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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Hultman, Lars;

    On 20 June 1810 Stockholm was rocked by a full-blown and violent riot. A funeral precession for the recently deceased crown prince Charles August turned into a furious riot which eventually developed into an attack on the entire existing social order. The marshal of the realm, Axel von Fersen, was killed and large crowds fought during the rest of the day regular street battles against military and police forces.This thesis is investigating the causes and consequences of the Fersen riot. By doing so I hope to be able to offer some new perspectives on this, at least in the Swedish context, unique event. Previous research has usually regarded the riot as a more or less isolated phenomenon and has often failed to investigate both root causes and long-term consequences. With the help of five theoretical concepts (see below) and several different sources (police reports from the Police Chamber of Stockholm 1810, trial records of the legal aftermath of the riot, military orders. public print. newspapers, pamphlets and handbills, letters, diaries and memoirs) I have analyzed the situation in Sweden from March 1809 to January 1811. The main result of my investigation is:Taken out of context, the Fersen riot could possibly be regarded as a temporary incident, with neither deeper causes nor significant consequences. My analysis of the dramatic events that preceded and created the conditions for the events of 20 June, together with the discussion of the protracted and shocking aftermath, has shown that the Fersen riot must be regarded as a very decisive event in the last 200 years of Swedish history. The reasons for this are:1. At the end of the year 1810 Sweden is a country in crisis, perhaps on the brink of some kind of subversive social change. Thus, the Fersen riot both explains, and is itself explained by, the bad and miserable state Sweden was perceived to be in.2. The extensive media production and the intense climate of discussion before and after the riot have undoubtedly meant an extensive and thorough learning process. For large parts of the capital´s population this period has meant an intensive course in questions and knowledge about social conditions and social change.3. The election of the heir to the throne came as a surprise to many. I believe that the chain of circumstantial evidence I have formulated makes it quite possible that the election of Bernadotte can be traced directly back to the riot and can be seen as a concession to the strong public opinion in Stockholm.4. And finally, Charles August. How can the grief, frustration and anger caused by his death be explained? Why did he become the object of an intense cult of personality? The only plausible explanation is that the role of the crown prince became the symbol of all hope and all faith in the future in the battered Sweden. Charles August became its face, both alive and dead.

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    Authors: Falk, Julia;

    This dissertation analyses the role that spiritism played in Stockholm, Sweden, during the late 19th century, more specifically between the years 1887–1902. Spiritism was an international movement grounded in the belief that spirits of dead people existed and that it was possible to communicate with them. While spiritism in Sweden was a Christian movement, its followers claimed to be using scientific methods. It is this tension between scientific ambitions on the one hand, and the combined belief in Christianity and spiritism on the other, that is investigated in this dissertation. The source material consists primarily of a spiritistic periodical, notes from spiritistic seances, and three debates about spiritism. The theoretical framework is based on the sociologist Thomas Gieryn's concept of boundary-work, specifically David Hess's extension of it and his concept of the Self and both negative and positive Others. The study concludes that spiritists constructed science as both a positive and a negative Other, meaning that they wanted to be associated with science, while also stressing that they were doing something beyond science. In relation to this image of science as both a positive and a negative Other spiritists could construct their Self as a kind of scientific pioneer. The study also identifies a similar relationship to Christianity: spiritists emphasised their faith in a Christian God, used Christian symbols, and practised Christian rituals, but they also created their own belief system and criticized the church. Their approaches to Christianity and science were not, however, entirely similar. They did not turn to Christian institutions for acceptance, but rather strived to become part of the scientific community. These differences are interpreted as part of a larger shift in social status and position of science and Christianity. This dissertation has also identified a change in how spiritism was depicted in the press by its critics. At the beginning of the period, criticism against spiritism was mostly based on accusations of spiritists being imposters and their critics wanted nothing to do with them. As theories about the unconscious spread, however, the approach towards spiritism changed. Spiritistic phenomenon could now be investigated by scientists who wanted to learn more about the unconscious, even though they did not accept the spiritists explanations that spirits were behind them. By analysing both the spiritists’ relationship to science and Christianity and how spiritism was discussed in the press, this dissertation demonstrates that the belief in spiritism was an integrated part of Stockholm’s cultural landscape in the late 19th century.

