Abstract A recent study of conodonts from the Wuxiahe Formation (lower to middle part) in the Ziyang-Langao region suggested its age of middle Telychian (Llandovery) to lower Sheinwoodian (Wenlock), contradicted by subsequent graptolite studies indicating an age of late Telychian for the same interval. New samples from the Qiaoxi section for conodonts to re-access the age of the Wuxiahe Formation collected in this study show that the lower to middle part of the formation belongs to the Pterospathodus amorphognathoides amorphognathoides Biozone, suggesting the age of late Telychian; thus, the Llandovery–Wenlock boundary in the section is most probably higher than previously estimated, but its precise position is not determined since the identification of the Wenlock graptolite Cyrtograptus cf. lundgreni in the section is to be further confirmed. Based on the conodont faunas recognized in the Qiaoxi and Tianwancun sections, the base of the Wuxiahe Formation in the Ziyang-Langao region is diachronous, i.e., not higher than the upper Telychian Pterospathodus amorphognathoides amorphognathoides Biozone at Qiaoxi, but not lower than the lower Sheinwoodian Kockelella ranuliformis Biozone at the Tianwancun setion.
Since the first lockdown in March 2020, time seems to have slowed to a continuous present tense. The Greek language has three words to express different experiences of time: aion, chronos and kairos. If aion is the boundless and limbo-like time of eternity, chronos represents chronological, sequential, and linear time. Kairos, however, signifies the rupture of ordinary time with the opportune moment, epiphany and redemption, revolution, and most broadly, crisis and emergency. This paper argues that the pandemic is impacting how individuals perceive time in two ways: first, as a distortion of time in which individuals are caught between linear time ( chronos) and rupture ( kairos) invoking the state of emergency and second, as an extended present that blurs the passing of chronological time with its seeming eternity ( aion). As a result of the perceived suspension of ordinary time, temporal understandings of the future are postponed, while the past hovers like a ghost over the present.
Publisher: Uniwersytet Mikolaja Kopernika/Nicolaus Copernicus University
The participation of the Livonian branch of the Teutonic Order at the Imperial Diets and its relations with the German branch (from the 1520s to the 1550s) This article discusses the relations of Livonian branch of the Teutonic Order with the German branch from the secularization of Prussia (1525) to the beginning of the Livonian War (1558), and concentrates on the topics that were connected with the participation of the Order at the Imperial Diet of the Holy Roman Empire. Before the aforementioned period, the branches had very few direct connections, and relations of the Livonian branch with the Empire were usually mediated by the Grand Master of the Order. After 1525, the German Master largely took over the role of a mediator, as he became the acting head of the Order and had close relations with the central Imperial institutions. The latter became increasingly important for the Livonian Master, who became an Imperial prince most probably on the 24th of December 1526. This enabled him to participate in the Imperial Diets. At the Diets, the branches represented their interests usually separately. This was partially caused by the fact that these diverged quite strongly: while the German branch aspired for the recuperation of Prussia, tried to protect the Order’s possessions from increasing intrusions of German princes, and paid the Turkish taxes to obtain support from the Emperor; the Livonian branch wanted to obtain support against the Russian threat and rivals inside Livonia, while also trying to avoid paying Imperial taxes. Additionally, the Duke of Prussia was the neighbour of Livonia with whom the Livonian branch usually tried to maintain normal relations. Nevertheless, the branches communicated quite actively during the Diets and supported each other, at least in a rhetorical capacity. Additionally, Livonian envoys normally went firstly to the German Master for consultations and headed to the Diets only thereafter. Thus, the communication was quite vivid, but did not leave many marks to the official documentation, as especially the Livonian branch preferred to represent itself as a separate and independent member of the Empire in front of the Imperial Estates.
Publisher: Uniwersytet Mikolaja Kopernika/Nicolaus Copernicus University
Delivery of Letters in the Teutonic Order in Livonia. With a preliminary statistical analysisThis contribution is on the organization and efficiency of the delivery of letters in the Teutonic Order in Livonia. Firstly, the scarce data on couriers is presented. Main part of the contribution is discussing the phenomenon of registration of time (hour) and place in some of the stations on the delivery routes of letters. This method, used extensively also in Prussia, was most likely introduced in Livonia in the beginning of the 15th century. It was used in case of most urgent letters and was first of all meant to monitor the efficiency of delivery. The majority of the places of registration of time are in the territory of the Order, but there are also some exceptions, when this was done in episcopal castles or manors. High number of letters of the Masters of the Teutonic Order in Tallinn City Archives is also allowing some preliminary statistical analysis, how the space and time was mastered on the route Riga-Wenden-Reval. It appears, that although the letters were ordered to be carried day and night, the calculated average speed is so low, that there were obviously made also some stops for rest on the road.
