
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    Publikationer från Umeå universitet
    Conference object . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      Journal of Physics : Conference Series
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      Publikationer från Umeå universitet
      Conference object . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Wienberg, Jes;
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Philip Jerand; Jonatan Klaminder; Johan Linderholm;

    In the nineteenth century, numerous settlements were established in the alpine region of Fennoscandia (the Scandes), an area that later became a major international scene for Arctic research. Here we raise awareness of this era and show that earthworm-driven bioturbation in “pristine” soils around contemporary Arctic research infrastructure is caused by soil fauna left behind during early land use. We use soil preserved under an alpine settlement to highlight that soils were not bioturbated when the first house was built at a site where bioturbation is now widespread. A review of archived material with unique site-specific chronology constrained the onset of bioturbation to the post-1871 era. Our results suggest that small-scale land use introduced earthworms that now thrive far beyond the realms of former cultivated fields. The legacy of soil fauna from this example of “ecological imperialism” still lingers and should be considered when studying soils of the Scandes.

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    Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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      Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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2,994 Research products
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Hultman, Lars;

    On 20 June 1810 Stockholm was rocked by a full-blown and violent riot. A funeral precession for the recently deceased crown prince Charles August turned into a furious riot which eventually developed into an attack on the entire existing social order. The marshal of the realm, Axel von Fersen, was killed and large crowds fought during the rest of the day regular street battles against military and police forces.This thesis is investigating the causes and consequences of the Fersen riot. By doing so I hope to be able to offer some new perspectives on this, at least in the Swedish context, unique event. Previous research has usually regarded the riot as a more or less isolated phenomenon and has often failed to investigate both root causes and long-term consequences. With the help of five theoretical concepts (see below) and several different sources (police reports from the Police Chamber of Stockholm 1810, trial records of the legal aftermath of the riot, military orders. public print. newspapers, pamphlets and handbills, letters, diaries and memoirs) I have analyzed the situation in Sweden from March 1809 to January 1811. The main result of my investigation is:Taken out of context, the Fersen riot could possibly be regarded as a temporary incident, with neither deeper causes nor significant consequences. My analysis of the dramatic events that preceded and created the conditions for the events of 20 June, together with the discussion of the protracted and shocking aftermath, has shown that the Fersen riot must be regarded as a very decisive event in the last 200 years of Swedish history. The reasons for this are:1. At the end of the year 1810 Sweden is a country in crisis, perhaps on the brink of some kind of subversive social change. Thus, the Fersen riot both explains, and is itself explained by, the bad and miserable state Sweden was perceived to be in.2. The extensive media production and the intense climate of discussion before and after the riot have undoubtedly meant an extensive and thorough learning process. For large parts of the capital´s population this period has meant an intensive course in questions and knowledge about social conditions and social change.3. The election of the heir to the throne came as a surprise to many. I believe that the chain of circumstantial evidence I have formulated makes it quite possible that the election of Bernadotte can be traced directly back to the riot and can be seen as a concession to the strong public opinion in Stockholm.4. And finally, Charles August. How can the grief, frustration and anger caused by his death be explained? Why did he become the object of an intense cult of personality? The only plausible explanation is that the role of the crown prince became the symbol of all hope and all faith in the future in the battered Sweden. Charles August became its face, both alive and dead.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Lund University Publ...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Alexanderson, Helena; Hoffstein, Ellen; Hoffstein, Iris; Peric, Zoran; +1 Authors

    Archaeological investigations have revealed cultural layers with remnants of houses and streets below up to four metres of sand at the southern end of the Falsterbo peninsula in southernmost Sweden. The cultural layers have been dated to the 15th – 16th centuries, based on finds of, for example, coins and ceramics, and interpreted to represent the medieval town Falsterbo. It has been assumed that the houses in this once central part of town, close to the church, were abandoned due to strong sand drift that eventually buried most of the structures. Here we will present results of luminescence dating, portable luminescence analysis and other geological analyses of the sand below, between and above the cultural layers. The lowermost sand is interpreted as beach sand, while all other sand beds – separating and covering the different phases of houses – are interpreted as aeolian sand. Preliminary results suggest a hiatus between the deposition of the beach sand and the first aeolian sand, followed by relatively rapid sand accumulation after final abandonment.