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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Publikationer från U...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Derudas, Paola;

    This PhD thesis examines how application of 3D visualization and related digital analytical tools is having a transformative impact on archaeological practice via improvement of visual-spatial thinking and the strengthening of conceptual understanding. However, the deployment of these new digital methods is essentially still at an experimental stage. Therefore, the thesis undertakes a critical evaluation of current progress, identifying both shortcomings and opportunities. It argues that more work is needed to systematically identify and resolve current operational challenges in order to create improved digital frameworks that can strengthen future performance across the wider discipline.The PhD research is based on four “parallel experiments” designed to facilitate mutual enrichment and on-going refinement. Each individual experiment generated research articles, which investigate how particular 3D and digital methods can be adapted to diverse kinds of archaeological sites and features,each with unique characteristics. The articles demonstrate how particular methods can be deployed to constantly refine and improve documentation procedures, and to review and adjust interpretation during the excavation process. In total, the thesis produced five research articles and three new web-based publishing systems.Overall, the thesis demonstrates that application, proactive evaluation and constant improvement of new 3D visualization and digital analytical tools will play an increasingly significant role in strengthening and better integrating future archaeological methods and practice. The research also generates original insights and new digital platforms that together underline the importance of applying these new digital tools across the wider archaeological discipline. Finally, the thesis cautions that digital innovation needs to be anchored in an "open science" culture, including strong ethical frameworks and commitment to FAIR principles (i.e. Findability, Accessibility, Interoperability, and Reusability) of data archiving as a key component of research design and wider societal engagement.

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    Authors: Campanaro, Danilo Marco;

    Interpreting the social complexity of the Roman house requires a careful evaluation of existing evidence. With this in mind, recent work in the field has proposed a variety of different approaches, focusing each time on a specific type of source (architecture and décor, ancient texts, material evidence from excavated houses), each in turn recursively deemed more adequate for the purpose or more fruitful and less biased. This opposition of approaches and critiques between scholars has yielded an extraordinarily rich picture that, however, leaves some of the social dynamics of domestic space out of our reach. This dissertation, focusing on the case study of the House of the Greek Epigrams in the northern part of Insula V 1 in Pompeii, suggests a further level of understanding that combines the aforementioned types of sources with simulations and digital analyses to support archaeological interpretation. Everything visible in the house, including its architecture and its decorations, actively participated in the construction of the social identity of the owner of the house and the Romanitas of his family. However, everything visible is so by virtue of light, which is not a mere medium, but actively partakes in social dynamics and can be manipulated to meet certain demands. In this dissertation, light is considered in its dual aspect as a physical and as a visual and sensory phenomenon. Starting from the assumption that light is a powerful social agent, the study investigates, through historically grounded and physically accurate lighting simulations and analyses, the intertwined spatial and social circulation patterns in order to derive new insights into the social dynamics of the Roman house. In particular, this study argues that the social space of the Roman house was characterized by a greater complexity than that conveyed by ancient sources. It suggests a more nuanced picture, one of light and shadow but also of activity at different times of the day and year, and richer in people both in the foreground and in the background.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Lund University Publ...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Lund University Publ...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Edelgaard Christensen, Kristoffer;

    This dissertation explores and compares the rationalities through which Danish state officials sought to govern the colonized Afro-Caribbean population in the colony of the Danish West Indies and the state’s Danish subjects living in the metropole of Denmark in the period 1770-1900. Theoretically, it relies upon Michel Foucault’s conception of ’governmentality’ and the way this approach to governing, and to state power more generally, has been employed in various colonial and European settings, particularly within the field of colonial governmentality studies. This dissertation distinguishes itself from this field, however, by comparing metropole and colony in a more even, in-depth, and open-ended way; one which is sensitive to changes over time. The aim of this mode of comparison is to explore on a more solid foundation what was unique (and what was not unique) about colonial governing at particular points in time and space.The dissertation is split into two parts. The first deals with the period 1770-1800 and offers an in-depth comparative account of the Danish state’s governing of seigneurial relations at home and master-slave relations in the colony; the state’s attempts to reform the criminal laws; its investment in the maintenance of racial and social hierarchies; its regulation of the everyday public lives of slaves and peasants; and lastly, its governing of the productive lives of enslaved and unpropertied laborers. In the second part, which deals with the period 1840-1900, the focus is on the making of a free labor market in metropole and colony and the associated apparatuses of poor administration and policing.Essentially, the comparative analyses of the governmentalities, which were at the heart of these projects and domains of governing, point to a profound historical shift in the relationship between metropole and colony. In the late eighteenth-century, colonial officials in the Danish West Indies could still draw upon the governmentalities, which were essential for their peers back home. Thus, although colonial and metropolitan governmentalities were far from identical, there were significant points of overlap and commensurability in the governing of ‘blacks’ and ‘whites’. Over the course of the nineteenth century however, these points of overlap and commensurability all but vanished. After the abolition of slavery in 1848, colony and metropole had become ‘worlds beyond compare’, each requiring each own particular ‘handbook’ of governing. On this basis, the dissertation points to the importance of exploring not only the distinction between colonial and non-colonial governing, but also the history of the distinction itself.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Lund University Publ...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Haikola, Karl;