Analysis of the sentence writing test is conducted in this paper to support diagnostics of the Parkinsons disease. Drawing and writing tests digitization has become a trend where synergy of machine learning techniques on the one side and knowledge base of the neurology and psychiatry on the other side leading sophisticated result in computer aided diagnostics. Such rapid progress has a drawback. In many cases, decisions made by machine learning algorithm are difficult to explain in a language human practitioner familiar with. The method proposed in this paper employs unsupervised learning techniques to segment the sentence into the individual characters. Then, feature engineering process is applied to describe writing of each letter using a set of kinematic and pressure parameters. Following feature selection process applicability of different machine learning classifiers is evaluated. To guarantee that achieved results may be interpreted by human, two major guidelines are established. The first one is to keep dimensionality of the feature set low. The second one is clear physical meaning of the features describing the writing process. Features describing amount and smoothness of the motion observed during the writing alongside with letter size are considered. Resulting algorithm does not take into account any semantic information or language particularities and therefore may be easily adopted to any language based on Latin or Cyrillic alphabets.
Abstract The article gives an overview of Estonian landscape terms meaning ‘field’ in historical dictionaries. The main equivalents for English field in Estonian are põld, nurm and väli. Neither in standard Estonian nor in the dialects, these three words are full synonyms. In the historical dictionaries, the Estonian words occur first in the 17th century as translations of German Acker, Feld and Ackerfeld. Later, for example in the Estonian-German dictionary, published in 1869, their meanings are more precisely defined. The semantic relations of the words in dialect speech and their interpretation in the historical dictionaries will be analysed. The three words are used in all Finnic languages. Comparing the words with dialect and cognate language data, their semantic differences and distribution in dialects will be introduced.
Abstract Digital cultural archives and databases are promising an era of heritage democratization and an enhancement of the role of arts in everyday cultures. It is hoped that mass digitization initiatives in many corners of the world can facilitate the secure preservation of human cultural heritage, with easy access and diverse ways for creative reuse. Understanding the dialogic processes within these increasingly vast databases necessitates a dynamic conceptualization of data they contain. The paper argues that this can be found in Juri Lotman’s cultural semiotic notion of text and text’s functions in culture. It elaborates on the three key characteristics of text – expression, boundary, and structure – as manifested within the digital semiosphere. At the same time, the textual dialogues within digital archives are increasingly conditioned by metadata, which is hereby conceptualized as metalanguage inducing a modeling effect on archived texts and defining their possible sphere of dynamics. To balance the explanations of creative operations of digital archives, the paper also demonstrates their auto-communicative mechanisms for facilitating cultural continuities and stability.
Abstract It is widely believed that international law does not enable to protect effectively the wreck of the ms Estonia against looting. The protection regime established under the 1995 ms Estonia Treaty is binding and violations against it can be effectively sanctioned in respect of only the nationals of its few States Parties, resulting in numerous jurisdictional gaps. This study argues that the law of the sea and administrative law provide the means for safeguarding the ms Estonia wreck against pilferers. Estonia has repeatedly designated tiny buffer zones around relatively modern shipwrecks outside its territorial sea. Finland can follow this practice in relation to the ms Estonia wreck that lies less than 19 nm from its baselines. In effect, Finland would be entitled to regulate and authorize activities directed at the shipwreck with the right to exercise its enforcement jurisdiction against persons that disturb the peace of the mass grave.
In the form of a conversational exchange of ideas, Ewa Domańska, Zoltán Boldizsár Simon and Marek Tamm reflect on the condition and role of historical knowledge in the Anthropocene. In the conversation on the potential of ‘anthropocenic historical knowledge’ – including the limitations and use of the term – each author offers and elaborates on one main theme for discussion, on which the other two co-authors reflect: Tamm begins by posing the question of the extension of ‘the territory of the historian’, Simon takes on the challenge by calling for the development of a ‘scientific literacy’, and Domańska pulls the threads together by advocating ‘anticipatory knowledge’. In the conversation, each author reflects on all three themes that they present as fundamental tenets of a renewed historical knowledge attuned to the Anthropocene predicament.