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    Lund University Publications
    Other literature type . 2024
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      Lund University Publications
      Other literature type . 2024
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    Authors: Falk, Julia;

    This dissertation analyses the role that spiritism played in Stockholm, Sweden, during the late 19th century, more specifically between the years 1887–1902. Spiritism was an international movement grounded in the belief that spirits of dead people existed and that it was possible to communicate with them. While spiritism in Sweden was a Christian movement, its followers claimed to be using scientific methods. It is this tension between scientific ambitions on the one hand, and the combined belief in Christianity and spiritism on the other, that is investigated in this dissertation. The source material consists primarily of a spiritistic periodical, notes from spiritistic seances, and three debates about spiritism. The theoretical framework is based on the sociologist Thomas Gieryn's concept of boundary-work, specifically David Hess's extension of it and his concept of the Self and both negative and positive Others. The study concludes that spiritists constructed science as both a positive and a negative Other, meaning that they wanted to be associated with science, while also stressing that they were doing something beyond science. In relation to this image of science as both a positive and a negative Other spiritists could construct their Self as a kind of scientific pioneer. The study also identifies a similar relationship to Christianity: spiritists emphasised their faith in a Christian God, used Christian symbols, and practised Christian rituals, but they also created their own belief system and criticized the church. Their approaches to Christianity and science were not, however, entirely similar. They did not turn to Christian institutions for acceptance, but rather strived to become part of the scientific community. These differences are interpreted as part of a larger shift in social status and position of science and Christianity. This dissertation has also identified a change in how spiritism was depicted in the press by its critics. At the beginning of the period, criticism against spiritism was mostly based on accusations of spiritists being imposters and their critics wanted nothing to do with them. As theories about the unconscious spread, however, the approach towards spiritism changed. Spiritistic phenomenon could now be investigated by scientists who wanted to learn more about the unconscious, even though they did not accept the spiritists explanations that spirits were behind them. By analysing both the spiritists’ relationship to science and Christianity and how spiritism was discussed in the press, this dissertation demonstrates that the belief in spiritism was an integrated part of Stockholm’s cultural landscape in the late 19th century.

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    Authors: Östling, Johan; Larsson Heidenblad, David;

    This Element provides a pedagogical overview of the history of knowledge, including its main currents, distinguishing ideas, and key concepts. However, it is not primarily a state-of-the-art overview but rather an argumentative contribution that seeks to push the field in a certain direction – towards studying knowledge in society and knowledge in people's lives. Hence, the history of knowledge envisioned by the authors is not a rebranding of the history of science and intellectual history, but rather a reinvigoration of social and cultural history. This implies that many different forms of knowledge should be objects of study. By drawing on ongoing research from all across the world dealing with different time periods and problems, the authors demonstrate that the history of knowledge can enrich our understanding of past societies. This title is also available as Open Access on Cambridge Core.

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    https://doi.org/10.1017/978100...
    Book . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      https://doi.org/10.1017/978100...
      Book . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Wienberg, Jes;

    It is a myth, that the medieval ecclesiastic wall-paintings were whitewashed during the Reformation. The myth lives on, as it is perceived as a simple explanation of the contrast between the white church walls and vaults at e.g. Saint Peter in Malmö and the colorful wall-paintings of the chapel of the vendors there. The myth also finds support in some literature and on webpages, although it has been known since the end of the 19th century, that the tradition of paintings continued after the Reformation, as it is known from the town church of Ronneby 1586, and the tradition first died out in the period 1650–1800. The whitewashing took place over an extended period from the 16th century into the 19th century, when the images had become old, outdated and dirty. In Malmö, however, the images were whitewashed as early as in 1555 and in Halmstad in the 1580s, perhaps because of so-called crypto-calvinistic tendencies.