    The Swedish Secretariat for futures studies was formed in 1973, on the initiative of the Social Democratic government. Initially installed as a part of the Prime Ministers’s Office, futures studies were envisioned as a vital tool for policymaking as well as for stimulating public debate. The present thesis examines the Secretariat from its beginnings up until about ten years later, when it was relocated to the Swedish Council for Planning and Co-ordination of Research (Forskningsrådsnämnden), thus losing its ties to the political planning process. The thesis situates the Secretariat for futures studies between the welfare state expansion and planning optimism of the late 1960s and the breakthrough of neoliberal ideas and decline of the welfare state of the early 1980s. These two phases mark the beginning and the end respectively of what the Dutch historian Duco Hellema has called “the long 1970s”. The thesis thus relates to a historical problem which Hellema himself only discusses briefly: why did this change take place? In the Swedish case, the futures studies of the decade provide interesting perspectives on this question, given their proximity to both political power and public debate, and also given their engagement with the long-term future. Drawing on the emerging field of the history of the future, the thesis focuses on the images of the future (framtidsbilder) and the view of the future (framtidssyn) expressed in this context. The former concept refers to particular visions and scenarios, the latter to more fundamental, and often implicit, ideas about the possibilities and means of influencing the future. A third concept, dilemma, serves to contextualise the projects of the Secretariat, relating them to contemporary issues such as economic growth, technological change, and internationalization. The thesis points to a gradual change. At the outset, Swedish futures studies were influenced by the ideological heritage of the Swedish Social Democrats. This was manifested in a utopian view of the future, more particularly one in which Swedish welfare society was ascribed the ability to shape its own future, and to some extent even that of other parts of the world, by means of planning and large-scale reform. During the course of the decade, however, the view of the future became more deterministic. The projects of the late 70s and early 80s predominantly highlighted processes and international developments which Swedish society could adjust to in a more or less successful way, but not avoid, much less control. The images of the future became more limited in scope, focused on changing specific parts of Swedish society rather than an international or global context. In the final chapter, I call this process a fragmentation of the future. This process, I further argue, was an important part of the more general changes associated with the end of the long 70s.

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    Authors: Thavenius, Robert;

    This dissertation examines the Swedish National Museum of Fine Arts (Nationalmuseum) as a consecrating institution of fine art, between 1885 and 1920. A time influenced by major events such as the First World War, Sweden’s industrial revolution and the advent of universal suffrage. During this period, the production and consumption of the Arts was characterised by rivalry between three fractions, namely, representatives of the Royal Swedish Academy of Fine Arts (Kungliga Akademien för de fria konsterna), the Artists’ Association (Konstnärsförbundet), comprising the broad artistic opposition formed in the mid-1880s, and the Swedish Artists’ Association (Svenska Konstnärernas Förening), a new generation of artists who had attended the third iteration of the Artists’ Association’s school which won recognition in 1909. Some artists did not fall into any of these major groups. Landscapes were the prominent motifs chosen by the Procurement Board, followed by portraits and genre paintings. The dissertation shows how these developments are reflected in the choice of officials as well as members of the Museum Board and Procurement Board. Both comprised prominent men in society who each year selected a small number of oil paintings by contemporary Swedish artists, to be incorporated in the Nationalmuseum’s collections and thus be indisputably defined as fine art. The current study is concerned with these men and the chosen works of art which came to represent Swedish society and its artistic life at the time. However, the prevailing conditions concerning the annual acquisition of art changed due to the influence of His Majesty the King as well as the revised statutes of 1900, determining which members were to be seated on the Procurement Board until its abolishment in 1913. A reorganisation of the Nationalmuseum’s undertakings also called for the appointment in 1915 of the reformist Richard Bergh as the museum’s Director General. The study highlights not only the prolonged course of the reformation process but also how changes concerning the appointment of representatives responsible for the institutions’ consecrating process influencedwhich oil paintings were incorporated in the collections.

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    Authors: Svonni, Charlotta;

    This thesis examines the development of nomadic and Sámi school education between the 1950s and the 2010s and contributes new knowledge about educational goals, educational ambitions and partly also their implementation and principles for knowledge transfer. It has previously been shown that the educational policy objectives for Sámi education, from the 1962 school reform onwards, have been characterized by linguistic and cultural preservation considerations. In relation to that research, this thesis shows what these overall political decisions meant in a concrete sense, both in terms of knowledge content and more concrete goals with the education in the nomadic and Sámi schools. The thesis is based on curricula theory and examines the knowledge content and the concrete goals of Sámi education during the studied period. The educational ambitions, i.e., what was expressed in the curricula as the purpose and goal of education, have been studied based on Gert Biesta's theoretical framework on educational domains (qualification, socialization, and subjectification). The analysis on how collective Sámi identities have been portrayed in the curricula is based on theories of identification and imagined communities by Benedict Anderson and Thomas Hylland Eriksen. The methods used in the thesis are inspired by thematic analysis and content analysis. The nomad and Sámi school, from the 1950s until the 2010s, has changed from an educational institution that aimed to provide students with a practical and theoretical education for a future life within a Sámi reindeer herding community, to a school form aimed at a broader Sámi community. A change that also meant that the teaching content was reduced to focusing primarily on the Sámi language. This can be seen as a consequence of the fact that the curricula, for the Sámi school form, were developed and adapted in relation to contemporary societal ideals and to educational policy efforts to create a uniform education from the 1950s onwards. This means that education for the Sámi has moved from a clearly separate educational mission to becoming more of a complement to the general primary school education.

