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12 Research products, page 1 of 2

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  • English
    Authors: 
    Acosta Reveles, Irma Lorena;
    Country: Germany

    Resumen. En el mundo, la inequidad laboral entre hombres y mujeres tiende a estrecharse en el último cuarto de siglo, empero, los avances están perdiendo celeridad; la Organización Internacional del Trabajo (OIT, 2016) estima que serán necesarios al menos setenta años para colmar la brecha salarial por género. Desde este marco general de inequidad, este artículo exhibe la situación prevaleciente en materia de trabajo académico en las universidades públicas de México; el análisis se sitúa en el marco de un productivismo que imprime un sello inédito a la organización del trabajo científico y educativo. Se trata de mostrar que ésta lógica operativa encuentra en las tecnologías de la información y comunicación (TIC) un recurso clave para apuntalar las competencias individuales, así como visibilizar los resultados académicos. Se concluye que, en su variedad, versatilidad y potencial, la apropiación estos recursos son la oportunidad para coadyuvar en la reducción de otras diferencias laborales entre géneros en este ámbito profesional. Abstract. In the world, labor inequality between men and women tends to narrow in the last quarter of a century, however, progress is slowing down; the International Labor Organization ´(ILO, 2016) estimates that it will take at least 70 years to close the gender pay gap. From this general framework of inequity, this article shows the prevailing situation regarding academic work in public universities in Mexico; the analysis is situated within the framework of a productivism that gives an unprecedented stamp to the organization of scientific and educational work. The aim is to show that this operational logic finds in information and communication technologies (ICT) a key resource to underpin individual skills, as well as to make academic results visible. It is concluded that, in their variety, versatility and potential, the appropriation of these resources are the opportunity to contribute to the reduction of other labor differences between genders in this professional field.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Acosta Reveles, Irma Lorena;
    Country: Germany

    Recognizing that poverty in the fields of Latin America has not been overcome with the model of agribusiness and agro-exporting, the paradigm of new rurality emerges as a response to meet the demands of the rural areas. This vision is now the basis of rural policies in Latin America and other underdeveloped areas of the world. This document seeks to recover the core elements of this vision in its internal articulation. Then, we will respond to some questions: What can we expect from this paradigm? Can we expect to overcome rural poverty? Which are the merits and limitations of this approach? Tras reconocer que la pobreza en los campos latinoamericanos no ha sido superada con el modelo de los agronegocios y las agroexportaciones, el paradigma de la nueva ruralidad emerge como respuesta para atender las carencias más sentidas en el medio rural. Esta visión, promovida con afán por instituciones multilaterales y por organismos financieros internacionales, ha pasado a ser el eje central de las políticas de Estado orientadas al campo en América Latina y otras zonas subdesarrolladas del orbe. Es intención de este documento recuperar los elementos medulares de este paradigma en su articulación interna. Luego de esta síntesis nos abocamos a responder algunas preguntas: ¿Qué podemos esperar de este paradigma trasladado en la práctica a nuestros países, donde impera la condición de subdesarrollo? ¿Cabe esperar de él éxitos importantes en materia de progreso rural local o microrregional? ¿Cuáles son sus méritos y cuáles sus restricciones?

  • English
    Authors: 
    Acosta Reveles, Irma Lorena;
    Country: Germany

    Argentina is recognized because it has one of the most fertile areas of the orb, the pampeana region. The exuberance of their ecosystem has been basic to preserve the agrarian profile of the country, despite of the impulse to the industrialization in the postwar period. The certain thing is that along the last quarter of century the rural physiognomy of the country has changed radically. This country is probably the best example of penetration of the capitalism in latinamerican fields, with atrocious effects in social and environmental matter. In this occasion it propose a debate over of the impact of these transformations in wage labor, following closely the production of soybean. La República Argentina es reconocida por albergar una de las áreas naturales más fértiles del orbe, la región pampeana. La exuberancia de su ecosistema ha sido clave para preservar el perfil agrario del país, no obstante el impulso a la industrialización que en la posguerra compartieron las naciones de América Latina. Lo cierto es que a lo largo del último cuarto de siglo la fisonomía rural del país ha cambiado radicalmente. Este país es quizá el mejor ejemplo de penetración del capital en el campo latinoamericano, con efectos atroces en materia social y ambiental. En esta ocasión nos proponemos debatir acerca del impacto laboral de estas transformaciones, siguiendo de cerca la evolución de las relaciones salariales en la región pampeana, pero sólo en lo que corresponde a la producción de soja.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Acosta Reveles, Irma Lorena;
    Country: Germany