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    Authors: Wienberg, Jes;

    From the flashy to the humble - Towerless Medieval Churches in DenmarkThe article investigates a special category of medieval churches, the towerless churches. The Danish concept for “kullet”, meaning bald headed are discussed, an inventory of the towerless churches is established for medieval Denmark, the architecture is analyzed in relation to different ideals and studied from social and economic perspectives, with the churches of two Jutish districts as case-studies, home of iconic towerless churches, Hover (fig. 1) and Sædding (fig. 2). The towerless churches are both perceived as a source material and as a heritage worth of protection. Much research has been focused on towers and tower churches (fig. 3), on the aristocracy and their manors. There is and need for an alternative perspective, highlighting the more ordinary churches – the towerless churches.Churches are in Danish called “kullede”, meaning bald headed. A naming of a “bald” church is the first time mentioned in an atlas in 1768 regarding Spørring (fig. 4). They are perceived ad as preserved architectural expression of the original Romanesque churches before Gothization and other changes. They are also described in a romantic sprit together with their landscape. An overview is established showing 339 towerless medieval churches in present-day Denmark, Southern Schleswig with Fehmarn, Scania, Halland and Blekinge (fig. 5). Wooden churches in the 10 and 11th centuries do not seem to have bell towers. The masonry churches of the 11th century none can be said by certainty to be towerless, however research has been conducted in major churches and the first masonry churches might be erected on the initiative of kings, bishops or aristocracy. From the 12th century most churches in Western Denmark were towerless from the beginning, whereas relatively more received a tower in Eastern Denmark, probably as peasant farms dominated in the west, aristocratic manors in the east. During the 15th century up to the Reformation many churches had added a tower, some which were again reduced or taken down e.g. at Mårup (fig. 6), and a few were even added in later periods, making the surviving towerless churches a rarity.The Middle Ages had different ideals for the church architecture as seen in regulations against extravagance also in architecture by the Cistercians, Dominicans and Franciscans. A church might have added a masonry tower, but it was expensive and there were other and cheaper solutions such as a having the bells in a wooden belfry, a small bell cot, spire or ridge turretInspired by the Ystad-project (fig 7) an analysis is conducted in the two Jutish districts with the towerless churches of Hover and Sædding. The architecture of the churches is compared with fees paid by the churches in the 14th Century and 1524–26, the evaluation of the farming in the parish 1682 and the existence of manors. The towerless churches are more frequent, where the taxes of 1524-26 are relatively low, where the parishes are small and poor, and where manors are absent (fig. 8).Towerless churches can partly be viewed as a source material reflecting the social and economic topography of medieval Denmark, partly as a heritage reflecting the first phase of stone building og churches. However, all churches have gone through changes, have had extensions and added e.g. porches, even the iconic churches of Hover and Sædding. If one seeks a “genuine” Romanesque church, as it might look like in the 12th Century, one has to see the church in the open-air-museum Hjerl Hede in Jutland (fig. 9), where a church has been reconstructed around 1950. Added to the article is an appendix with a catalogue of the 339 towerless medieval churches. The towerless churches are dived into two categories, A the genuine and B the illegitimate: the first never had a tower, and the second have a free-standing tower, have once had a tower, it has later been reduced to the roof of the nave, there has been added a bell cot, a spire or a ridge turret. The towerless churches are furthermore divided into Romanesque and Gothic, the latter been written with Italics.

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    Authors: Wu, Pei-Yu; Johansson, Tim; Mangold, Mikael; Sandels, Claes; +1 Authors

    Abstract Exposure to excessive indoor radon causes around 500 lung cancer deaths in Sweden annually. However, until 2020, indoor radon measurements were only conducted in around 16% of Swedish single-family houses and 17% of multifamily houses. It is estimated that approximately 16% of single-family houses exceed the indoor radon reference level of 200 Bq/m3, and the corresponding situation in multifamily houses is unknown. Measuring indoor radon on an urban scale is complicated and costly. Statistical and machine learning, exploiting historical data for pattern identification, provides alternative approaches for assessing indoor radon risk in existing dwellings. By training MARS (Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines) and Random Forest (RF) regression models with the data labels from the radon measurement records in the Swedish Energy Performance Certification registers, property registers, soil maps, and the radiometric grids, the correlations between response and predictive variables can be untangled. The interplay of the key features, including uranium and thorium concentrations, ventilation systems, construction year, basements, and the number of floors, and their impact magnitudes on indoor radon concentrations, are investigated in the study. The regression models tailored for different building classes were developed and evaluated. Despite the data complexity, the RF models can explain 28% of the variance in multifamily houses, 24% in all buildings, and 21% in single-family houses. To improve model fitting, more intricate supervised learning algorithms should be explored in the future. The study outcomes can contribute to prioritizing remediation measures for building stocks suspected of high indoor radon risk.

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    Journal of Physics : Conference Series
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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