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    Authors: Andersson, Daniel;

    This dissertation analyses historical-cultural change in Sweden during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The study focuses on historical narratives concerning the eighteenth-century epoch called the Age of Liberty and the subsequent reign of Gustav III. The overarching aim has been to study these narratives within a Swedish national historical culture from the 1870s to the 1990s. Three different arenas are examined in which history has been mediated in society: the historical research arena, the history textbook arena and history-mediating texts published in the press, what is here referred to as the press arena. The dissertation analyses the relationship between the mediation within these arenas, how this relationship has changed over time, and how they have taken part in influencing the overall image of the Age of Liberty and Gustav III's reign. The theoretical framework is largely based on history didactical perspectives concerning historical culture and the mediation of history. A two-pronged analytical method has been applied consisting of a hermeneutic analysis of mediation and a narrative analysis. This study shows that the three arenas are the most homogeneous in relation to each other during the period from the 1870s up until the 1920s. The historical culture is dominated by two main narratives during this period. One is a conservative, royalistic state idealist narrative, where the Age of Liberty functions as a cautionary tale about the dangers of party rule and a weak monarchy. The other narrative is a prodemocratic anti-Gustavian narrative, originating from the works of Anders Fryxell. However, this narrative is absent from the textbook arena, where the state idealist narrative is completely dominant. But overall, there is high level of temporal consistency between the three arenas during this time. This changes from the 1920s onwards, when the arenas drift apart and become more heterogeneous in relation to each other. As the arenas become more genre-specific, their roles as platforms for history mediation consequently begin to diverge. Which arena narratives are conveyed in, gradually attains greater importance for the historical-cultural communication. From the 1960s onwards, a Lagerrothian pro-parliamentary, prodemocratic narrative, which primarily originates from the research arena, becomes prominent in textbooks and press, but not as prominent in historical research. In this narrative, the Age of Liberty is presented as the precursor of the sound democratic, parliamentary system known in contemporary times, with people's rule, social equality, and without royal interference. The reign of Gustav III is described as an obstacle standing in the path of desirable social and political development. The narrative consolidates democratic ideals in its contemporary context by highlighting parliamentary and democratic traditions in the nation’s history. By the end of the twentieth century, the Lagerrothian narrative dominates both the textbook arena and the press arena. The shift from one dominant narrative to another suggests that the political applicability of research narratives in different times has a strong impact on historical cultural change within the framework of the nation. The study also shows that the most dominant narrative has not shifted chronologically from an old narrative to a newer one. Rather, the shift has been from one dominant narrative direction to another, while both have been mediated simultaneously for decades. It is concluded in the study that the view of a “lag” between historical research and other arenas must be nuanced and placed in the context of specific historical narratives.

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    Authors: Jerand, Philip;

    In this thesis, soils and sediments have been used as sources of information on past human activity in Arctic environments. The study has combined geoarchaeological methods and techniques with information from historical documents, ethnographic accounts, and archaeological remains to create integrated narratives of human-landscape interactions in the past. The thesis consists of two parts: an introductory text and four research papers. In the first paper, social and cultural aspects of the spatial organisation of Sámi hearth-row sites are presented and discussed through an analysis of the soil from two sites in northern Norway (Steintjørna and Brodtkorbneset) and one from northern Sweden (Hobergsträsk). Based on spatial patterns in the excavated and analysed materials, a socio-spatial ethnographic model of the Sámi goahti (tent/hut) was challenged and new insights into spatial organisation were generated. The second paper revisits Steintjørna in Norway and presented a geoarchaeological methodology for identifying spaces used for corralling or controlling reindeer.The third paper deals with the human impact on soils from two contemporary sites representing short term, low intensity use, but under different socio-economic conditions. Snuvrejohka was a Sámi viste (camp site) in a high-altitude location connected to 19th and 20th century reindeer herding, whilst Maiva, was initially a farmstead that was turned into a tourist station, that later became a holiday cottage and lastly a research outpost. The interaction of humans with soils and sediments was explored using stratigraphic and spatial soil sampling strategies and analysis to provide interpretable data on land use. The fourth paper approaches human impact from a different perspective, namely the introduction of invasive soil fauna in Arctic environments. An integrated cultural and natural historical approach, including soil sampling and analysis, was used to study archaeological and historical information at Maiva. The results suggest that earthworm driven bioturbation is a remnant of 19th and 20th century agricultural settlements, showing that ecological imperialism is present in Arctic Fennoscandia. These studies have collectively and conclusively shown that human impact on soils is detectable, measurable, and essential for interpreting and understanding past events in human-environment relationships.