    This article proposes a joint reading of the structural changes that are common in the Latin-American agriculture, and that operate in opposition to the labour equitable incorporation of the women in the rural zones. To observe better the process we refer to empirical information about Mexican agro. A conclusion is that nowadays the women of the rural way have more work charge. But the remuneration isn't sufficient to improve substantially their standard of living. El artículo pretende una lectura conjunta de los cambios estructurales que son comunes en la agricultura latinoamericana, y que operan en contra de la inclusión laboral equitativa de las mujeres en las zonas rurales. Para observarlo mejor recurrimos a referentes empíricos en el agro mexicano. Del análisis se desprende que hoy en día las mujeres que residen del medio rural hacen enormes esfuerzos por atender quehaceres que atañen tanto a la reproducción doméstica como a la reproducción social —en virtud de una participación más activa al mercado de trabajo—. Pero la retribución que obtienen de sus múltiples ocupaciones no resulta suficiente para que ellas y sus familias puedan mejorar sustancialmente su nivel de vida.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Acosta Reveles, Irma Lorena;
    Country: Germany

    In support of public policy, the law anticipates Government projects so as to pave the way for them, or is adjusted along the way in order to adapt the institutional framework to the processes which in fact prevail. A typical case is that of Mexican Agrarian legislation in the late 20th and early 21st centuries. We propose here that recent developments in Agrarian legislation reveal the limitations of the modernizing strategy of the 1990s, which resulted in a call for the rural population to enter into alternative economic activities, as agriculture ceases to be the way of life for numerous families. We conclude that the restructuring of agricultural production in Mexico has excluded the productive and social dimensions. The reformulation of agrarian legal discourse demonstrates the structural limitations of advancement in terms of the agribusiness model. Now the sector’s economic policy priorities of growth and yield shift towards the instruments of social policy related to territorial construction.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Acosta Reveles, Irma Lorena;
    Country: Germany

    From beginning of the eighties decade, with the arrival of the neoliberalism to Mexico, the familiar homes have experimented an adjustment in their income and expenses composition. These adjustments are linked directly to the changes in the labour and the reform of the State, and both are the main reason of the restrictions that faces today the family for their development. Continuing this reflection, in this writing I offer a frame of analysis to place in the plane of the theory and of the context of the globalization the familiar precarious reproduction process. A circular dynamics on which they converge: a) conditions of poverty in their traditional meaning of restricted income; b) limitations to accede to the wage-earning employment, as well as their tendency to autoemployment; c) vulnerability and uncertainty, and d) serious conflicts in the area of the familiar and social relations.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Acosta Reveles, Irma Lorena;
    Country: Germany

    Under the pressure of NAFTA negotiations Mexican government changed the agrarian legislation at the beginning of the 1990. This reform meant turning away from the former leitmotiv of social justice brought up in the revolution towards the neoliberal paradigm of economic efficiency. The old system of subsedies and and institutional support was replaced by a market- and export orientation, the priority of community land was replaced by the primacy of private property rights in order to capitalize the Mexican agriculture. This paper analyses whether the goals of increasing productivity and changing the production structure where achieved. There are three basic outcomes from the reforms: small scale farmers have los market shares and depend on non-agricultural incomes. Secondly, the trading of land is marginal, as export goods are produced on a small share of productive land and the agricultural corporations have many alternative to the purchase Hof land. The capitalization of agricultural enterprises has also been minimal. These results cause a regional concentration of agricultural corporations and lead to a further marginalization Hof small scale farmers.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Acosta Reveles, Irma Lorena;
    Country: Germany

    In this paper, the author analyzes the roll of the legal framework that prevails in Mexico on agrarian concerns, since the reform of 1992, in a context of the neoliberal economical model imposed on Latin America from the poles of international power and decision. En este documento se analiza el papel del marco jurídico que prevalece en México en materia agraria a partir de 1992, en el contexto del modelo económico neoliberal impuesto a Latinoamérica desde los polos de poder y decisión internacional.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Acosta Reveles, Irma Lorena;
    Country: Germany

    This article has two aims. First, provide a systematic review of academic contributions on agricultural wages. Secondly, introduce conceptual and methodological tools to understand the development of the Latin-American agriculture from 1980's to today. Of special importance is the development of labor relations in agriculture.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Acosta Reveles, Irma Lorena;
    Country: Germany

    The purpose of this essay is offer a perspective of situation crosses today regional agriculture, checking some of its added balances. It interests us to debate the optimistic and not very critical way with which the figures are divulged and to put in evidence aspects fewer diffused, but of supreme importance for present and future of the region. To begin, we refer to the general context in that the transformation are raised in the Latin America growth model, and their pretences. At once we are in charge of the agriculture, focused in the common content of the national projects, to revise finally some of their sequels. We conclude with some thinking on the meaning of these changes for the expansion of the capital as long as system an for the involved rural population.