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285 Research products
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    Authors: Hultman, Lars;

    On 20 June 1810 Stockholm was rocked by a full-blown and violent riot. A funeral precession for the recently deceased crown prince Charles August turned into a furious riot which eventually developed into an attack on the entire existing social order. The marshal of the realm, Axel von Fersen, was killed and large crowds fought during the rest of the day regular street battles against military and police forces.This thesis is investigating the causes and consequences of the Fersen riot. By doing so I hope to be able to offer some new perspectives on this, at least in the Swedish context, unique event. Previous research has usually regarded the riot as a more or less isolated phenomenon and has often failed to investigate both root causes and long-term consequences. With the help of five theoretical concepts (see below) and several different sources (police reports from the Police Chamber of Stockholm 1810, trial records of the legal aftermath of the riot, military orders. public print. newspapers, pamphlets and handbills, letters, diaries and memoirs) I have analyzed the situation in Sweden from March 1809 to January 1811. The main result of my investigation is:Taken out of context, the Fersen riot could possibly be regarded as a temporary incident, with neither deeper causes nor significant consequences. My analysis of the dramatic events that preceded and created the conditions for the events of 20 June, together with the discussion of the protracted and shocking aftermath, has shown that the Fersen riot must be regarded as a very decisive event in the last 200 years of Swedish history. The reasons for this are:1. At the end of the year 1810 Sweden is a country in crisis, perhaps on the brink of some kind of subversive social change. Thus, the Fersen riot both explains, and is itself explained by, the bad and miserable state Sweden was perceived to be in.2. The extensive media production and the intense climate of discussion before and after the riot have undoubtedly meant an extensive and thorough learning process. For large parts of the capital´s population this period has meant an intensive course in questions and knowledge about social conditions and social change.3. The election of the heir to the throne came as a surprise to many. I believe that the chain of circumstantial evidence I have formulated makes it quite possible that the election of Bernadotte can be traced directly back to the riot and can be seen as a concession to the strong public opinion in Stockholm.4. And finally, Charles August. How can the grief, frustration and anger caused by his death be explained? Why did he become the object of an intense cult of personality? The only plausible explanation is that the role of the crown prince became the symbol of all hope and all faith in the future in the battered Sweden. Charles August became its face, both alive and dead.

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    Authors: Falk, Julia;

    This dissertation analyses the role that spiritism played in Stockholm, Sweden, during the late 19th century, more specifically between the years 1887–1902. Spiritism was an international movement grounded in the belief that spirits of dead people existed and that it was possible to communicate with them. While spiritism in Sweden was a Christian movement, its followers claimed to be using scientific methods. It is this tension between scientific ambitions on the one hand, and the combined belief in Christianity and spiritism on the other, that is investigated in this dissertation. The source material consists primarily of a spiritistic periodical, notes from spiritistic seances, and three debates about spiritism. The theoretical framework is based on the sociologist Thomas Gieryn's concept of boundary-work, specifically David Hess's extension of it and his concept of the Self and both negative and positive Others. The study concludes that spiritists constructed science as both a positive and a negative Other, meaning that they wanted to be associated with science, while also stressing that they were doing something beyond science. In relation to this image of science as both a positive and a negative Other spiritists could construct their Self as a kind of scientific pioneer. The study also identifies a similar relationship to Christianity: spiritists emphasised their faith in a Christian God, used Christian symbols, and practised Christian rituals, but they also created their own belief system and criticized the church. Their approaches to Christianity and science were not, however, entirely similar. They did not turn to Christian institutions for acceptance, but rather strived to become part of the scientific community. These differences are interpreted as part of a larger shift in social status and position of science and Christianity. This dissertation has also identified a change in how spiritism was depicted in the press by its critics. At the beginning of the period, criticism against spiritism was mostly based on accusations of spiritists being imposters and their critics wanted nothing to do with them. As theories about the unconscious spread, however, the approach towards spiritism changed. Spiritistic phenomenon could now be investigated by scientists who wanted to learn more about the unconscious, even though they did not accept the spiritists explanations that spirits were behind them. By analysing both the spiritists’ relationship to science and Christianity and how spiritism was discussed in the press, this dissertation demonstrates that the belief in spiritism was an integrated part of Stockholm’s cultural landscape in the late 19th century.

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    Authors: Derudas, Paola;

    This PhD thesis examines how application of 3D visualization and related digital analytical tools is having a transformative impact on archaeological practice via improvement of visual-spatial thinking and the strengthening of conceptual understanding. However, the deployment of these new digital methods is essentially still at an experimental stage. Therefore, the thesis undertakes a critical evaluation of current progress, identifying both shortcomings and opportunities. It argues that more work is needed to systematically identify and resolve current operational challenges in order to create improved digital frameworks that can strengthen future performance across the wider discipline.The PhD research is based on four “parallel experiments” designed to facilitate mutual enrichment and on-going refinement. Each individual experiment generated research articles, which investigate how particular 3D and digital methods can be adapted to diverse kinds of archaeological sites and features,each with unique characteristics. The articles demonstrate how particular methods can be deployed to constantly refine and improve documentation procedures, and to review and adjust interpretation during the excavation process. In total, the thesis produced five research articles and three new web-based publishing systems.Overall, the thesis demonstrates that application, proactive evaluation and constant improvement of new 3D visualization and digital analytical tools will play an increasingly significant role in strengthening and better integrating future archaeological methods and practice. The research also generates original insights and new digital platforms that together underline the importance of applying these new digital tools across the wider archaeological discipline. Finally, the thesis cautions that digital innovation needs to be anchored in an "open science" culture, including strong ethical frameworks and commitment to FAIR principles (i.e. Findability, Accessibility, Interoperability, and Reusability) of data archiving as a key component of research design and wider societal engagement.

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    Authors: Campanaro, Danilo Marco;

    Interpreting the social complexity of the Roman house requires a careful evaluation of existing evidence. With this in mind, recent work in the field has proposed a variety of different approaches, focusing each time on a specific type of source (architecture and décor, ancient texts, material evidence from excavated houses), each in turn recursively deemed more adequate for the purpose or more fruitful and less biased. This opposition of approaches and critiques between scholars has yielded an extraordinarily rich picture that, however, leaves some of the social dynamics of domestic space out of our reach. This dissertation, focusing on the case study of the House of the Greek Epigrams in the northern part of Insula V 1 in Pompeii, suggests a further level of understanding that combines the aforementioned types of sources with simulations and digital analyses to support archaeological interpretation. Everything visible in the house, including its architecture and its decorations, actively participated in the construction of the social identity of the owner of the house and the Romanitas of his family. However, everything visible is so by virtue of light, which is not a mere medium, but actively partakes in social dynamics and can be manipulated to meet certain demands. In this dissertation, light is considered in its dual aspect as a physical and as a visual and sensory phenomenon. Starting from the assumption that light is a powerful social agent, the study investigates, through historically grounded and physically accurate lighting simulations and analyses, the intertwined spatial and social circulation patterns in order to derive new insights into the social dynamics of the Roman house. In particular, this study argues that the social space of the Roman house was characterized by a greater complexity than that conveyed by ancient sources. It suggests a more nuanced picture, one of light and shadow but also of activity at different times of the day and year, and richer in people both in the foreground and in the background.

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    Authors: Edelgaard Christensen, Kristoffer;

    This dissertation explores and compares the rationalities through which Danish state officials sought to govern the colonized Afro-Caribbean population in the colony of the Danish West Indies and the state’s Danish subjects living in the metropole of Denmark in the period 1770-1900. Theoretically, it relies upon Michel Foucault’s conception of ’governmentality’ and the way this approach to governing, and to state power more generally, has been employed in various colonial and European settings, particularly within the field of colonial governmentality studies. This dissertation distinguishes itself from this field, however, by comparing metropole and colony in a more even, in-depth, and open-ended way; one which is sensitive to changes over time. The aim of this mode of comparison is to explore on a more solid foundation what was unique (and what was not unique) about colonial governing at particular points in time and space.The dissertation is split into two parts. The first deals with the period 1770-1800 and offers an in-depth comparative account of the Danish state’s governing of seigneurial relations at home and master-slave relations in the colony; the state’s attempts to reform the criminal laws; its investment in the maintenance of racial and social hierarchies; its regulation of the everyday public lives of slaves and peasants; and lastly, its governing of the productive lives of enslaved and unpropertied laborers. In the second part, which deals with the period 1840-1900, the focus is on the making of a free labor market in metropole and colony and the associated apparatuses of poor administration and policing.Essentially, the comparative analyses of the governmentalities, which were at the heart of these projects and domains of governing, point to a profound historical shift in the relationship between metropole and colony. In the late eighteenth-century, colonial officials in the Danish West Indies could still draw upon the governmentalities, which were essential for their peers back home. Thus, although colonial and metropolitan governmentalities were far from identical, there were significant points of overlap and commensurability in the governing of ‘blacks’ and ‘whites’. Over the course of the nineteenth century however, these points of overlap and commensurability all but vanished. After the abolition of slavery in 1848, colony and metropole had become ‘worlds beyond compare’, each requiring each own particular ‘handbook’ of governing. On this basis, the dissertation points to the importance of exploring not only the distinction between colonial and non-colonial governing, but also the history of the distinction itself.

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    Authors: Haikola, Karl;

    The Swedish Secretariat for futures studies was formed in 1973, on the initiative of the Social Democratic government. Initially installed as a part of the Prime Ministers’s Office, futures studies were envisioned as a vital tool for policymaking as well as for stimulating public debate. The present thesis examines the Secretariat from its beginnings up until about ten years later, when it was relocated to the Swedish Council for Planning and Co-ordination of Research (Forskningsrådsnämnden), thus losing its ties to the political planning process. The thesis situates the Secretariat for futures studies between the welfare state expansion and planning optimism of the late 1960s and the breakthrough of neoliberal ideas and decline of the welfare state of the early 1980s. These two phases mark the beginning and the end respectively of what the Dutch historian Duco Hellema has called “the long 1970s”. The thesis thus relates to a historical problem which Hellema himself only discusses briefly: why did this change take place? In the Swedish case, the futures studies of the decade provide interesting perspectives on this question, given their proximity to both political power and public debate, and also given their engagement with the long-term future. Drawing on the emerging field of the history of the future, the thesis focuses on the images of the future (framtidsbilder) and the view of the future (framtidssyn) expressed in this context. The former concept refers to particular visions and scenarios, the latter to more fundamental, and often implicit, ideas about the possibilities and means of influencing the future. A third concept, dilemma, serves to contextualise the projects of the Secretariat, relating them to contemporary issues such as economic growth, technological change, and internationalization. The thesis points to a gradual change. At the outset, Swedish futures studies were influenced by the ideological heritage of the Swedish Social Democrats. This was manifested in a utopian view of the future, more particularly one in which Swedish welfare society was ascribed the ability to shape its own future, and to some extent even that of other parts of the world, by means of planning and large-scale reform. During the course of the decade, however, the view of the future became more deterministic. The projects of the late 70s and early 80s predominantly highlighted processes and international developments which Swedish society could adjust to in a more or less successful way, but not avoid, much less control. The images of the future became more limited in scope, focused on changing specific parts of Swedish society rather than an international or global context. In the final chapter, I call this process a fragmentation of the future. This process, I further argue, was an important part of the more general changes associated with the end of the long 70s.

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    Authors: Thavenius, Robert;

    This dissertation examines the Swedish National Museum of Fine Arts (Nationalmuseum) as a consecrating institution of fine art, between 1885 and 1920. A time influenced by major events such as the First World War, Sweden’s industrial revolution and the advent of universal suffrage. During this period, the production and consumption of the Arts was characterised by rivalry between three fractions, namely, representatives of the Royal Swedish Academy of Fine Arts (Kungliga Akademien för de fria konsterna), the Artists’ Association (Konstnärsförbundet), comprising the broad artistic opposition formed in the mid-1880s, and the Swedish Artists’ Association (Svenska Konstnärernas Förening), a new generation of artists who had attended the third iteration of the Artists’ Association’s school which won recognition in 1909. Some artists did not fall into any of these major groups. Landscapes were the prominent motifs chosen by the Procurement Board, followed by portraits and genre paintings. The dissertation shows how these developments are reflected in the choice of officials as well as members of the Museum Board and Procurement Board. Both comprised prominent men in society who each year selected a small number of oil paintings by contemporary Swedish artists, to be incorporated in the Nationalmuseum’s collections and thus be indisputably defined as fine art. The current study is concerned with these men and the chosen works of art which came to represent Swedish society and its artistic life at the time. However, the prevailing conditions concerning the annual acquisition of art changed due to the influence of His Majesty the King as well as the revised statutes of 1900, determining which members were to be seated on the Procurement Board until its abolishment in 1913. A reorganisation of the Nationalmuseum’s undertakings also called for the appointment in 1915 of the reformist Richard Bergh as the museum’s Director General. The study highlights not only the prolonged course of the reformation process but also how changes concerning the appointment of representatives responsible for the institutions’ consecrating process influencedwhich oil paintings were incorporated in the collections.

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    Authors: Svonni, Charlotta;

    This thesis examines the development of nomadic and Sámi school education between the 1950s and the 2010s and contributes new knowledge about educational goals, educational ambitions and partly also their implementation and principles for knowledge transfer. It has previously been shown that the educational policy objectives for Sámi education, from the 1962 school reform onwards, have been characterized by linguistic and cultural preservation considerations. In relation to that research, this thesis shows what these overall political decisions meant in a concrete sense, both in terms of knowledge content and more concrete goals with the education in the nomadic and Sámi schools. The thesis is based on curricula theory and examines the knowledge content and the concrete goals of Sámi education during the studied period. The educational ambitions, i.e., what was expressed in the curricula as the purpose and goal of education, have been studied based on Gert Biesta's theoretical framework on educational domains (qualification, socialization, and subjectification). The analysis on how collective Sámi identities have been portrayed in the curricula is based on theories of identification and imagined communities by Benedict Anderson and Thomas Hylland Eriksen. The methods used in the thesis are inspired by thematic analysis and content analysis. The nomad and Sámi school, from the 1950s until the 2010s, has changed from an educational institution that aimed to provide students with a practical and theoretical education for a future life within a Sámi reindeer herding community, to a school form aimed at a broader Sámi community. A change that also meant that the teaching content was reduced to focusing primarily on the Sámi language. This can be seen as a consequence of the fact that the curricula, for the Sámi school form, were developed and adapted in relation to contemporary societal ideals and to educational policy efforts to create a uniform education from the 1950s onwards. This means that education for the Sámi has moved from a clearly separate educational mission to becoming more of a complement to the general primary school education.

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    Authors: Andersson, Daniel;

    This dissertation analyses historical-cultural change in Sweden during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The study focuses on historical narratives concerning the eighteenth-century epoch called the Age of Liberty and the subsequent reign of Gustav III. The overarching aim has been to study these narratives within a Swedish national historical culture from the 1870s to the 1990s. Three different arenas are examined in which history has been mediated in society: the historical research arena, the history textbook arena and history-mediating texts published in the press, what is here referred to as the press arena. The dissertation analyses the relationship between the mediation within these arenas, how this relationship has changed over time, and how they have taken part in influencing the overall image of the Age of Liberty and Gustav III's reign. The theoretical framework is largely based on history didactical perspectives concerning historical culture and the mediation of history. A two-pronged analytical method has been applied consisting of a hermeneutic analysis of mediation and a narrative analysis. This study shows that the three arenas are the most homogeneous in relation to each other during the period from the 1870s up until the 1920s. The historical culture is dominated by two main narratives during this period. One is a conservative, royalistic state idealist narrative, where the Age of Liberty functions as a cautionary tale about the dangers of party rule and a weak monarchy. The other narrative is a prodemocratic anti-Gustavian narrative, originating from the works of Anders Fryxell. However, this narrative is absent from the textbook arena, where the state idealist narrative is completely dominant. But overall, there is high level of temporal consistency between the three arenas during this time. This changes from the 1920s onwards, when the arenas drift apart and become more heterogeneous in relation to each other. As the arenas become more genre-specific, their roles as platforms for history mediation consequently begin to diverge. Which arena narratives are conveyed in, gradually attains greater importance for the historical-cultural communication. From the 1960s onwards, a Lagerrothian pro-parliamentary, prodemocratic narrative, which primarily originates from the research arena, becomes prominent in textbooks and press, but not as prominent in historical research. In this narrative, the Age of Liberty is presented as the precursor of the sound democratic, parliamentary system known in contemporary times, with people's rule, social equality, and without royal interference. The reign of Gustav III is described as an obstacle standing in the path of desirable social and political development. The narrative consolidates democratic ideals in its contemporary context by highlighting parliamentary and democratic traditions in the nation’s history. By the end of the twentieth century, the Lagerrothian narrative dominates both the textbook arena and the press arena. The shift from one dominant narrative to another suggests that the political applicability of research narratives in different times has a strong impact on historical cultural change within the framework of the nation. The study also shows that the most dominant narrative has not shifted chronologically from an old narrative to a newer one. Rather, the shift has been from one dominant narrative direction to another, while both have been mediated simultaneously for decades. It is concluded in the study that the view of a “lag” between historical research and other arenas must be nuanced and placed in the context of specific historical narratives.

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    Authors: Jerand, Philip;

    In this thesis, soils and sediments have been used as sources of information on past human activity in Arctic environments. The study has combined geoarchaeological methods and techniques with information from historical documents, ethnographic accounts, and archaeological remains to create integrated narratives of human-landscape interactions in the past. The thesis consists of two parts: an introductory text and four research papers. In the first paper, social and cultural aspects of the spatial organisation of Sámi hearth-row sites are presented and discussed through an analysis of the soil from two sites in northern Norway (Steintjørna and Brodtkorbneset) and one from northern Sweden (Hobergsträsk). Based on spatial patterns in the excavated and analysed materials, a socio-spatial ethnographic model of the Sámi goahti (tent/hut) was challenged and new insights into spatial organisation were generated. The second paper revisits Steintjørna in Norway and presented a geoarchaeological methodology for identifying spaces used for corralling or controlling reindeer.The third paper deals with the human impact on soils from two contemporary sites representing short term, low intensity use, but under different socio-economic conditions. Snuvrejohka was a Sámi viste (camp site) in a high-altitude location connected to 19th and 20th century reindeer herding, whilst Maiva, was initially a farmstead that was turned into a tourist station, that later became a holiday cottage and lastly a research outpost. The interaction of humans with soils and sediments was explored using stratigraphic and spatial soil sampling strategies and analysis to provide interpretable data on land use. The fourth paper approaches human impact from a different perspective, namely the introduction of invasive soil fauna in Arctic environments. An integrated cultural and natural historical approach, including soil sampling and analysis, was used to study archaeological and historical information at Maiva. The results suggest that earthworm driven bioturbation is a remnant of 19th and 20th century agricultural settlements, showing that ecological imperialism is present in Arctic Fennoscandia. These studies have collectively and conclusively shown that human impact on soils is detectable, measurable, and essential for interpreting and understanding past events in human-environment relationships.

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